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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 21-25, dic.2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117893

RESUMO

El síndrome de lisis tumoral (SLT) es una complicación potencialmente letal provocada por la liberación masiva de ácidos nucleicos, potasio y fosfato hacia la circulación sistémica lo cual se asocia a graves trastornos del metabolismo hidroelectrolítico. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con sospecha de SLT que ingresaron al Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López durante el lapso 2017-2018. El 50% de los pacientes tenían una edad comprendida entre 51 y 70 años, siendo el 65% de sexo femenino. Los canceres más frecuentemente encontrados fueron el cáncer de mama (29%), cáncer gástrico (15%) y el linfoma no Hodgkin (12%). Todos los pacientes presentaron al menos tres de las manifestaciones clínicas asociadas al SLT entre las cuales se encuentran náuseas, vómitos, anorexia, debilidad, calambres, hiperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hipotensión, convulsiones y deshidratación. El 46% de los pacientes presentaron hiperpotasemia, mientras que 36% mostraron hipocalcemia y 18% hiperfosfatemia. El 76% de los pacientes cursaron con una creatinina > 1,4 mg/dl. El diagnóstico definitivo de SLT no fue posible realizarlo en ninguno de los pacientes incluidos en este estudio debido a la falta de estudios paraclínicos necesarios para satisfacer los criterios según los lineamientos internacionales(AU)


Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal complication due to massive release of nucleic acids, potassium and phosphate into the systemic circulation which is associated with severe hydroelectrolitic metabolic disorders. A retrospective review of clinical charts was performed in order to describe clinical characteristics of patients with possible TLS that were admitted to the Servicio de Medicina Interna of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López during the period 2017-2018. The results show that 50% of patients were between 51 and 70 years old and 65% were female. Breast cancer (29%), stomach cancer (15%) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (12%) were more frequent in patients with possible TLS. All patients showed at least three of the clinical features commonly associated with TLS such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weakness, cramps, hyperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hypotension, convulsion and dehydration. 46% of patients had hyperkalemia, 36% hypocalcemia and 18% hyperphosphatemia. Creatinine levels > 1,4 mg/dl were seen in 76% of patients. Definitive diagnosis of TLS was not possible in any of the patients included in this study due to the lack of laboratory studies required according to international guidelines(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fosfatos , Potássio , Radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama , Ácidos Nucleicos , Síndrome de Lise Tumoral/fisiopatologia , Tratamento Farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Cuidados Críticos , Hematologia , Medicina Interna , Oncologia
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(705): 1618-1623, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914593

RESUMO

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) performed by a cardiologist is the first choice for exploring cardiac function and anatomy. Its performance and availability increase the demand for this examination, but this is not always justified. According to criteria published in 2011, the practice of a TTE is classified as appropriate, inappropriate or of uncertain value, depending on the clinical indication. This article explores the frequent indications for which TTE by the cardiologist is considered useful and/or appropriate for patients hospitalized in an internal medicine department.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Medicina Interna/métodos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
3.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 518-524, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879100

RESUMO

According to the fact that many coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are seeking for medical help due to some other possible clinical symptoms, besides respiratory symptoms, all the internal medicine departments (including emergency department) could be involved. Moreover, an increasing number of physician are going to work in fever clinic, isolation wards and supporting the medical work in Hubei Province in the future. For a better medical work implementation of physician against COVID-19 and the interpretation of this viral transmission, the work guide was drawn up by Hunan Medical Association, Internal Medicine Specialized Committee.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Medicina Interna/organização & administração , Pandemias
8.
Internist (Berl) ; 61(9): 912-921, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809034

RESUMO

Since the early 2000s, legislators have allowed the establishment of medical care centers to supplement and increase the flexibility of medical cooperation models. Several legal changes in subsequent years were unable to prevent that, contrary to the original intention, almost 90% of the newly founded facilities were established in urban cores and medium-sized centers; that concentration processes and monopolization were encouraged; and that the freedom of choice for patients was restricted. In order to counter the risk of undermining the free exercise of the medical profession and the dictates of economics over patient-oriented medicine in the outpatient sector, corporations, scientific societies, and professional associations are demanding more transparency and narrower limits for non-physician capital investors. There are currently more than 3000 medical care centers in Germany employing around 20,000 physicians, many of whom are internal medicine specialists. Regionally networked medical care center structures combine the advantages of optimized patient care with the growing desire of the younger generation of physicians for flexible working conditions within employment. With increasing acceptance on the part of the medical profession, networked medical care centers are able to create local structures for the expansion of modern intersectoral care and, at the same time, can be available for outpatient specialist training in internal medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina Interna/tendências , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Médicos , Assistência à Saúde , Alemanha , Hospitais , Humanos
9.
Respiration ; 99(8): 667-677, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. OBJECTIVE: We explored the clinical management of inpatients with COVID-19 in Italy. METHODS: A self-administered survey was sent by email to Italian physicians caring for adult patients with COVID-19. A panel of experts was selected according to their clinical curricula and their responses were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1,215 physicians completed the survey questionnaire (17.4% response rate). Of these, 188 (15.5%) were COVID-19 experts. Chest computed tomography was the most used method to detect and monitor COVID-19 pneumonia. Most of the experts managed acute respiratory failure with CPAP (56.4%), high flow nasal cannula (18.6%), and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (8%), while an intensivist referral for early intubation was requested in 17% of the cases. Hydroxychloroquine was prescribed as an antiviral in 90% of cases, both as monotherapy (11.7%), and combined with protease inhibitors (43.6%) or azithromycin (36.2%). The experts unanimously prescribed low-molecular-weight heparin to patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, and half of them (51.6%) used a dose higher than standard. The respiratory burden in patients who survived the acute phase was estimated as relevant in 28.2% of the cases, modest in 39.4%, and negligible in 9%. CONCLUSIONS: In our survey some major topics, such as the role of non-invasive respiratory support and drug treatments, show disagreement between experts, likely reflecting the absence of high-quality evidence studies. Considering the significant respiratory sequelae reported following COVID-19, proper respiratory and physical therapy programs should be promptly made available.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cânula , Cardiologia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Críticos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Medicina Interna , Itália , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Pandemias , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236952, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780751

RESUMO

Rotation schedules for residents must balance individual preferences, compliance with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines, and institutional staffing requirements. Automation has the potential to improve the consistency and quality of schedules. We designed a novel rotation scheduling tool, the Automated Internal Medicine Scheduler (AIMS), and evaluated schedule quality and resident satisfaction and perceptions of fairness after implementation. We compared schedule uniformity, fulfillment of resident preferences, and conflicting shift assignments for the hand-made 2017-2018 schedule, and the AIMS-generated 2018-2019 schedule. Residents were surveyed in September 2018 to assess perception of schedule quality and fairness. With AIMS, 71/74 (96.0%) interns and 66/82 (80.5%) residents were assigned to their first-choice rotation, a significant increase from the 50/72 (69.4%) interns and 25/82 (30.5%) residents assigned their first-choice in the 2017-2018 academic year. AIMS also yielded significant improvements in the number of night shift/day shift conflicts at the time of rotation switches for interns, with a significant decrease to 0.3 conflicts per intern compared to 0.7 with the prior manual schedule. Twenty-two of 82 residents (27%) completed the survey, and average satisfaction and perception of fairness were 0.7 and 0.9 points higher on a 5-point Likert scale for the AIMS-generated schedule when compared to the non-AIMS schedule. There was no significant difference in the preference for assigned vacation blocks, or in variance for night or ICU rotations. Automated scheduling improved several metrics of schedule quality, as well as resident satisfaction. Future directions include evaluation of the tool in other residency programs and comparison with alternative scheduling algorithms.


Assuntos
Medicina Interna/educação , Internato e Residência , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Automação , Connecticut , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/normas , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/normas , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/estatística & dados numéricos , Software , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
11.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 115(6): 458-465, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833035

RESUMO

Intensive care and emergency medicine are extremely important for the treatment of patients with acute and severe medical conditions. While other internal medicine specialties are progressively focused on specific organ systems or diseases, rotations of residents into the intensive care unit (ICU) or the emergency department (ED) are an important part of their training in general internal medicine. Here they can acquire many of the diagnostic and therapeutic skills required in their curriculum. All internal medicine residents in Germany therefore must complete at least a 6 month rotation in the ICU and the ED. For training programs in general internal medicine, the German Society for Medical Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internistische Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin) asks the German State Medical Councils to accept rotations in the ICU and the ED for 15 months each. After adding an ICU or ED fellowship, these internists would be ideally qualified for much needed attending and leadership positions in the ICUs and EDs and would have a better perspective for a scientific career in these fields. In addition, ICU and ED fellowships of internists from other specialties should be supported.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência , Cuidados Críticos , Alemanha , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Medicina Interna
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237145, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic errors are prevalent and associated with increased economic burden; however, little is known about their characteristics at the national level in Japan. This study aimed to investigate clinical outcomes and indemnity payment in cases of diagnostic errors using Japan's largest database of national claims. METHODS: We analyzed characteristics of diagnostic error cases closed between 1961 and 2017, accessed through the national Japanese malpractice claims database. We compared diagnostic error-related claims (DERC) with non-diagnostic error-related claims (non-DERC) in terms of indemnity, clinical outcomes, and factors underlying physicians' diagnostic errors. RESULTS: All 1,802 malpractice claims were included in the analysis. The median patient age was 33 years (interquartile range = 10-54), and 54.2% were men. Deaths were the most common outcome of claims (939/1747; 53.8%). In total, 709 (39.3%, 95% CI: 37.0%-41.6%) DERC cases were observed. The adjusted total billing amount, acceptance rate, adjusted median claims payments, and proportion of deaths were significantly higher in DERC than non-DERC cases. Departments of internal medicine and surgery were 1.42 and 1.55 times more likely, respectively, to have DERC cases than others. Claims involving the emergency room (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.88) and outpatient office (adjusted OR = 2.87) were more likely to be DERC than other cases. The initial diagnoses most likely to lead to diagnostic error were upper respiratory tract infection, non-bleeding digestive tract disease, and "no abnormality." CONCLUSIONS: Cases of diagnostic errors produced severe patient outcomes and were associated with high indemnity. These cases were frequently noted in general exam and emergency rooms as well as internal medicine and surgery departments and were initially considered to be common, mild diseases.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Imperícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Erros de Diagnóstico/economia , Erros de Diagnóstico/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Interna/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Masculino , Imperícia/economia , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 183-186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742511

RESUMO

Clinical reasoning is the cornerstone of medical practice, and achieving this competence depends on a large number of factors. Internal medicine departments provide junior doctors with plentiful and varied patients, offering a comprehensive basis for learning clinical reasoning. In order to evaluate the usefulness of an early rotation at internal medicine departments, we compared, via script concordance tests, the evolution of residents' clinical reasoning after an initial internal medicine rotation compared to rotations through other medical specialties. Twenty-two residents were tested after six months of their internal medicine rotation and compared to twenty-five residents that had the first rotation in another specialty (control). We showed a significant difference in the improvement of the script concordance tests scores (p=0.015) between the beginning and the end of their first rotation between the internal medicine and the control groups, and this implies the lower improvement of clinical reasoning skills and spontaneous learning slope of the junior doctors in other departments.


Assuntos
Medicina Interna/educação , Internato e Residência , Aprendizagem , Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos
14.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(7): 642-644, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659826

RESUMO

"Klug entscheiden" addresses the problem of over- and undersupply in medicine. Following the American model "Choosing wisely" an interdisciplinary team of all internal medicine societies develops evidence-based recommendations to improve the quality of indications. In contrast to guidelines, the initiative does not provide comprehensive medical recommendations, but focuses on problems that are particularly relevant to health care. In addition, it is intended to promote communication between doctors and patients, but also the national debate on the responsible and sensible use of medical resources.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Medicina Interna/organização & administração , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Comunicação , Humanos
15.
Rev Med Chil ; 148(1): 46-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supplementation of vitamin B12 in older adults is a common practice to avoid vitamin B12 insufficiency. However, there is a paucity of information about the effects of cobalamin excess. AIM: To asses any potential effects of high levels vitamin B12 on mortality on adults aged ≥ 65 years admitted to an internal medicine service. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We Prospectively studied patients admitted to an internal medicine service of an academic hospital from September 2017 to September 2018, who were able to give their consent and answer questionnaires. We tabulated age, gender, medical history, comorbidity index (Charlson), frailty score (Fried scale), admission diagnosis and blood tests performed within 48 hours of admission. The primary outcome was death by any cause in less of 30 days or after one of year follow up, determined according to death certificates. RESULTS: We included 93 patients aged 65 to 94 years (53% males). Fifteen patients died during the year of follow up (five within 30 days of admission). Those who died had higher cobalamin levels than survivors (1080.07 ± 788.09 and 656.68 ± 497.33 pg/mL respectively, p = 0.02). Patients who died had also a significantly lower corrected serum calcium, sodium (p = 0.04) and a medical history of chronic liver disease (p = 0.03). In the multivariable analysis, only vitamin B12 preserved the association with mortality (p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant association between high levels of cobalamin and all-cause mortality in this group of patients aged ≥ 65 years-old.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Medicina Interna , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitamina B 12
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108335, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687955

RESUMO

Available data suggest that the issue of CoViD-19 is particularly critical in patients with diabetes. In Italy, Internal Medicine (IM) wards have played a pivotal role in contrasting the spread of SARS-Cov2. During this pandemic, FADOI submitted a brief questionnaire to a group of its members acting as Head of IM units. Considering 38 units, 58% of beds dedicated to CoViD patients in CoViD Hospitals were in charge of IM, and globally cared for 6650 patients during a six-week period. Of these patients, 1264 (19%) had diabetes. Mortality rate in CoViD patients with or without diabetes were 20.5% and 14%, respectively (p < 0.001). Our survey seems to confirm that diabetes is a major comorbidity of CoViD-19, but it does not support an increased incidence of CoViD-19 infection in people with diabetes, if compared with the figures of patients with diabetes and hospitalized before the outbreak. On the other side, patients with diabetes appeared at a significantly increased risk of worse outcome. This finding underlines the importance of paying special attention to this patient population and its management.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Medicina Interna , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Am J Med ; 133(10): 1223-1226.e6, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659220

RESUMO

This statement was released in June 2020 by the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine to provide guidance for the 2020-2021 residency application cycle in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. While many of the recommendations are specific to this cycle, others, such as the Department Summary Letter of Evaluation, are meant to be an enduring change to the internal medicine residency application process. AAIM realizes that some schools may not yet have the tools or resources to implement the template fully this cycle and look toward collaboration within the internal medicine education community to facilitate adoption in the cycles to come.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Correspondência como Assunto , Medicina Interna/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Candidatura a Emprego , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236048, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, the outcomes of second opinions in internal medicine in terms of diagnostic yield and patient benefit have not been studied extensively. This retrospective study explores the outcomes of second opinions at a general internal medicine outpatient clinic in an academic hospital. METHODS: A register of all patients referred to the general internal medicine outpatient clinic of the University Medical Center in Utrecht for a second opinion, was kept. All 173 patients referred between June 2016 and August 2018 were selected. Case records were analyzed for patient characteristics, referring doctor, chief complaint, performed investigations, follow-up time and, established diagnosis, additional diagnoses, initiated treatment and reported benefit. RESULTS: A new diagnosis was established in 13% of all patients. A new treatment was initiated in 56% of all patients: 91% and 51% of patients with and without a new diagnosis respectively (p < 0.001). Of all patients, 19% received an effective treatment (52% vs 14% of patients with vs without a new diagnosis, p < 0.001). Regardless of treatment, resolution or improvement of the chief complaint was achieved in 28% of all patients (52% vs 25% of patients with vs without a new diagnosis, p = 0.006). Regarding diagnostics, 23-33% of radiology, endoscopy and pathology tests performed during second opinion were a repetition of previously conducted investigations. Conventional blood tests were a repetition in 89% of cases. Median time to diagnosis was 64 days (IQR: 25-128 days) and median time to discharge was 75 days (IQR: 31-144 days). CONCLUSION: Second opinions in general internal medicine lead to the establishment of a new diagnosis in a small proportion of patients. However, the value of second opinions may not be limited to the establishment of diagnoses, as new treatments are often initiated and overall patients report improved symptomatology in 28% of cases.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Interna/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Análise Química do Sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiologia , Urinálise
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