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1.
Clin Ter ; 172(5): 395-406, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625767

RESUMO

Abstract: Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and varicose veins (VVs) of the lower limbs are very frequent vascular diseases in Western countri-es. One possible complication of these conditions is skin ulceration and its consequent rupture, which can be spontaneous or due to mild or trivial trauma. In some cases, the resulting hemorrhage is fatal. When the victim is found dead, a large amount of blood around the body might lead to the hypothesis of violent death. The Forensic Pa-thologist needs to be very careful in the corpse's examination, in order to exclude any alternative cause of death. Herein, an illustrative case is reported, as well as a literature review of the literature concerning sudden hemorrhages from VVs. We found 27 scientific papers, the total reported cases of VVs rupture with profuse hemorrhages were 36, 32 of which were fatal. The main characteristics of such forensic scenario have been collected. Corpse examination of the victims showed pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as marked pallor of organs as a sign of hemorrhagic shock, but these pathological findings are unspecific. Usually, the skin near the ulcer presented color alteration (discoloration and atrophy or pigmentation and hyperemia). Besides, the histological examination of the skin could be a valid instrument to demonstrate the presence of the ulcer, even if it could be very difficult to sample, because of its small size. An important limit of our study is the small number of collected cases. More studies in this field are needed to improve evidence concerning death due to VVs rupture.


Assuntos
Úlcera , Varizes , Causas de Morte , Medicina Legal , Hemorragia , Humanos , Varizes/complicações
2.
Soud Lek ; 66(3): 39-42, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551558

RESUMO

ntomology, as a vast scientific discipline of zoology, deals with the study of insects, which are an integral part of the ecosystem of our planet and are closely linked to the activity and life cycle of all organisms, including humans. As a result of this natural connection, insects often become a direct “living witness” of a crime and thus an invaluable part of the evidence in a comprehensive forensic investigation, which in such cases necessarily includes a specialized field of science - forensic entomology. The goals of forensic entomology include comprehensive analysis of entomological evidence material and the use of knowledge about insects and other invertebrates for the purpose of investigating and verifying evidence in civil and criminal law. In practice, forensic entomology falls into several categories, including the issue of food pests in industry or agriculture, human and animal parasitology (especially myiasis) and very often the field of criminology and forensic medicine, where the results are mainly applied to determine the length of post mortem interval (PMI), evidence of manipulation of the corpse, or other forensic facts that results from entomological analysis. The conclusions of the entomology study are in many cases an invaluable part of the amount of information that leads to the answer of key questions in complex forensic evidence, especially in the group of serious crimes.


Assuntos
Entomologia Forense , Animais , Ecossistema , Medicina Legal , Ciências Forenses , Humanos , Mudanças Depois da Morte
3.
Soud Lek ; 66(3): 43-49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551559

RESUMO

Forensic medicine is a multidisciplinary medical field that cooperates with a number of complementary medical disciplines and receives knowledge from many other non-medical disciplines. Cooperation with forensic toxicologists and forensic radiologists is routine in forensic practice, as well as with traffic engineers, forensic ballistics, forensic biomechanics, anthropologists, geneticists, and forensic entomologists is well established in expert practice and scientific research. Our work focuses on the connection of forensic medicine with linguistics. The essence of the article is the evaluation of the function, importance and use of eponymic terms in the field of forensic medicine. Total of 28 eponymous terms were searched and analysed in four Czech written textbooks of forensic medicine from different time periods (published in years 1937, 1976, 1999 and 2015/2016). The occurrence and extension of eponymous terms in field of forensic medicine is presented. The origin, the authorship, advantages or disadvantages of eponymous terms are discussed. Function of these terms in professional communication, in communication with police, in court, and with lay people is evaluated.


Assuntos
Balística Forense , Medicina Legal , Autoria , Epônimos , Humanos , Polícia
4.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(3): 293-294, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379896

RESUMO

Abstract: Abstract.


Assuntos
Entomologia Forense , China , Entomologia , Medicina Legal , Ciências Forenses , Humanos
5.
Analyst ; 146(17): 5389-5402, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346415

RESUMO

This study reports novel approaches for the detection of gunshot residues (GSR) from the hands of individuals using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The methods' performance was evaluated using 159 GSR standard and authentic samples. Forty specimens generated from characterized microparticles were used as matrix-matched primer gunshot residue (pGSR) standards to examine the elemental profiles of leaded and lead-free residues, compared to SEM-EDS and solution-ICP-MS. Also, 119 authentic skin samples were analyzed to estimate error rates. Shooter samples were correctly classified into three categories based on their elemental composition (leaded, lead-free, or mixed pGSR). A total of 60 non-shooter samples were used to establish background thresholds and estimate specificity (93.4% for LA-ICP-MS and 100% for LIBS). All the authentic leaded items resulted in the detection of particle(s) with composition characteristic of pGSR (Pb-Ba-Sb), as observed by simultaneous elemental identification of target analytes at the exact ablation times and locations. When considering the pre-characterized elemental composition of these primers as the "ground truth", LA-ICP-MS resulted in 91.8% sensitivity (true positive rate), while LIBS resulted in 89.2% sensitivity. Particles containing Ba, Bi, Bi-Cu-K, and Cu-Ti-Zn were found in the lead-free residues. Identification of lead-free GSR proved more challenging as some of these elements are common in the environment, resulting in 85.2% sensitivity for LA-ICP-MS and 44.4% for LIBS. Overall accuracies of 94.9% and 88.2% were obtained for the LA-ICP-MS and LIBS sets, respectively. LA-ICP-MS provided an additional level of confidence in the results by its superior analytical capabilities, complementing the LIBS chemical profiles. The laser-based methods provide rapid chemical profiling and micro-spatial information of gunshot residue particles, with minimal destruction of the sample and high accuracy. Chemical mapping of 25 micro-regions per sample is possible in 2-10 minutes by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS, offering new tools for more comprehensive forensic case management and quick GSR screening in environmental and occupational sciences.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Lasers , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise Espectral
6.
Analyst ; 146(17): 5225-5229, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350904

RESUMO

Minimising background fluorescence can enhance the visible details of treated fingerprints. Here, a 4-tpt fingerprint powder exhibiting long-lived phosphorescence is applied to this end. The powder was found to suppress background fluorescence, including on challenging surfaces, when using standard forensic equipment and eschewing specialized or bespoke imaging techniques.


Assuntos
Dermatoglifia , Medicina Legal , Pós
7.
J Forensic Odontostomatol ; 2(39): 45-57, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the perspective of using an adapted algorithm for digital images comparison while providing forensic dental identification in complicated fractured skull conditions by ante-mortem and post-mortem radiographical data sets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ante-mortem orthopantomogram and post-mortem peri-apical X-ray images were converted in *.jpeg format with their further import into GIMP 2.10 software (The GIMP Development Team). Segmentation of OPG-image was provided in topographical projections of jaw segments obtained directly from the victim. Comparison of analyzed image segments was provided manually within GIMP 2.10 software using functions of "Layers" and "Opacity" through the proposed algorithm. RESULTS: Considering the fact that 20 positive concordant dental identifiers overall were verified during comparison of AM and PM X-ray datasets, we can conclude that odontological identity was established. All above-mentioned discrepancies could be classified as explainable. Inter-agreement rate between two investigators considering correspondence between AM and PM datasets reached Cohen's kappa level which is equal to 0,97, while positive 100% agreement was reached considering 21 out of 24 analyzed characteristics. CONCLUSION: Available AM and PM radiographical datasets represent a sufficient information for effective forensic dental identification, even if such were obtained by different roentgenological techniques (orthopantomography and periapical radiography). Using of an adapted algorithm for digital images comparison with forensic dental purposes could potentially overcome cognitive bias and observer's effect, speed up the process of analysis and increase the accuracy and inter-agreement rate while referencing AM and PM datasets.


Assuntos
Odontologia Legal , Medicina Legal , Algoritmos , Humanos , Radiografia Panorâmica , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Soins ; 66(857): 42-43, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366074

RESUMO

In forensic emergency departments, complainants are examined by a doctor who assesses the physical and/or psychological injuries on the request of the police or courts. The nurse is involved in the admission and care of victims. She also acts as a liaison between the different parties: police services, doctors, psychologists, legal professionals, associations, etc.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Medicina Legal , Humanos
9.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2759-2765, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409587

RESUMO

Telecommunication assisted forensic assessments of capacity and mistreatment by geriatricians with expertise in elder abuse and self-neglect are helping to meet the demand for such forensic services for Adult Protective Services (APS) clients in remote and underserved areas of Texas. The use of synchronous audiovisual assisted interviews instead of in-person interviews with clients to provide capacity assessments has become more important with the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is growing interest in establishing similar programs in other states using geriatrician faculty from medical schools to serve the clients of their state Adult Protective Services agencies. The arrangement between APS and the geriatricians at McGovern Medical School in Houston, Texas is novel. The structure of the arrangement is important for the success of the program. Legal, ethical, and practical considerations are discussed in this article, including approaches to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, physician liability, state law, and resource limitations. It is hoped that sharing how one such collaboration has addressed these important issues will suggest approaches for the structuring of similar programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abuso de Idosos , Medicina Legal , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Telemedicina , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Abuso de Idosos/diagnóstico , Abuso de Idosos/ética , Abuso de Idosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Abuso de Idosos/prevenção & controle , Medicina Legal/ética , Medicina Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Telecomunicações/organização & administração , Telemedicina/ética , Telemedicina/legislação & jurisprudência , Telemedicina/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
10.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 81: 102187, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214896

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Because earlier research showed that inaccuracies were observed in the interpretation and handling of deaths by forensic physicians, peer consultation among forensic physicians was introduced before advice was given to treating physicians calling for advice. In addition, peer consultation was introduced as a means to improve the correctness of conclusions concerning the manner of death when performing external post-mortem examinations. METHOD: In the period of November 2017 until April 2018 all reports of external postmortem examinations (n = 498) and all telephonic consultations between treating physicians with forensic physicians, concerning postmortem examinations (n = 167), were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Peer consultation among forensic physicians took place in 70% of the 167 telephonic consultations initiated by treating physicians. In 92% of all cases of telephonic consultation, the accurateness of advice to treating physicians was deemed accurate. In 67% (n = 498) of all external postmortem examinations in the study period, peer consultation between forensic physicians took place. The conclusion regarding the manner of death after external postmortem examination was accurate in 99% of all cases (n = 491 out of 498). CONCLUSION: The advices given by forensic physicians to treating physicians have improved after the introduction of peer consultation among forensic physicians. Peer consultation therefore should be recommended as a means for quality assurance.


Assuntos
Autopsia/normas , Atestado de Óbito , Medicina Legal/normas , Médicos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Humanos , Países Baixos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 82: 102221, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325082

RESUMO

According to US Customs and Border Protection, over 473,000 family units and 76,000 unaccompanied children were apprehended in 2019, a multi-fold increase from previous years. Thus, the number of children who may be eligible for humanitarian relief has increased significantly. For those claiming humanitarian relief, forensic medical evaluations performed by health professionals can provide critical evidence to bolster claims. In this cross-sectional, nationwide survey-in which we sought to characterize specialties, forensic training, capacity, and scope of humanitarian relief evaluations for immigrant children under eighteen-years-old-only 28 providers, half of whom were Child Abuse Pediatricians, reported performing humanitarian relief evaluations. The most common reported type of humanitarian relief evaluation conducted was for asylum. We found that the current training for forensic medical evaluations for humanitarian relief in pediatrics is likely varied not well-defined, and not pediatric-specific. In order to protect the rights of children who are eligible for humanitarian relief, pediatric and family medicine forensic medical evaluation training standards and curricula need to be developed; validated humanitarian relief screening tools need to be tested and utilized; and residents and attending physicians, including specialists with expertise in forensic evaluations, need to be actively recruited to perform these evaluations in collaboration with legal aid organizations.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Pediatras/normas , Exame Físico , Socorro em Desastres , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Definição da Elegibilidade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Medicina Legal/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Menores de Idade , Pediatras/educação , Refugiados , Estados Unidos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207855

RESUMO

Knowledge on user experiences from mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) is still limited in a Danish context, especially regarding recovery from offences, severe mental illness, long-term admissions and often involuntarily contact with hospital psychiatry. The study is based on 34 semi-structured interviews with nine forensic patients exploring their experiences with personal recovery processes. The MDOs point out a significant number of elements and factors enhancing, supporting and limiting personal recovery processes. Long-term recovery processes for MDOs involve coming to terms with mental disorders as well as offences. Working with offender recovery implies addressing and understanding the index offence leading to psychiatric measurement as well as addressing risk and prevention of future crime. This coming to terms is an individual and deeply personal process and it often involves several and changing narratives. According to the informants, professionals play a crucial role in supporting recovery processes and maintaining hope and optimism over time. MDOs experience structural barriers limiting recovery potential, especially stigma or limited areas of participation. It is important not to focus solely on personal recovery as a one-dimensional individual process or responsibility, but as a process also marked by structural and organisational challenges.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Crime , Medicina Legal , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos
13.
Soud Lek ; 66(1): 11-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275302

RESUMO

On 8 June 1972, the Czechoslovak OK DNN aircraft carrier L410 Turbolet was delivered to the regular line Marianske Lazne - Prague to the Federal Republic of Germany. About 8 minutes after the launch from Marianske Lazne Airport, the likely head of the group of kidnappers threw the captain of the plane. During the fight with one of the passenger, the head of the group of kidnappers killed the captain of the aircraft by a shot from 7.65 mm pistol. Other members of the hijackers group attacked other passengers. After the aircraft captains death, the second pilot took command and landed at the sports club at Weiden. After the landing, the kidnappers were detained by the police. Ten kidnappers stayed in the Federal Republic of Germany. An airplane with other passengers and coffin of a shot captain landed in Prague Ruzyne the following day. On June 12, 1972, the re-autopsy of the captain of the aircraft was performed at the Central Military Hospital in Prague. Post-autopsy status was detected. In this re-autopsy, it was possible to reconstruct the fire channel only incompletely, because during the previous autopsy performed in Federal Republic of Germany was excised the shot wound left on the neck. The fire channel began with a hole in the skin 10 cm above the right breast nipple, continued to the left and slightly upward through the subcutaneous tissue, passed through the 2nd rib at the right at a distance of 4.5 cm from the sternum, continued the lower and inner sides of the right collarbone, flowing on the front the ring cartilage and the first ring of the trachea, and on the underside of the left lobes of the thyroid gland, passed on the front of the left common carotid and continued into the area of the left SCM. The exid shot hole was on the left half of the neck. The direction of the shotway canal from right side to left side was detectable only by the fragment of the 2nd rib, which was broken out to the left and inside. The cause of the captains death was a traumatic shock. The injury was caused by a short firearm of small stance. Additional factors of firing were not found on the skin, as well as no signs of gas pressure. At the request of the experts performing the autopsy, a copy of the autopsy protocol from Germany was sent to them by an autopsied doctor. Among other things, it was reported that a 6.5 cm under the lower end of the left ear was a transversely oval, 2.5 cm long and 1.2 cm wide, red-black dried place of the upper skin, from which center run out a little red blood. At the conclusion of the autopsy protocol, it was found that there was a shotgun injury at the left side of the neck and the right side of the chest. The entrance wound according to the sent copy of the autopsy protocol, lay on the left side of the neck, the bullet penetrated the neck muscles, broke the inner branch of the cervical artery, passed through the trachea, penetrated the collarbone, split the 2nd rib to the right about 2 cm next to the sternum and the right chest 10 cm above the breast the nipple stepped out of the body. The direction of the penetration of the projectile through the body therefore had the opposite orientation compared to the re- autopsy. On the basis of this finding, the expert opinion from the re-autopsy was supplemented in the sense that there is no evidence in the autopsy protocol from Germany for the conclusion of the shot on the left side of the neck. Both autopsy experts examined the space of the aircraft cabin. The inspection showed that from the left, that is to the neck, the captain of the aircraft could be hit only if the attacker held the pistol in his left hand in a completely unnatural position so that his forearm was pulled upward over the left shoulder of the captain just to the left of the cabin and a hand bent in the wrist at a steep angle down to the right. The position of the shooters hand would be more natural if the captain of the aircraft turned backward over his left shoulder and turned the hull to the left. But this would be completely useless because of the situation, as he would look into the left cabin wall. More natural would be turning right over his right shoulder. In that case, he could be hit on the right side of the chest. The shooting kidnapper committed suicide in a cell overnight from 12 to 13 January 1973. It is not possible, based on the information available, to decide exactly how the gunshot has been going on. Czech experts did not have clothing of the captain or conclusions about their examination, and the hole on the left side of the neck was cut out by the German expert and was not provided to the Czech party through the request. It may be considered strange that the autopsy in Germany was performed in this relatively serious case outside the renowned forensic medicine department.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Aeronaves , Autopsia , Medicina Legal , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(3): 589-603, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215404

RESUMO

Emergency medicine clinicians are mandated reporters, legally, which obligates clinicians to report any behavior suspicious for child maltreatment to local authorities. Pediatric patients often present to the emergency department with concern for physical injury and other pervasive complaints. In some cases, these injuries are nonaccidental. To appropriately advocate and protect children from further physical and emotional trauma, it is important for clinicians to recognize the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment and sexual abuse.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Cuidadores , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Notificação de Abuso , Anamnese , Síndrome de Munchausen Causada por Terceiro/diagnóstico , Exame Físico , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Tempo para o Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299979

RESUMO

Investigating causation is a primary goal in forensic/legal medicine, aiming to establish the connection between an unlawful/negligent act and an adverse outcome. In malpractice litigation involving a healthcare-associated infection due to a failure of infection prevention and control practices, the medicolegal causal analysis needs to quantify the individual causal probabilities to meet the evidentiary requirements of the court. In this paper, we present the investigation of the most probable cause of bacterial endocarditis in a patient who underwent an invasive procedure at a dental/oral surgical practice where an outbreak of bacterial endocarditis had already been identified by the state Department of Health. We assessed the probability that the patient's endocarditis was part of the outbreak versus that it was an unrelated sporadic infection using the INFERENCE (Integration of Forensic Epidemiology and the Rigorous Evaluation of Causation Elements) approach to medicolegal causation analysis. This paper describes the step-by-step application of the INFERENCE approach to demonstrate its utility in quantifying the probability of causation. The use of INFERENCE provides the court with an evidence-based, transparent, and reliable guide to determine liability, causation, and damages.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Imperícia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais , Causalidade , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Medicina Legal , Humanos
16.
Anal Chem ; 93(29): 10152-10159, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254788

RESUMO

The reliable identification of fentanyl and its analogs is of great significance for public security. However, with the growing prevalence of fentanyl compounds, current analytical strategies cannot fully meet the need for fast and high-throughput detection. In this study, a simple, rapid, and on-site analytical protocol was developed based on a miniature mass spectrometer. A dramatically simplified workflow was implemented using matrix-assisted ionization, bypassing complex sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation. The tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) capability afforded by the miniature ion trap mass spectrometer facilitated the investigation of fragmentation patterns for 49 fentanyl analogs during collision-induced dissociation, revealing valuable information on marker fragment ions and characteristic neutral loss. Calculations on Laplacian bond order values further verified the mass spectrometric behavior. A computation-assisted expandable mass spectral library was constructed in-house for fentanyl compounds. Smart suspect screening was carried out based on the full-scan MS and MS/MS data. The present study demonstrates an appealing potential for forensic applications, enabling streamlined screening for the presence of illicit fentanyl compounds at the point of seizures of suspect samples.


Assuntos
Fentanila , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Medicina Legal , Íons , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110876, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216943

RESUMO

The age estimation of blood traces provides important leads for the chronological assessment of criminal events and their reconstruction. To determine bloodstain age, experimental comparative data from a laboratory environment are used. Under these conditions the utilization of anticoagulants such as EDTA helps to suppress the blood clotting mechanism to allow the examination over a longer time period. This unnatural prevention of blood coagulation is highly questionable when estimating bloodstain age, since the blood's physical and chemical properties are altered. For this reason, the authors determined actual influence of EDTA on blood spectra over time in order to formulate a statement as to whether this effect can be measured. Human and porcine blood samples were aged under controlled conditions. The resulting UV/VIS spectra were separated into their individual components using signal separation techniques, allowing the changes in the ratios of the individual hemoglobin derivatives to be observed over time. The results show a significant influence of EDTA on the conversion of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin and a minor influence on the conversion of methemoglobin to hemichrome within the relevant time range of 5-100 h. The use of EDTA thus slows down the aging process of blood spots. To illustrate the great influence of EDTA, spectra of untreated pig blood samples were included as comparison data. These show that the difference between EDTA-treated and untreated blood samples is as great as the difference between human blood and pig blood. As a consequence of our findings experimental comparative data for the age estimation of bloodstains should never result from EDTA-treated blood.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Manchas de Sangue , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Medicina Legal , Hemeproteínas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Metemoglobina/análise , Oxiemoglobinas/análise , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110789, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217913

RESUMO

Cases of child abuse and homicide are amongst the biggest challenges investigators face, with complex evidence bases often strongly contested and reliant on specialist interpretation of the medical evidence. In many cases, this medical evidence includes examination of the deceased's skeleton using different macroscopic and microscopic imaging methods. Rib fractures are a common concern when examining suspicious cases and much research has been conducted on their causes. The role of CPR in particular has been controversial and therefore a clear assessment of the fracture distribution is crucial. Recent studies have shown the benefit of imaging techniques such as Computed Tomography, although the gold standard remains histology. This paper presents three cases of suspected non-accidental rib fractures of infants which had been examined using micro-CT and histology. Micro-CT has been shown to be superior to medical CT as it achieves a greater resolution, making it effective for paediatric post-mortem imaging. Micro-CT observations were compared retrospectively to the histology, which demonstrated that micro-CT found 69% of the fractures identified histologically as well as an additional 22% not identified through histology. As well as complimenting histological analysis, the extent to which micro-CT can enhance the overall examination of paediatric non-accidental injuries is also discussed.


Assuntos
Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Medicina Legal , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Lactente , Fraturas das Costelas/patologia
19.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(4): 17-21, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the features of damage to the structures of the brain in acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The results of forensic, microscopic and morphometric studies of the brain of 78 corpses died from acute carbon monoxide poisoning are presented. The peculiarities of damage to the nervous tissue, the glial complex, as well as changes in the structures of blood vessels and the state of intravascular blood with the formation of aggregates, sludge, and blood clots were revealed. These changes along with perivascular and pericellular edema indicate the agonal death of the victims. When the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in the blood is about 30% the brain structures' lesions begin to appear; their intensity increases when the carboxyhemoglobin concentration is more than 60%. According to the authors, the substantiation of the thanatogenesis of various types of carbon monoxide poisoning requires further research taking into account the age of the victims, the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in the blood, the duration of the agonal period, as well as possible (competing) conditions: for example, acute alcohol intoxication, thermal injury, etc. Still urgent the studies of structures of other target organs of CO - heart and lungs.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Monóxido de Carbono , Carboxihemoglobina/metabolismo , Medicina Legal , Humanos
20.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 64(4): 25-29, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determination of the personality factors influence (gender, age, death category) on the numerical indicators of electrical characteristics during biophysical objectification of soft tissue injuries in a putrefactive corpse. The study was carried out based on Bureau of Forensic Medicine of the Bashkortostan Republic. The instrumental method examined 177 putrefactive corpses; 78 are female and 99 are male. Measurement of electrical characteristics (electrical capacity, electrical resistance) was carried out by an invasive method using a submersible sensor. It was established a significant effect of a person's age, gender and death category on the results of instrumental measurements. These individual characteristics can be recognized as factors that determine the electrical resistance and electrical capacity of biological tissues.


Assuntos
Mudanças Depois da Morte , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles , Cadáver , Feminino , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade
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