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1.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 67(1): 3-16, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435024

RESUMO

There are cases in forensic psychiatric evaluations with inconclusive information or with important information missing. In such situations, when new information becomes available the judge may ask an expert to supplement his/her report in the light of new information. For the purpose of this study, we collected 42 supplemental evaluations written in the University Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce to determine possible factors which were associated with changes in supplemental evaluations. The following data were gathered: demographic data, types of criminal offenses, reasons for the supplement evaluation, court questions, and diagnoses. Changes in supplemental evaluations occured more often when the defendants were diagnosed with a personality disorder (PD) only, compared to those who had a PD with a comorbidity, especially substance use disorders. Defendants with the diagnosis of a substance use disorder were 63.7% less likely to have changed experts' evaluations. The evaluations remained the same when the reason for supplemental evaluations were new witnesses' testimonies. Considering the principle of economy of actions in a judiciary system, a more critical approach should be taken when the judge requests a supplemental report.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Prova Pericial , Defesa por Insanidade , Psiquiatria Legal , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Medicina Legal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico
2.
Talanta ; 251: 123762, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931011

RESUMO

Hair is present at nearly all crime scenes. Forensic analysis of hair can be used to establish a connection between a suspect and a crime scene or demonstrate the absence of such connection. Almost half of people around the world color their hair. However, there is no robust and reliable forensic approach that can be used for a confirmatory analysis of artificial colorants present on hair. A growing body of evidence suggests that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), a modern analytical technique, can be used to detect and identify colorants present on hair. In the current work, we examined the potential of SERS in identification of more than 30 different colorants. We found that the accuracy of detection and identification of individual hair colorants is 97%, on average. We also investigated the extent to which SERS can be used to differentiate between different brands and types of colorants, as well as to identify hair color regardless of the type and brand of the colorant used to dye hair. Our results showed that individual colorants could be identified with on average 97% accuracy, whereas different brands can be predicted with nearly 100% accuracy. We also found that SERS offered nearly 100% accurate identification of the type of the colorant and on average 97.95% accurate prediction of the hair color. These results demonstrate that SERS can facilitate the forensic analysis of hair providing highly important information about the artificial colorants present on the analyzed specimens.


Assuntos
Tinturas para Cabelo , Análise Espectral Raman , Medicina Legal , Cabelo/química , Tinturas para Cabelo/análise , Humanos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
3.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 530-539, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336446

RESUMO

Currently in the UK, if a person is arrested or charged with a recordable offence, they can have prints of their footwear taken whilst in custody. The tread pattern recorded in these prints can be searched for using the National Footwear Database to find out if the same footwear pattern has been recovered at previous crime scenes, generating forensic intelligence. TreadMatch is a digitised system for collecting footwear prints seized from detainees in custody for this purpose. Whilst its use for generating intelligence is accepted, validation experiments have not been conducted to understand its level of performance in assisting in forensic comparison purposes for identification, because in the absence of an incorporated scale, it is not known how well TreadMatch reproduces the pattern size of a tread, threatening the validity of the comparison. If it can be determined that the measurements of TreadMatch scans are consistent with the more commonly used aluminium powder test marks, this could save Police time and resources if the digital scans could be used for preliminary assessment prior to the footwear being physically submitted for evidential comparison. Therefore, this study set out to compare three different types of TreadMatch scans ('dynamic', 'zoomed' and 'rolled') for thirty different pieces of footwear, with test marks of the same footwear using the traditional method (fingerprint powder). Length and width measurements were obtained from each tread pattern using GNU Image Manipulation Program software. The resulting data were analysed to assess for agreement between TreadMatch scans and test marks using 95% Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and 95% Bland-Altman plots of Limits of Agreement (LOA). Additionally, an intra-sample study using fifteen repeated measurements of the same piece of footwear for different TreadMatch scanning methods was carried out to support the larger validity study. 95% ICC3,1 resulted in coefficients ranging from 0.99 to 1.00 across all measurements. 95% LOA displayed close agreement. There was less agreement and more variation displayed between the test marks and the TreadMatch rolled scans for both length and width measurements. This variation for hand-rolled prints must be taken into consideration and a standard approach developed. The study suggests TreadMatch can be used for preliminary assessments in assisting forensic comparisons, particularly for dynamic and zoomed prints.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Sapatos , Pós , Medicina Legal/métodos , Crime
4.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 484-493, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336441

RESUMO

Forensic anthropologists may not always be able to differentiate heat-induced fractures from fractures with other aetiologies, namely sharp force traumas, with clear nefarious impact on medico-legal conclusions. The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate if blade chemical traces are transferred to defleshed bone tissue and if they remain there after a burning event. This was accomplished by prompting sharp force traumas in 20 macerated fresh pig ribs with five different instruments, namely a stainless steel knife, an artisanal knife and a ceramic kitchen knife, a small axe and a large axe. Another pig rib was used as control, not being subjected to any trauma. All instruments were probed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to establish the composition of each blade. Bone samples, both pre-burned and post-burned (at 500 °C, 700 °C, 900 °C and 1100 °C), were then probed by XRF. All sharp force instruments left detectable chemical traces on pre-burned bone, although not in all samples. Furthermore, traces were still detected after experimental burning in most cases. Potentially, XRF can provide relevant information about the aetiology of fractures in burned and unburned bones, although the effect of soft tissues and diagenesis must still be investigated.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Suínos , Animais , Raios X , Fluorescência , Costelas , Medicina Legal
5.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 506-514, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336443

RESUMO

In April 2021, the Forensic Science Regulator Act 2021 received Royal Assent, providing new statutory powers for the Forensic Science Regulator (FSR) of England and Wales. These powers are intended to enable the FSR to compel forensic science providers (FSPs) comply with quality standard requirements. The FSR has until now relied upon 'soft power' and arguments of benefits to be gained if FSPs achieve accreditation and adhere to the Code of Practice. Reaching the limits of persuasive powers, the FSR Act now introduces powers to penalise FSPs who remain unaccredited or fall below published standards. To gauge the potential impact, forensic scientists were asked to anticipate effects of the Act. Practitioners indicated that the new statutory powers could instil a sense of urgency among police force forensic science units in particular, in prioritising quality and investing in accreditation. However, there are significant capacity limitations which may hamper more widespread and sustainable change, such as financial pressures faced by FSPs, as well as resource constraints within the FSR role. Changing from a regulatory approach focussed upon voluntary cooperation, support and encouraging intrinsic motivations (i.e 'carrots'), for one reliant upon deterrence in the forms of threats of sanctions and punishment ('sticks'), could prevent real improvements in quality and undermine the achievement of regulatory aims. The FSR Act is unable to address problems with forensic science provision, that militate against the quality of forensic science services. Thus, benefits accrued from swapping carrots for sticks may be illusory and may ultimately prove counterproductive.


Assuntos
Daucus carota , Humanos , Ciências Forenses , Medicina Legal , Polícia , Acreditação
6.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 515-519, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336444

RESUMO

Digital forensic practitioners often utilise a range of tools throughout their casework in order to access, identify and analyse relevant data, making them a vital part of conducting thorough, efficient and accurate digital examinations of device content and datasets. Whilst their importance cannot be understated, there is also no guarantee that their functionality is free from error, where similarly, no practitioner can 100% assure that their performance is flawless. Should an error occur during an investigation, assuming that it has been identified, then determining the cause of it is important for the purposes of ensuring quality control in both the immediate investigation and for longer-term practice improvements. Perhaps anecdotally, a starting position in any postmortem review of an error may be to suspect that any tools used may be at fault, where recent narratives and initiatives have enforced the need to evaluate all tools prior to them being used in any live investigation. Yet, in addition, an error may occur as a result of a practitioner's investigative conduct. This work discusses the concept of 'fault-attribution', focusing on the roles of the forensic tool and practitioner, and proposes a series of principles for determining responsibility for an investigative error.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
7.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 494-505, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336442

RESUMO

The overlay method is used in forensic podiatry to compare the shape, position, and overall fit of features between questioned and reference footprint evidence. However, the scientific foundation underpinning its validity in the comparison of insole footprints is not fully understood because of a lack of published data defining its statistical operating parameters. A review of literature revealed its subjective nature with little scientific validation, limited only to face validity. The aim of this study investigated strength of agreement between three expert footprint examiners' overlay comparisons of ten reference insole footprints using Cohen's weighted kappa (Kw). Validity of method was explored using measures of sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate (FPR), false negative rate (FNR), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results showed two examiners demonstrated high inter-rater consistency between their overlay comparisons (Kw: 0.981; 95 %CI: 0.943 to 1.020 for Rater1 v Rater2) whilst one examiner did not (Kw: 0.340; 95 %CI: 0.148 to 0.532 for Rater1 v Rater3; Kw: 0.310; 95 %CI: 0.100 to 0.519 for Rater2 v Rater3). Validity was investigated using a conclusion scale in a verbal expressions table to indicate support or rejection of compatibility of footprints between one questioned insole and ten reference insoles. Data analysis indicated validity as follows: Sensitivity: 77.8 %, Specificity: 61.9 %, FPR: 38.1 % and FNR: 22.2 %. ROC analysis corroborated this finding. AUC was calculated at 0.762 or 76.2 % indicating an 'acceptable' measure of overall accuracy of the overlay method for insole footprint comparison. Findings provide novel data supporting previous suggestions that the overlay method should not be used in isolation to compare insole footprints. Data also offers insight into the scientific foundation of this method, whilst highlighting its limitations and providing some implications and recommendations for forensic podiatry practice.


Assuntos
Podiatria , Humanos , , Sapatos , Medicina Legal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 582-593, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336451

RESUMO

The need to forensically search soil for small artefacts at a burial site or traces of evidence in a deposition site is a common task shared by investigators and forensic archaeologists. In forensic casework, the importance of finding small pieces of evidence, such as personal effects or ballistic fragments, cannot be overstated as it can assist in the positive identification of the deceased, give an insight into the manner and cause of death, and identify any perpetrators. The soil search methods known as wet and dry sieving, are cumbersome, time-consuming and have limited success for some soil types. This often leads to the decision not to search, resulting in missed opportunities to identify potential evidence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate if a dual energy X-ray baggage scanner could be used to search for items of potential forensic interest in soil. A trial was conducted using a Smiths Detection ScanTrailer 100100 V-2is mobile X-ray inspection system to establish if it could be used to detect organic, inorganic, and metallic items located within soil. The soil type and natural variables such as water and organic content were adjusted to simulate different environments. The baggage scanner was found to provide a quick and easy way to detect items contained within various soil types, particularly in a sand rich matrix. It is estimated that using this method to search 1 m3 of soil, when broken down into samples that are < 13 cm in depth, would take around one hour to complete, compared with 100 to 150 person-hours by manual sieving. This is believed to be the first use of dual energy X-ray technology for this purpose and shows the potential for further research and use of this method in forensic archaeology.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Solo , Humanos , Raios X , Sepultamento , Medicina Legal/métodos
9.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 621-623, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336455

RESUMO

Many believe that an increase in the public confidence in the investigation of sexual crimes, and in conviction rates, will lead to an increase in the reporting of these crimes. Consequently, Forensic Science Providers are continually striving to make improvements in evidence recovery and examination and the subsequent interpretation of evidence. One development is in methods that enable an individual to self-sample. However, in cases where a complainant has self-sampled, questions of when the samples were taken, how they were stored and so on, can be legitimately raised. Additionally the continuity and integrity of evidential samples may be questioned resulting in them not being acceptable to the courts and potential evidence could therefore be lost. There is a large emotional and psychological impact of sexual assault and rape and no complainant who reports a sexual assault and recovers material should have that evidence inadmissible to a court. Specialised units for victims of alleged sexual violence are available and offer far more than the recovery of evidential samples. This commentary on behalf of the Faculty of Forensic & Legal Medicine (FFLM) and the Association of Forensic Science Providers Body Fluid Forum (AFSP BFF) highlights the need for after care for the victims of sexual assault and why all evidence recovered in cases of alleged sexual assault and sexual violence should be obtained in line with best practice protocols.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estupro/diagnóstico , Medicina Legal/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes
10.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 602-609, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336453

RESUMO

For the past 7 years, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (MALDI MS) based methods have been developed and published for the forensic detection of blood in stains and fingermarks. However, in the view of adoption in an operational context, further investigation into the capabilities and limitations of this approach must be conducted. The refinement and testing of this approach must also be tailored to the requirements of the end users, enabling them to address the specific circumstances most encountered in a forensic scenario. The present study delves deeper into the assessment of the applicability of MALDI MS based strategy for the reliable and robust detection of human blood through: (i) a semi-qualitative assessment of the sensitivity of the method, (ii) a wider investigation of the compatibility of the method with the prior application of commonly used presumptive tests and (iii) assessment of the specificity of the method (when blood is present in mixture with other biofluids) and of its robustness, by assessing blood detection from a range of porous materials. The findings strengthen the evidence supporting the adoption of MALDI MS based approaches as a confirmatory test for the forensic detection of human blood in an operational context.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Proteômica , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Corantes
11.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 594-601, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336452

RESUMO

The need for digital forensic science (DFS) services has grown due to widespread and consistent engagement with technology by members of society. Whilst digital evidence often plays an important role in many inquiries, available investigative resources have failed to keep pace with such demand for them. As a result, the use case prioritisation models for backlog/workload management are of increasing importance to ensure the effective deployment of laboratory resources. This work focuses on the concept of ​​case prioritisation in a digital forensic laboratory setting, following the submission of exhibits for examination, where this workflow is described. The challenges of case management and prioritisation in laboratories are discussed, with both 'case acceptance' and 'case prioritisation' procedures explained. Finally, the 'Hierarchy of Case Priority' (HiCaP) - a transparent, risk-based approach for the prioritisation of cases for examination, is proposed and described using examples.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Laboratórios , Humanos , Ciências Forenses
12.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 610-620, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336454

RESUMO

Document fraud is a transnational form of crime, and its serial character has already been highlighted. To combat this phenomenon, the Interstate Database of Fraudulent Identity Documents (BIDIF) has been created and implemented in Switzerland. It supports the comparison of documents and the detection of series, i.e., documents that share a common source. To efficiently use such a system, forensic document examiners would benefit from a harmonised and proven profiling method. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a method for comparing documents and establishing series. The method is meant to improve the detection capabilities of forensic document examiners operating BIDIF or engaged in the profiling of fraudulent documents. First, a method based on the visual characteristics of digitised images of fraudulent identity documents has been developed. Subsequently, the method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using four tests. The first test verified the ability of the method to detect pre-existing series. The second test checked the capability of the method to detect links amongst isolated documents. Finally, two further tests were carried out to compare the method impact on the successful detection of series. These tests were carried out by professional forensic document examiners and Master students in forensic science, respectively. This allowed a comparison of the method influence on series detection. The method allowed a significant increase in the number of series and links detected, while also decreasing the occurrence of false negatives and false positives. Furthermore, links were more rapidly detected.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Ciências Forenses , Humanos , Medicina Legal/métodos , Fraude , Bases de Dados Factuais , Crime
13.
Sci Justice ; 62(5): 632-643, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336457

RESUMO

Ground Truth Data is data that comes from a known source, where the truth about the data is known and not inferred (FSR, 2021). The Forensic Science Regulator requires forensic units (that carry out certain forensic processes) to undertake tests against ground truth data for the purposes of quality assurance/quality control processes such as accreditation. However, the data collected must form a meaningful dataset that will enable relevant tests to be performed that inform the end-user. This technical note discusses how a forensic unit in the UK planned and developed a method for collecting ground truth data for footwear mark evidence. It discusses the materials and variables that were considered when developing the method and the evidence-based, decision-making processes that enabled its creation. Recommendations and considerations are provided to assist other forensic units collect data relevant to their jurisdiction. Whilst the method is not prescriptive, if it is used as a guide, it may facilitate the development of a large and relevant national dataset.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Ciências Forenses , Humanos , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Acreditação , Controle de Qualidade
15.
Urologiia ; (5): 102-106, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382826

RESUMO

The article provides a brief description of the main terms and concepts of kidney damage used in forensic medicine and urology, with a list of requirements for the description and formation of a clinical diagnosis when maintaining primary medical documentation. The importance of a unified approach in objective interpretation in the expert assessment of kidney injuries is substantiated.


Assuntos
Registros Médicos , Urologistas , Humanos , Documentação , Medicina Legal , Rim
17.
Psychiatr Pol ; 56(3): 591-602, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342987

RESUMO

In foreign literature, the term ?dyadic death' is used to describe a situation of a murder followed by the perpetrator's suicide. It differs from the term ?extended suicide' used in Poland. While it is recognized that the occurrence of ?dyadic death' can be caused, apart from mental disorders, by unfavorable environmental factors, ?extended suicide' is equated with the occurrence of severe depressive disorders in the perpetrator. The above-mentioned constructs describing a homicide-suicide were analyzed from the psychiatric and criminological point of view. The study shall discuss a case of a young woman who drowned her young son in a public place, and then declared her suicide intentions. An analysis of the course of mental disorders in the perpetrator, her biological burdens, situational and family conditions was carried out, and the personality factors that led to her mental decompensation were taken into account. Pathological motivational background of the perpetrator of her son's murder was clearly modified by her personality dysfunctions exacerbated by life difficulties. It differed from the motivation of a ?typical' perpetrator of ?dyadic death' or ?extended suicide' presented in the literature. Settlements in cases involving murder and subsequent suicide attempts require a thorough forensic-psychiatric and criminological analysis. In some cases, the terms describing such situations do not refer to the clinical condition of the offender but to the nature and image of the crime. Abuse of these terms may contribute to judicial errors.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Homicídio , Feminino , Humanos , Homicídio/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal , Tentativa de Suicídio , Medicina Legal
19.
Sci Justice ; 62(6): 676-690, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400489

RESUMO

In 2013, the Forensic Science Undergraduate Program (FSUP) at the National Autonomous University of Mexico was created in response to an alarming criminal situation in Mexico, as well as to the radical reform of its criminal justice system. Its mission is to educate and train ethical, critical, and humanistic forensic scientists capable of conducting inquiries that meet scientific quality standards and assist the justice system in firmly linking legal rulings to the available evidence. At the time, it was the first such program in the country, and the contributions that interdisciplinary forensic scientists could make to criminal investigations were largely unknown among forensic and legal practitioners. During its existence, providing an interdisciplinary, competence-based education to students has been one of the main challenges. To overcome it, teaching and assessment approaches-centered on the achievement of specifically forensic competencies as learning outcomes and the integration of forensic disciplines towards the resolution of simulated cases-have been devised to help develop the professional skill set expected of graduates. The COVID-19 pandemic led to adapting these approaches to distance or hybrid modes of learning, increasing their versatility and enriching the pedagogic repertoire of the FSUP. Currently, the main impact of the program lies in the successful incorporation of some of its graduates to agencies belonging to or related to the criminal justice system, such as the National Prosecutor's Office, the Commission for Truth and Justice for the Ayotzinapa Case, and the National Commission for the Search of Missing and Disappeared Persons, among others.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Ciências Forenses , Estudantes , Medicina Legal
20.
Sci Justice ; 62(6): 669-675, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400488

RESUMO

In the last 10-15 years, Masters programmes and undergraduate modules have emerged in the UK that teach forensic speech science. Forensic speech science is the forensic subdiscipline concerned with analysing speech recordings, such as telephone calls of unknown speakers, when they arise as evidence. In order to answer questions surrounding the identity of the speakers in these recordings, forensic speech analysts draw on their expertise in phonetics and acoustics. Even though existing UK forensic speech science programmes do not claim to train students to a level where they are in a position to carry out real-life forensic casework, a proportion of the graduates from these programmes do go on to fill discipline-specific roles in security organisations or for private providers of forensic speech analysis. It is therefore surely in the community's interests to review educational approaches to capitalise on the current training opportunities. This paper specifically proposes to explore the potential of a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach to forensic speech science teaching. PBL is a student-centred learning approach that heavily relies on the students' independence in the solving of ill-structured problems. PBL has shown to be beneficial to programmes that directly lead on to discipline-specific professional roles, and has even become the standardised teaching approach in some of those areas (medicine being the flagship example). Given its reported success in other disciplines, the question arises as to whether PBL could bring similar benefits to prospective forensic speech practitioners and to forensic speech science as a whole.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Fala , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medicina Legal , Ciências Forenses/educação
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