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1.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 68: 101873, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627125

RESUMO

Learning about forensic sciences is a crucial part of the formation of professionals working in medicine and health areas; this includes a range of coverage from legal-medical cases to forensic autopsies. However, knowledge of forensics by medical students is limited, because the teaching focus has been on the fundamentals of procedures in this field. To develop the necessary skills, specific support, and targeted learning tasks should be designed to enable the integration of interdisciplinary work in processes, infrastructure, and equipment used in a high-quality-forensic investigation. The innovative educational experience of the Crime Scene Investigation CSI Lab was a week-long activity using the pedagogical strategy of Challenge-Based Learning. It addresses the problem that students need training in an authentic setting. The intervention, in September 2017, included 33 students from different disciplines such as medicine, law, and marketing. They participated in various learning settings in multidisciplinary teams and were challenged by experts from the State Institute for Forensic Sciences to analyze specific processes. The outcomes of the CSI Lab implementations provided evidence of how the students benefited from the experience. The results showed that 80% of the teams had an excellent approach to the solution, justification of the proposal and feasibility assessment. However, only 60% achieved a solution that met the requirements. The educational process was assessed by their perceptions of the educational strategy of the CSI Lab experience. The results indicated that 88.9% of the students believed that the experience broadened their perspectives on forensic sciences. 73.1% thought that the design of the activities, visits, and plenaries added value to their academic training, and 88.9% found it to be interesting. Regarding whether or not the activities helped the participants to understand and perform a legal-medicine investigation, 92.6% believed that it did help them recognize and understand the interventional areas and processes necessary for the investigation. CONCLUSION: Students demonstrated high acceptance of the context-rich design of the practical activities and educational experiences that were grounded in active learning. The effect on curriculum design is that the interactions and interdisciplinarity of the programs must be assessed, as these experiences could motivate them to engage in solving the social challenges of the 21st century.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/educação , Modelos Educacionais , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes , Avaliação Educacional , Processos Grupais , Humanos , México , Projetos Piloto , Universidades
2.
South Med J ; 112(9): 487-490, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our hypothesis was that pediatric residents and medical students who participated in a structured forensic evidence collection course would have improved knowledge of prepubertal evidence collection practices and pubertal genital anatomy. METHODS: The course curriculum included a forensic evidence collection video created by the sexual assault nurse examiner directors. After watching the video, the participants simulated forensic evidence collection using forensic evidence collection kits and chain of evidence protocols in a hybrid simulation setting under the supervision of a pediatric sexual assault nurse examiner. The participants completed a multiple-choice test and a fill-in-the-blank anatomical diagram test before and after the course. RESULTS: Of an eligible 48 participants, 42 completed the course; therefore, our participant response rate was 87.5%. There was significant improvement in knowledge, with an average pretest score of 62% ± 20% and the average posttest score of 86% ± 9% (P < 0.001). Qualitative evaluations were overwhelmingly positive, with consistent scoring of 6/6 in a 6-point agree scale. Learning themes, which emerged from open-ended questions on the evaluations, included knowledge gained on evidence collection processes (n = 26), how to appropriately interact with abused patients (n = 8), hands-on nature of the experience and the benefits of walking through the examination (n = 7), and pubertal genital anatomy knowledge (n = 3). Participants suggested that more instruction on anatomy would be helpful. CONCLUSIONS: We found that pediatric residents' and medical students' knowledge of pediatric sexual abuse may be improved with a short simulation course focusing on forensic evidence collection.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Competência Clínica , Simulação por Computador , Currículo/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Medicina Legal/educação , Pediatria/educação , Criança , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos
4.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(1): 56-59, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724896

RESUMO

The authors consider the selected stages in the development of the system of continuous medical education in the field of forensic medicine and forensic medical expertise as well as the contribution of the Department of Forensic Medicine of N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University to its practical implementation. The relevant conceptual problems and topical issues are discussed together with certain approaches to their solution.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada/organização & administração , Medicina Legal/educação , Pesquisa , Federação Russa , Universidades
5.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(1): 60-62, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724897

RESUMO

The authors propose the recommendations for the organization of the self-directed learning among the students who study forensic medicine. These recommendations can be of help for the forensic medical experts involved in the continuous medical education programs.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/educação , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Humanos
6.
Tunis Med ; 96(3): 161-164, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teaching by the Clarification, Illustration, Application and Participation of Students (CIAP) approach is a method of participatory pedagogy that helps active learning to help the learner understand and integrate the new Knowledge to be able to apply them. The objectives of this work were to describe the conduct of a CIAP session and to evaluate this method of learning among students. METHODS: The session took place in a room in the Forensic Medicine Department of the Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis on April 18, 2017 for 60 minutes. Our population was made up of DCEM2 students undergoing pediatrics and neonatology at the Charles Nicolle Hospital. The chosen topic was post-infectious acute glomerulonephritis. The assessment consisted in a written test given at baseline before the teaching sessions and repeated immediately afterwards. Students were also asked to grade the quality of the teaching received. RESULTS: In total, 13/22 students were present. Clarifications were given at the request of the students. The illustration showed capillary proliferation and extra-capillary proliferation. Clinical cases have sparked a lot of interaction. All the students participated in the session: seven of them participated actively, the other six were solicited to participate. Pre-test scores varied from 2/10 to 7/10. Post-test scores ranged from 4/10 to 10/10. The mean score for the pre-test was 4.61 ± 1.6 and, the mean score for the post-test was 8.23 ± 2.31 / 10, the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.03). For students, the choices of educational objectives were relevant and were achieved, the session was coherent with the professional reality and brought new knowledge. The majority of students felt that there was good interaction. All students were satisfied with listening to the teacher and her answers to their questions. All students reported that the CIAP session provided them with a better clarification of the theoretical course, a sufficient illustration, and enabled them to participate actively in teaching. The students reported that there was a good application of the theoretical course. CONCLUSION: The CIAP session improved student knowledge. The students were generally satisfied with this teaching.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Pediatria/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Doença Aguda , Competência Clínica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Educação Médica/normas , Avaliação Educacional , Medicina Legal/educação , Medicina Legal/normas , Glomerulonefrite/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Humanos , Ilustração Médica , Satisfação Pessoal , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Tunísia , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/patologia , Engajamento no Trabalho
7.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(4): 10-12, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168520

RESUMO

This article presents the materials devoted to the long-term history of collaboration between the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise of the Moscow Health Department and the Department of Forensic Medicine of the Sechenovsky University. Special attention is given to the contribution made by the Department of Forensic Medicine to the scientific and practical activities, methodological and staffing support first of the Moscow forensic medical services and thereafter of the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise operating under the auspices of the Moscow Health Department. Simultaneously, the influence of the work of the Moscow Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise on the development and improvement of the scientific, methodological, and pedagogical activities of the Russia's oldest Department of Forensic Medicine is overviewed. The personal contribution of the most prominent forensic medical experts and physicians of Moscow to medical science and practice is illustrated by concrete examples.


Assuntos
Educação , Medicina Legal , Órgãos Governamentais/história , Pesquisa , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Educação/história , Educação/organização & administração , Medicina Legal/educação , Medicina Legal/história , Medicina Legal/organização & administração , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Moscou , Pesquisa/história , Pesquisa/organização & administração
9.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(3): 60-62, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863723

RESUMO

This article is published on the occasion of the 2nd All-Russian forensic medicine student Olympiad. The Olympiad has been held during three years in succession and attracts attention of the students from different Universities of the Russian Federation and the former Soviet republics. The Olympiad is considered to be a highly efficient form of the intellectual leisure activities of the students; moreover, it facilitates formation of motivation for the self-education and the acquisition of the professional skills and competences envisaged by the state standards for higher education that have not yet been incorporated into the program of modern medical education adopted in the Russian Federation.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/educação , Competência Clínica/normas , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Federação Russa
10.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 58: 56-63, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751222

RESUMO

Forensic medicine practice in Indonesia was introduced through the Dutch colonial criminal justice system in the early twentieth century. After more than 70 years of national independence, the development of forensic medicine still faces fundamental challenges, including confusion in the distribution of responsibility with law enforcement agencies, difficulties in managing conflicts of interest, and impediments in scientific practice and professional development. Despite of the golden opportunity from the Indonesian Reform movement in the late 1990s, the impact on forensic medicine development has been less than expected. It is thus important to identify the scope of the problems plaguing the development of forensic medicine, as well as its causes. We conducted a qualitative study to explain the problems and propose solutions. The results show that the standards of practice have developed more slowly than those in many other branches of medicine, despite its increasing popularity from its role in counterterrorism and disaster victim identification. A strong thriving spirit exists in forensic science, although growth in forensic research activities should be facilitated more. The 2009 Health Law has included forensic medicine practice in the health system to cover the role of forensic medicine for health and medical education purposes. It also potentially provides a way to support the justice system without exposing forensic practitioners to possible conflicts of interest, for instance, by utilizing a tiered referral system. To this aim, an alternative is proposed: to place forensic medicine practice within the context of the health system.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/organização & administração , Orçamentos , Prova Pericial , Medicina Legal/educação , Humanos , Indonésia , Papel do Médico , Polícia , Pesquisa , Terminologia como Assunto
12.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(1): 4-6, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405180

RESUMO

This article is dedicated to the memory of the outstanding Russian forensic doctor and literary figure professor D.E. Min on the occasion of his 200th birthday anniversary. The assignment of D.E. Min to the position of the head of Department of the State Medical Practice at the Emperor's Moscow University coincided with the large-scale judiciary reform carried out in the country at that time which envisaged, among other innovations, the practice of questioning of an expert in the court room. The new developments in the practical expert activities required the revision of the former approaches to the education and training of forensic medical experts. D.E. Min was the first to introduce the practice of public defense of expert judgements by the students of the Department as an indispensable component of their routine learning activities. He founded the museum of forensic medicine and pioneered the method for teaching the intravital forensic examination. D.E. Min initiated and supervised original research on mechanical asphyxia, forensic-medical toxicology, and traumatology. D.E. Min and his co-workers were frequently engaged by the agencies in charge of preliminary investigation to participate in forensic medical expertise associated with the inquiries into the most lurid criminal cases of those times. The scientist made the essential contribution to the development of forensic medicine in this country and the modernization of the academic process at the Department of the State Medical Practice that greatly promoted satisfaction of the basic requirements of practical forensic medical activities.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial , Medicina Legal/história , Prova Pericial/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Legal/educação , Medicina Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XIX , Federação Russa , Faculdades de Medicina/história
13.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(1): 7-11, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405181

RESUMO

The present article was designed to summarize the results of the 20 year scientific, practical, and educational activities of the Department of Forensic Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenovsky University). The main directions of the research work and achievements of the Department's staff are described, and the prospects for its further development are highlighted. The new approaches to and technologies for the teaching and training specialists in forensic medicine are introduced to meet the novel requirements imposed in the framework of the ongoing reform of higher medical education in accordance with the main principles of the Bologna declaration.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Universidades/tendências , Educação Médica Continuada , Medicina Legal/tendências , Humanos , Moscou
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(1): 65-67, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405194

RESUMO

Russia joined the Bologna process in 2003 and since that time has become integrated into the unified European educational space. The key element of the new form of the higher education process is the self-guided unsupervised work of the students. Motivation is needed to promote the involvement of the students in the educational process which implies the necessity of the goal-oriented initiative for the acquisition of professional knowledge and practical experience in the field of forensic medicine. To achieve this goal, the Department of Forensic Medicine of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University places special emphasis on the experience with carrying out student competitions. Each such competition consists of several contests focused on the solution of a specific problem, e.g. the inspection of the place of occurrence under investigation with a gunshot or punctured-and-incised wound, forensic medical autopsy, problem studies, and intelligence tests. All the contests and problem studies are held in the form of an interactive game. The experience gained in the course of the student competitions gives practical evidence that the interdepartmental intelligence contests contribute to raising the interest of students in forensic medicine. The open competition provides a highly efficient tool for the popularization of scientific knowledge and the promotion of interest in the participation in the forensic medical research activities. Moreover, the student competitions facilitate formation of the earlier professional skills indispensable for team working and the development of abilities for making decisions under the extreme conditions. In addition, the contests teach the participants the art of public appearance. They improve the quality of vocational training in forensic medicine and help to establish the first professional contacts at the interinstitutional (including international) level.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Medicina Legal/educação , Motivação , Competência Profissional/normas , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Medicina Legal/normas , Moscou , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Universidades
15.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 55: 33-38, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459096

RESUMO

One option for improving the quality of medical post mortem examinations is through intensified training of medical students, especially in countries where such a requirement exists regardless of the area of specialisation. For this reason, new teaching and learning methods on this topic have recently been introduced. These new approaches include e-learning modules or SkillsLab stations; one way to objectify the resultant learning outcomes is by means of the OSCE process. However, despite offering several advantages, this examination format also requires considerable resources, in particular in regards to medical examiners. For this reason, many clinical disciplines have already implemented computer-based OSCE examination formats. This study investigates whether the conventional exam format for the OSCE forensic "Death Certificate" station could be replaced with a computer-based approach in future. For this study, 123 students completed the OSCE "Death Certificate" station, using both a computer-based and conventional format, half starting with the Computer the other starting with the conventional approach in their OSCE rotation. Assignment of examination cases was random. The examination results for the two stations were compared and both overall results and the individual items of the exam checklist were analysed by means of inferential statistics. Following statistical analysis of examination cases of varying difficulty levels and correction of the repeated measures effect, the results of both examination formats appear to be comparable. Thus, in the descriptive item analysis, while there were some significant differences between the computer-based and conventional OSCE stations, these differences were not reflected in the overall results after a correction factor was applied (e.g. point deductions for assistance from the medical examiner was possible only at the conventional station). Thus, we demonstrate that the computer-based OSCE "Death Certificate" station is a cost-efficient and standardised format for examination that yields results comparable to those from a conventional format exam. Moreover, the examination results also indicate the need to optimize both the test itself (adjusting the degree of difficulty of the case vignettes) and the corresponding instructional and learning methods (including, for example, the use of computer programmes to complete the death certificate in small group formats in the SkillsLab).


Assuntos
Atestado de Óbito , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Medicina Legal/educação , Estudantes de Medicina , Instrução por Computador , Humanos
16.
Int J Legal Med ; 132(1): 311-319, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634679

RESUMO

An improvement in quality of medical external post-mortem examinations among others can be achieved by more intensive training of medical students. Modern learning and teaching methods such as e-learning modules and SkillsLab stations should be used for this. The introduction of corresponding methods of assessment such as the OSCE procedure is necessary to test the success of learning. In Halle (Germany), two OSCE stations on the subject of external post-mortem examinations were introduced in 2016. The 'practical external post-mortem examination' station test skills and abilities students have learned during practical external post-mortem examination in small group classes on a simulation doll. At the 'death certificate' station, an original death certificate must be filled in, testing the knowledge, skills and abilities learned in the SkillsLab station and during e-learning. A total of 148 students took part in the test. At both stations, at least two thirds of the students (69.5 and 81.7%) were able to show good or very good test results. In addition to the strengths, a detailed evaluation of the test results showed that there were still deficits in terms of the corresponding courses (e.g. inspection of the neck region in the small group classes), which will have to be remedied in the future. When analysing the test concept and the test implementation, objectivity was nearly perfect. There was a satisfactory internal consistency and stability over 8 months. Ultimately, in addition to several strengths (such as good understanding and transparency of the checklists) the evaluation of the examiners also showed further potential areas for improvement (e.g. harmonisation of the degree of difficulty for the individual rotations) when designing the OSCE stations. Overall, it was possible to determine that the OSCE testing format is a suitable tool to test external post-mortem examination skills and that conclusions about improvements in teaching can also be drawn from this.


Assuntos
Autopsia , Medicina Legal/educação , Atestado de Óbito , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Avaliação Educacional , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina
17.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 60(6): 37-43, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256484

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was the development and implementation of the educational program for the training of the highly qualified specialists within the framework the clinical residency and internship in the speciality 31.08.10 'forensic medical expertise' aimed at the adherence to and the maintenance of the systemic approach to the training in compliance with the upgraded regulatory documents at the medical institutions of the Russian Federation authorized to carry out post-graduate educational activities. The residency program for the training of the highly qualified specialists in the speciality 31.08.10 'forensic medical expertise' has been developed and implemented based at the Russian Federal Centre of Forensic Medical Expertise with the extension of the elective part of the working residency program in order to provide the delivery of the lectures and holding seminars on the selected issues of forensic medicine and criminalistics. The ongoing modernization of the healthcare system in this country taking into consideration the public needs and the challenges for practical medicine, the necessity of formation of the integral educational medium, the development of the unique systemic approach to the effective training of the highly qualified specialists in forensic medical expertise, and further optimization of the educational process are intended to propel forensic medical education and the training of the forensic medical experts to the qualitatively new level.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial/normas , Medicina Legal/educação , Internato e Residência , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Federação Russa
18.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 60(6): 44-53, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256485

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was the definition of the basic professional competences of the graduates of the clinical residency and internship in the speciality 31.08.10 'forensic medical expertise'. The program for the acquirement of the basic knowledge, skills, and professional competences needed to be trained in the speciality 31.08.10 'forensic medical expertise' has been elaborated in the framework of the more extensive program for the clinical residency and internship intended for the training of the highly qualified specialists in this discipline. The preliminary list of basic professional competences of a graduate from the clinical residency and internship has been formulated in accordance with the program for the training of a competitive and highly qualified forensic medical experts. The practical professional activities are considered to be an indispensable component of the training and educational process for a future forensic medical expert. It is believed that the strengthening of this training component will greatly contribute to the improvement of the quality of training of such specialists.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial/normas , Medicina Legal/educação , Internato e Residência , Ensino , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Federação Russa , Ensino/organização & administração , Ensino/normas
19.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 43(4): 162-165, oct.-dic. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167693

RESUMO

A propósito de una consulta realizada por un profesional, relacionada con la práctica de intubación orotraqueal de cadáveres con fines formativos, el Comité de Ética Asistencial (CAE) del Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla ha considerado de especial relevancia la contextualización del proceso, tanto a nivel temporal como de infraestructura (tipo de centro sanitario); y sus principales reflexiones y conclusiones, se pretenden dar a conocer. Primero, que existe un vacío legal a este respecto, que provoca interpretaciones legales sin base fundada. Segundo, se recomienda que atendiendo al principio de autonomía de las personas, así como a la dignidad de las mismas, se debiera obtener un consentimiento informado para la realización de dichas prácticas; y, en el caso de no poder obtenerse, se recomienda que el alumno se abstenga de realizar el procedimiento (AU)


With regard to a query raised by a professional, related to the practice of the orotracheal intubation of bodies for training purposes, the Healthcare Ethics Committee (HEC) of the Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla has considered the contextualisation of the process to be particularly relevant, both in terms of time and infrastructure (type of health centre); and it is intended to publicise its main reflections and conclusions. First, there is a legal loophole in this respect, leading to legal interpretations which are not well-founded. Second, it is recommended that by following the principle of individual autonomy and the dignity of individuals, it should be possible to obtain informed consent to carry out such practices. In the event that the informed consent cannot be obtained, it is recommended that students refrain from performing the procedure (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Cadáver , Medicina Legal/educação , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Bioética/educação , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Ensino/educação , Ensino/legislação & jurisprudência
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