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1.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(6): 63-66, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825336

RESUMO

The article illustrates the life of E.M. Evgen'ev-Tish, the well-known Physician, Forensic Medical Expert, Scientist, Head of the Department of Forensic Medicine (1954-1956) of the Kazan State Medical University. He is the author of the well-known monograph 'Determination of the Postmortem Interval in Forensic Medical Practice' published in 1963, which embraced all possible study methods on that subject.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal , Universidades , Autopsia , Medicina Legal/história , História do Século XX
2.
Med Leg J ; 87(1): 27-32, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789305

RESUMO

The Sicilian Mafia is a criminal organisation founded in Sicily which is an island south of the Italian mainland in the Mediterranean Sea. Until recently, this organization was responsible for many murders and bombings. However, recently, based on the investigations known as the "Mare Nostrum" operation, the Supreme Court convicted 67 people and sent them to prison. Some defendants were found guilty of as many as 39 murders. This article reviews the forensic analysis that was used when investigating responsibility for these Mafia murders. Our review is based on the court documents and the ballistic investigations which were carried out to evaluate the reliability of "repented" or "pentiti" statements. The murder victims were almost all men but one was a woman all of whom had gunshot lesions; in many cases, the fatal injuries were to the head and face. Ballistic analysis showed that in more than half of these murders, more than one weapon was used. In conclusion, the forensic analysis of the murders shows the Sicilian inter-families' dynamics and their characteristic operating methods.


Assuntos
Direito Penal/métodos , Medicina Legal/história , Homicídio/tendências , Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Legal/métodos , História do Século XX , Humanos , Sicília
4.
Asclepio ; 70(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179148

RESUMO

A través de un caso de envenenamiento colectivo de 1865, se analizan cuatro ingredientes característicos de las culturas forenses: las tecnologías de la prueba, las voces autorizadas, el marco legislativo en acción y las ansiedades sociales predominantes. Se emplean noticias de prensa local y la documentación conservada en las academias de medicina de Barcelona y Madrid. El caso estudiado muestra las tensiones entre diversos tipos de pruebas y las ambigüedades en el diagnóstico de enfermedades epidémicas y envenenamientos. Se estudia, en primer lugar, los temores provocados por la epidemia de cólera de 1865, con el que se asociaron inicialmente las muertes. También se analizan los cambios de percepción en la población a través de las noticias aparecidas. Se reconstruye de este modo la situación que condicionó la investigación judicial y la labor posterior de los peritos. Se estudian las limitaciones económicas para la implantación del cuerpo de médicos forenses y las tensiones entre médicos y farmacéuticos respecto a la gestión de los diferentes tipos de pruebas


By focussing on a case of collective poisoning in 1865, four features of forensic cultures are analysed: technologies for detection, authorized voices, regulations in action and the predominant social anxieties. Local newspapers and archival documents kept in the medical academies of Barcelona and Madrid are analysed. The analysis shows the tensions between various types of proof employed in legal medicine and the ambiguities between epidemic diseases and poisoning accidents. In the first section, I review the fears caused by the cholera epidemic in 1865, which was the first explanation of the accident. The changes of popular perception are also discussed by analysing contemporary newspapers. I also reconstruct the social anxieties that constrained the judicial investigation and the subsequent work of the experts. I study the lack of economic and manpower support for the development the new organization of forensic physicians and, finally, I review the controversies between doctors and pharmacists regarding the management of the different types of toxicological proofs


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , Cólera/história , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/história , Medicina Legal/história , Epidemias/história , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Administração Municipal/história
5.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 48(4): 371-377, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488897

RESUMO

Axes, knives, truncheons and several home-made weapons are some of the feature pieces of a newly deposited collection within the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh archive. This paper uses examples from this unusual collection, consisting of 40 weapons and over 400 glass slides, to demonstrate the significance and contribution it has to understanding late 19th- and early 20th-century forensic science and medicine in Scotland. Previously belonging to the late Sir Sydney Smith, these objects and glass slides supplement the Sydney Smith paper collection that contains numerous casefiles spanning his career as a forensic practitioner both in Britain and internationally. The records from these collections offer the potential for understanding developments in early 20th-century forensic practices whilst highlighting some of Britain's macabre criminal history.


Assuntos
Arquivos , Medicina Legal/história , Homicídio/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Escócia , Armas
6.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(5): 3, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307429

RESUMO

The authors consider and systematize the methods currently in use for the purpose of operational management of the state forensic medical expert activity (FMA) in Russia throughout the entire historical period since the establishment and development of the forensic medical expertise service in this country as well as the prospects for its further improvement. The importance of the problem arises from the fact that the legal status of the forensic medical expertise in the Russian Federation remains a matter of scientific discussions. On the one hand, some experts consider it necessary to set up on a broader basis forensic medical facilities of a new type as an alternative to the existing governmental bodies. On the other hand, such structures are being de facto established by the state law-enforcement agencies. The organizational restructuring keeps abreast with the better understanding of the its theoretical principles, forms of and approaches to the operational management of the state forensic medical expert activity. Under these conditions, the historical analysis of the current forensic medical activities at different stages of their development and their operational management as well as prospects for their further improvement appears to be both highly justified and useful.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial , Medicina Legal/organização & administração , Medicina Legal/história , Medicina Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XXI , Aplicação da Lei , Federação Russa
7.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(5): 47-49, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307440

RESUMO

This article contains information about the organization of the forensic medical expert investigation in the city of Saint-Petersburg since the time of its foundation. The sources of origin of the first Russian service of forensic medical expertise as a component of the state-supported healthcare system, as exemplified by the Saint-Petersburg state healthcare institution 'Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise', are described.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/história , Cidades , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Federação Russa
8.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(5): 50-55, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307441

RESUMO

The Saint-Petersburg state healthcare institution 'Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise' (SPb SBHCI 'Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise') celebrated its 100th anniversary on April 9, 2018. This article provides information concerning the organization and management of the forensic medical expertise system in Petrograd, Leningrad, and Saint-Petersburg in the XX-XXI centuries. The data on the staff composition of the Bureau and character of its activities are presented together with the outline of its main directions and practical achievements.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/história , Instalações de Saúde , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Federação Russa
9.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(4): 10-12, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168520

RESUMO

This article presents the materials devoted to the long-term history of collaboration between the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise of the Moscow Health Department and the Department of Forensic Medicine of the Sechenovsky University. Special attention is given to the contribution made by the Department of Forensic Medicine to the scientific and practical activities, methodological and staffing support first of the Moscow forensic medical services and thereafter of the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise operating under the auspices of the Moscow Health Department. Simultaneously, the influence of the work of the Moscow Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise on the development and improvement of the scientific, methodological, and pedagogical activities of the Russia's oldest Department of Forensic Medicine is overviewed. The personal contribution of the most prominent forensic medical experts and physicians of Moscow to medical science and practice is illustrated by concrete examples.


Assuntos
Educação , Medicina Legal , Órgãos Governamentais/história , Pesquisa , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Educação/história , Educação/organização & administração , Medicina Legal/educação , Medicina Legal/história , Medicina Legal/organização & administração , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Moscou , Pesquisa/história , Pesquisa/organização & administração
10.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(4): 13-15, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168521

RESUMO

The Forensic Biochemical Department commemorates its 53d anniversary in 2018, the jubilee year for the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise of the Moscow Health Department. The author describes the history of the establishment and development of forensic biochemistry in this country, its significance for and contribution to the practical work of forensic medical experts.


Assuntos
Bioquímica , Medicina Legal , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Bioquímica/história , Bioquímica/métodos , Educação , Medicina Legal/história , Medicina Legal/métodos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Moscou , Pesquisa
11.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (43): 77-89, jul. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176766

RESUMO

El presente texto parte de la existencia de una íntima relación entre el modo de definir lo ilícito y el procedimiento que se establece para su persecución. Desde esa perspectiva, analiza las previsiones del Malleus Maleficarum ("Martillo de las Brujas") para la tortura de una mujer acusada de brujería. Luego explora las continuidades entre el Malleus y el proceso penal del caso "Belén", con referencias al uso del lenguaje en la doctrina jurídica argentina en referencia al abuso sexual y otros delitos. Por último, plantea interrogantes en cuanto a los significados subyacentes de la punición del aborto que aun rige en la Argentina


The present article originates in the existence of an intimate relationship between the way in which crime is defined, and the procedure prescribed for its prosecution. From this perspective, it begins with an analysis of the guidelines provided in the Malleus Maleficarum ("Hammer of Witches") for the torture of a woman charged with witchcraft. Then, it explores the connections between the content of the Malleus and the criminal prosecution of "Belen's case", focusing on the use of language in Argentinian doctrine about sexual abuse and other crimes. Finally, it poses questions about the underlying significances meanings in the prosecution of abortion, which still prevails in Argentinian current law


Aquest article parteix de l'existència d'una íntima relació entre la manera de definir l'il·lícit penal i el procediment que s'estableix per a la seva persecució. Des d'aquesta perspectiva, s’hi analitza les previsions del Malleus Maleficarum (“Martell de les Bruixes”) per a la tortura d'una dona acusada de bruixeria. A continuació, s’hi estudia la continuïtat entre el Malleus i el procés penal del cas Belén, amb referències a l'ús del llenguatge en la doctrina jurídica argentina sobre l'abús sexual i altres delictes. Finalment, s’hi plantegen diferents interrogants en quant al significat subjacent a la punició de l'avortament que regeix a l'Argentina


Assuntos
Humanos , Delitos Sexuais/ética , Delitos Sexuais/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/história , Direito Penal , Medicina Legal/ética , Medicina Legal/história
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(2): 65-67, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667641

RESUMO

This article is devoted to the life and professional activities of the internationally renowned forensic doctor Ivan Ivanovich Neiding who became widely known in the early youth as the discoverer of the microscopic diagnostic features of the constriction marks formed in association with hanging and strangulation. During more than 22 years (from 1878 till 1900), I.I. Neiding acted as the head of the Department of Forensic medicine at the Moscow University where a large number of investigations on forensic medical ballistics, toxicology, obstetric and gynecological expertise were carried out under his supervision. At the time when I.I. Neiding headed the Department, the academic process was for the first time organized in the form of the specialized studies conducted by concrete specialists. Ivan Ivanovich Neiding himself was actively involved in the practical expert work and participated in the development of the procedural basis of the forensic medical expertise. In the hard times of political reaction, he managed to strengthen the role and position of the Department that was officially redesignated as the research institute.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Federação Russa
15.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 14(4): 568-573, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594832

RESUMO

On 30th March 1902 Police Constable George Doyle and Carnarvon Station manager Albert Dahlke were allegedly gunned down at Lethbridge's Pocket in Central Queensland. Approximately 90 kg of ash and burnt human remains with articles belonging to the two men were later found in saddle bags left at the scene on a police horse. Subsequently two local cattle and horse thieves, Patrick and James Kenniff, were convicted in the Queensland Supreme Court of the wilful murder of Constable Doyle. Patrick was executed by hanging on 12th January 1903 and James had his sentence reduced to life imprisonment with hard labor. A number of irregularities were subsequently raised about the trial including the use of a "special" jury and the reliability of evidence from a witness who did not actually see the event. Forensic issues to be explored involve the accuracy of the descriptions of the carbonized material, whether the remains were actually those of Doyle and Dahlke, and whether the victims were dismembered before burning, as was alleged by the prosecution.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/história , Homicídio/história , Osso e Ossos , Desmembramento de Cadáver/história , Fogo , História do Século XX , Humanos , Queensland
16.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 61(1): 4-6, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405180

RESUMO

This article is dedicated to the memory of the outstanding Russian forensic doctor and literary figure professor D.E. Min on the occasion of his 200th birthday anniversary. The assignment of D.E. Min to the position of the head of Department of the State Medical Practice at the Emperor's Moscow University coincided with the large-scale judiciary reform carried out in the country at that time which envisaged, among other innovations, the practice of questioning of an expert in the court room. The new developments in the practical expert activities required the revision of the former approaches to the education and training of forensic medical experts. D.E. Min was the first to introduce the practice of public defense of expert judgements by the students of the Department as an indispensable component of their routine learning activities. He founded the museum of forensic medicine and pioneered the method for teaching the intravital forensic examination. D.E. Min initiated and supervised original research on mechanical asphyxia, forensic-medical toxicology, and traumatology. D.E. Min and his co-workers were frequently engaged by the agencies in charge of preliminary investigation to participate in forensic medical expertise associated with the inquiries into the most lurid criminal cases of those times. The scientist made the essential contribution to the development of forensic medicine in this country and the modernization of the academic process at the Department of the State Medical Practice that greatly promoted satisfaction of the basic requirements of practical forensic medical activities.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial , Medicina Legal/história , Prova Pericial/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Legal/educação , Medicina Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XIX , Federação Russa , Faculdades de Medicina/história
17.
Orv Hetil ; 159(3): 83-90, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332417

RESUMO

Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story. The industrial revolution of the 19th century changed the sporadic occupational diseases to mass conditions. Later the chemical industry and subsequently the mass production of synthetic materials turned out as a global environmental catastrophe. This latest change initiated the emerging of ecological toxicology which is a future history of the concerning ancient science. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(3): 83-90.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/história , Toxicologia/história , Xenobióticos/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/história
18.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 56(213): 883-885, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065126

RESUMO

An account is given of ancient funeral practices and then of the development of forensic medicine from the mid twentieth century. Early forensic practices at Bir Hospital have been recorded and then the subsequent development of the study of forensic medicine in the country has been stated. Keywords: autopsies; Bir Hospital; forensic medicine; Institute of Medicine.


Assuntos
Autopsia/história , Medicina Legal/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Medicina na Literatura , Nepal
19.
Dynamis (Granada) ; 38(1): 65-86, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173240

RESUMO

El presente estudio analiza la presencia de los practicantes de la medicina en los tribunales de justicia de una comarca rural valenciana conocida como la Ribera del Júcar, durante los siglos XVI y XVII. Las fuentes utilizadas se refieren fundamentalmente a la villa real más importante de la región, Alzira, y a otro lugar de señorío de pequeñas dimensiones, Albalat, que conservan un importante volumen de procesos judiciales. Se analizan los procedimientos periciales y sus protagonistas, particularmente el informe relacionado con las heridas (dessospitació), ya fueran de arma blanca o de arma de fuego, y su pronóstico, estableciendouna comparación con la literatura médica desarrollada para tal fin


No disponible


Assuntos
História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Administração da Prática Médica/história , Administração da Prática Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Legal/história , Medicina Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Padrões de Prática Médica/história , Padrões de Prática Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Decisões da Suprema Corte/história
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