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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18770, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011467

RESUMO

Discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnoses range from 30% to 37%. The significance of deontological examinations remains high. In the pursuit of proper evaluation of diagnostic discrepancies, the establishment of pathogenesis, the mechanism of death, and a correct diagnosis are of particular importance.A retrospective study of deontological examinations, aimed at the detection of medical errors and carried out by the State Forensic Medicine Service during the period 1989 to 2016, was performed. The clinical and autopsy data from 1007 cases were collected in compliance with the research protocol.The number of deontological examinations tends to increase. In 60% of cases, the deceased were men. Most cases were in the age group of 50 to 59 years. Most examinations were carried out in relation to improperly provided healthcare services and the patient's death in surgery, admission, intensive care and obstetrics-gynecology departments. In 13% of cases, the diagnosis did not coincide and, in 79% of cases, the diagnoses fully coincided. In 68% of cases, the medical error was disproved.The number of deontological examinations is increasing. In most cases, clinical and autopsy diagnoses fully matched. Incorrectly clinically diagnosed intracranial injuries were the most common diagnostic mistakes. The data are similar to the results of research in other countries and would be relevant to ensuring the prevention of medical mistakes and the improvement of healthcare quality.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Legal/métodos , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Autopsia , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(1): 52-55, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895099

RESUMO

Characteristic injury patterns have been described in pedestrians struck by motor vehicles. The common injury pattern seen in upright pedestrians consists of a triad of head, pelvis, and lower extremity trauma. There are several factors such as vehicular type, design, mass and speed, and impact surfaces that influence the type and distribution of these injuries. We report a case that illustrates the importance of examination of the knee at autopsy when the typical lower extremity diaphyseal fractures that are usually seen in a motor vehicle-pedestrian collision are absent.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Fraturas do Fêmur/patologia , Traumatismos do Joelho/patologia , Pedestres , Adulto , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/patologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/patologia
3.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(1): 56-59, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929321

RESUMO

Postmortem personal identification in forensic science is performed using various methods. However, severely burnt bodies are hard to identify using odontological or skeletal features because of carbonization, and sometimes DNA profiling is impracticable because of the unavailability of the relatives. We present a case of a burn victim found after a house fire. Personal identification was attempted, but the body was heavily charred to the bones and the use of physical appearance was impracticable. There were no known relatives or personal belongings of the deceased for comparison of DNA typing. We obtained a series of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans taken antemortem and found bilateral multiple renal cysts, left renal artery calcification, and a big right inguinal hernia, which matched the deceased's postmortem CT findings and autopsy findings. To date, studies of identification by CT have acted for a rise in precision, but they require complicated calculation or high graphical methods. Calcification of the arteries or renal cysts seen in our case are very common lesions present in many adults with abundant variation; thus, they may be helpful as simple indicators for identification.


Assuntos
Fogo , Hérnia Inguinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Autopsia/métodos , Queimaduras/patologia , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110063, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790891

RESUMO

Diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings has always been a challenging task due to the susceptibility to alterations of the optical state and degradation of blood samples during sampling, transport and storage, which highly affects the analysis with spectrophotometric methods. Methodological improvements are then required urgently because of increased reports of cases with discrepancies between results of the measured biomarker carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and reported symptoms. Total blood CO (TBCO) measured chromatographically was thus proposed in a previous study as alternative biomarker to COHb. This approach was investigated in this study by comparing the two biomarkers and assessing the effects of various storage parameters (temperature, preservative, time, tube headspace (HS) volume, initial saturation level, freeze- and thaw- and reopening-cycles) over a period of one month. Results show that while for TBCO, concentrations are relatively stable over the observation period regardless of parameters such as temperature, time and HS volume, for COHb, concentrations are altered significantly during storage. Therefore, the use of TBCO as alternative biomarker for CO poisonings has been proposed, since it provides more valid results and is more stable even under non-optimal storage conditions. Additionally, it can be used to predict COHb in cases where sample degradation hinders optical measurement. Furthermore, a correction formula for COHb and TBCO is provided to be used in laboratories or circumstances where optimal storage or analysis is not possible, to obtain more accurate results.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Monóxido de Carbono/sangue , Carboxihemoglobina/análise , Medicina Legal/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Oximetria , Manejo de Espécimes , Espectrofotometria
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110059, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780351

RESUMO

In traffic accidents, the differentiation of run-over and other injuries is crucial because questions about the origin of fatal injuries often arise. It is sometimes difficult for forensic pathologists to answer them due to the superimposition of injuries or competing, potentially fatal findings. Therefore, using morphometric three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions offers new perspectives based on an interdisciplinary evaluation of all findings and traces. The morphometric 3D reconstruction includes the allocation of patterned injuries or transferred material, the determination of the origin of injuries as well as the reconstruction of the incident. The generated 3D models of persons, clothes, vehicles, incident sites and relevant objects resulting from forensic imaging, photogrammetry, 3D structured-light and laser scanning are included, as are all detected traces and damages. Three case studies are presented to illustrate the possibilities and results of morphometric 3D reconstruction. Run-over accidents have received less attention than the topic of pedestrian, bicycle and motorbike accident analysis for which there is a large body of literature. Our goal is to add to the understanding of run-over accidents using morphometric reconstruction in order to improve their analysis in the future. The possibilities of morphometric reconstructions by means of 3D techniques in run-over accidents are wide-ranging and can provide new, unexpected and significant insights.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Simulação por Computador , Medicina Legal/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional , Pedestres , Humanos , Lasers , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fotogrametria , Software , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ferimentos e Lesões/patologia
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110060, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785511

RESUMO

In order to investigate potential causal relations between the shaking of infants and injuries, biomechanical studies compare brain and skull dynamic behavior during shaking to injury thresholds. However, performing shaking tolerance research on infants, either in vivo or ex vivo, is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Therefore, infant injury thresholds are usually estimated by scaling or extrapolating adult or animal data obtained from crash tests or whiplash experiments. However, it is doubtful whether such data accurately matches the biomechanics of shaking in an infant. Hence some thresholds may be inappropriate to be used for the assessment of inflicted head injury by shaking trauma in infants. A systematic literature review was conducted to 1) provide an overview of existing thresholds for head- and neck injuries related to violent shaking, and 2) to identify and discuss which thresholds have been used or could be used for the assessment of inflicted head injury by shaking trauma in infants. Key findings: The majority of studies establishing or proposing injury thresholds were found to be based on loading cycle durations and loading cycle repetitions that did not resemble those occurring during shaking, or had experimental conditions that were insufficiently documented in order to evaluate the applicability of such thresholds. Injury thresholds that were applied in studies aimed at assessing whether an injury could occur under certain shaking conditions were all based on experiments that did not properly replicate the loading characteristics of shaking. Somewhat validated threshold scaling methods only exist for scaling concussive injury thresholds from adult primate to adult human. Scaling methods that have been used for scaling other injuries, or for scaling adult injury thresholds to infants were not validated. There is a clear and urgent need for new injury thresholds established by accurately replicating the loading characteristics of shaking.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Síndrome do Bebê Sacudido/fisiopatologia , Aceleração , Animais , Lesão Axonal Difusa/fisiopatologia , Medicina Legal/métodos , Traumatismos Cranianos Fechados/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Biológicos , Lesões do Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Retiniana/fisiopatologia
7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110118, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869653

RESUMO

Brain and cervical injuries are often described after major facial impacts but rarely after low-intensity mandibular impacts. Force transmission to the brain and spinal cord from a mandibular impact such as a punch was evaluated by the creation and validation of a complete finite element model of the head and neck. Anteroposterior uppercut impacts on the jaw were associated with considerable extension and strong stresses at the junction of the brainstem and spinal cord. Hook punch impacts transmitted forces directly to the brainstem and the spinal cord without extension of the spinal cord. Deaths after this type of blow with no observed histological lesions may be related to excessive stressing of the brainstem, through which pass the sensory-motor pathways and the vagus nerve and which is the regulatory center of the major vegetative functions. Biological parameters are different in each individual, and by using digital modeling they can be modulated at will (jaw shape, dentition…) for a realistic approach to forensic applications.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Simulação por Computador , Traumatismos Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Traumatismos Mandibulares/complicações , Abuso Físico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(6): 42-46, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825332

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to develop methods of determining the presence of meconium and feces in traces on material evidences and criteria for differential diagnostics of these secretions. The authors studied morphological, enzyme and pigment compositions of the samples of meconium obtained from fetus corpses, alive newborns, and that of feces obtained from adults, with the storage age at the laboratory from three days to two years. There are presented the study outcomes in traces on material evidences obtained by the following methods: light and luminescence microscopy with the use of starch-agar gel samples, substrate film method, a modified Pettenkofer reaction, spectrophotometry, and ascending thin layer chromatography. While studying meconium and feces, the authors revealed differences in their morphological, enzyme and pigment compositions; these data can be used in their differential diagnosis. The authors elaborated methods of determining the presence of the mentioned secretions; these methods could increase the efficiency of forensic biological examinations.


Assuntos
Mecônio , Adulto , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fezes , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 109998, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707237

RESUMO

Bruising is an injury commonly observed within suspect cases of assault or abuse, yet how a blunt impact initiates bruising and influences its severity is not fully understood. Furthermore, the standard method of documenting a bruise with colour photography is known to have limitations which influence the already subjective analysis of a bruise. This research investigated bruising using a standardised blunt impact, delivered to 18 volunteers. The resulting bruise was imaged using colour, cross polarised (CP) and infrared photography. Timelines of the L*a*b* colour space were determined from both colour and CP images for up to 3 weeks. Overall, no single photographic technique out-performed the others, however CP did provide greater contrast than colour photography. L*a*b* colour space timelines were not attributable any physiological characteristics. Whilst impact force negatively correlated with BMI (R2 = 0.321), neither were associated with any measure of bruise appearance. Due to the inter-subject variability in the bruise response to a controlled infliction, none of the methods in the current study could be used to reliably predict the age of a bruise or the severity of force used in creating a bruise. A more comprehensive approach combining impact characteristics, tissue mechanics, enhanced localised physiological measures and improvements in quantifying bruise appearance is likely to be essential in removing subjectivity from their interpretation.


Assuntos
Contusões/patologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Fotografação/métodos , Pele/lesões , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 110029, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726327

RESUMO

The question whether an injury was sustained during life or not is one of the most important subjects in forensic medicine. Therefore, vital reactions have been a main research topic in forensic medicine for a long period and many renowned forensic pathologists have devoted important papers to this field. The research area ranges from macroscopically visible organ reactions, over tissue alterations (enzyme histochemistry, later on immunohistochemistry with a wide range of enzymes and other analytes, molecular pathology) to biochemical responses to injury. Especially in the field of immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology much progress has been achieved in the last years (e.g. heat-shock-proteins or positive aquaporine3-staining in mechanical skin trauma). Furthermore, 20 years after its implementation postmortem imaging also contributes to the detection and visualization of vital signs. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on forensically relevant vital signs/vital reactions. Systemic vital reactions especially of the circulatory and respiratory system as well as local vital reactions will be addressed. Vital reactions of different organ systems will be discussed in detail regarding pathogenesis and possible postmortem evolution. Current research on immunohistochemically detectable vital reactions (heat-shock-protein expression, aquaporine3-staining in mechanical trauma of the skin) will be addressed as well as biochemical vital reactions (agonochemical stress reaction, myoglobine in electrocution death, hypoxanthine as marker of hypoxia).


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/patologia , Catecolaminas/sangue , Tosse , Deglutição , Embolia/patologia , Exsanguinação/patologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Insulina/sangue , Absorção Intestinal , Isquemia/patologia , Pneumotórax/patologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia , Ventilação Pulmonar , Púrpura/patologia , Aspiração Respiratória/patologia , Salivação
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(38): e246, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein whose level increases in response to tissue injury, infection, or other inflammation. It is used in clinical and forensic settings. Point-of-care (POC) testing has recently become available, and it is considered to be useful during postmortem examinations. However, laboratory testing of postmortem blood samples is difficult due to hemolysis and postmortem clotting. METHODS: The utility of POC testing for CRP during postmortem examination was evaluated using cardiac blood from the inferior vena cava. The whole blood sample was immediately tested using the POC instrument. Subsequently, the same sample was processed to obtain the serum, which was tested using common laboratory instruments. RESULTS: The postmortem POC test had a high positive predictive value and specificity, and the results strongly correlated with the laboratory test results. CONCLUSION: POC CRP testing is valid in postmortem examination and can be used in forensic medicine (postmortem inspection and autopsy).


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Medicina Legal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Imediatos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Veia Cava Inferior/patologia
12.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1752-1756, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The article presents data from literary sources and a statistical analysis of one's own research on the nature, mechanism and prescription of spleen injury in the case of mechanical trauma and the absence of alcohol intoxication. The aim: To study the dynamics of changes in the histological parameters of the spleen injured tissues in case of mechanical trauma depending on the prescription of injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The material of the study was the spleen tissue of 56 males and females aged from 20-60 who died at known and unknown time in the presence and absence of alcohol in the blood. We used histological, histochemical methods, and carried out a statistical analysis of the results. RESULTS: Results: The obtained results showed that during the mechanical injury of spleen there often developed a capsule and a parenchyma with hematoma in the area of injury. Our records showed that during the first 6 hours after injury, there appeared a hematoma in the center of the injury. Hemolysis of the erythrocyte particles was observed in the center of the hematoma. There were isolated leukocytes and fibrin tissues closer to the edge of the hematoma. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that there are several histological changes in the damaged spleen tissues area which directly depend on the time which passed from the moment of injury.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/métodos , Hematoma/diagnóstico , Técnicas Histológicas , Baço/lesões , Adulto , Feminino , Fibrina , Humanos , Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(5): 43-46, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626194

RESUMO

The purpose of the work is the development of mathematical models in the forensic diagnosis of poisonings by the main groups of toxicologically important substances, on the basis of biochemical characteristics of blood. The most informative forensic and biochemical indicators of cadaveric blood used to detect lethal poisoning are the urea content, total protein content, and the ratio of urea to creatinine. Mathematical models of poisoning can be used to diagnose poisoning with narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and substitutes of ethyl alcohol.


Assuntos
Etanol/sangue , Medicina Legal/métodos , Entorpecentes/sangue , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Psicotrópicos/sangue , Cadáver , Etanol/envenenamento , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Entorpecentes/envenenamento , Envenenamento/sangue , Psicotrópicos/envenenamento
14.
J Microbiol ; 57(11): 1003-1011, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555993

RESUMO

while several methods for determining postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) in drowning cases have been suggested, the estimation of PMSI remains difficult. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology enables simultaneous identification of multiple taxa from environmental samples. Although NGS has been applied to estimate time since death, this application has been mainly focused on terrestrial cases. As a case study, we investigated microeukaryotic biodiversity and community structures in submerged car bonnet and drowned pig using NGS technology. NGS analysis showed that the microeukaryotic biodiversity in pig carcass was relevantly lower than that in car bonnet. NGS results also revealed that water molds and algae were related to decomposition. Relative abundances of Filobasidium, Achlya, Saprolegnia, Hydrodicton, Lobosphaera, and Scenedesmus varied with decomposition period. This data indicated that these taxa might be useful as good indicators to estimate PMSI. This study showed microeukaryotic community analysis using NGS technology may help solve drowning cases in forensic investigation.


Assuntos
Afogamento/diagnóstico , Eucariotos/classificação , Medicina Legal/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Biodiversidade , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , República da Coreia , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Forensic Sci Int ; 303: 109931, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546160

RESUMO

Clinical and research-based tests in molecular biology require a substantial amount of DNA and RNA, unfortunately, a considerable number of cells is needed for this amount of sample. Blood is one of the best and easiest source of cells, but is not used due to its invasive drawing methods and the needed volume. Another considerable point is the low amount of samples detected in crime scenes. TRI reagent is one of the most available methods for DNA, RNA and protein extraction. However, based on unsuccessful results, this method has not been widely used on blood samples. In this study, for the first time, the use of TRI reagent on micro scale blood volume was reported, resulting in high yield of DNA and RNA with great quality.


Assuntos
DNA/isolamento & purificação , Medicina Legal/métodos , Indicadores e Reagentes , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , DNA/sangue , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA/sangue , Adulto Jovem
16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1083: 150-156, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493805

RESUMO

Most of the on-site approaches for inferring of the post-mortem interval are still based on observative data from the direct body inspection, whereas, objective and quantitative analyses, such as potassium in the vitreous humor, are require laboratory instrumentation and skilled personnel. The present paper presents a simple and low cost analytical method suitable for use at the crime scene for inferring the time since death. The method uses a microfluidic paper-based device (µPAD) for the determination of ammonium in the vitreous humor (VH) based on the selective interaction between the ammonium and the Nessler's reagent. The color change was measured in terms of "RGB distance" by using a simple and free smartphone application. The optimized device showed a limit of detection of 0.4 mmol L-1, with between days precision less than 9.3% expressed as relative standard deviation, and accuracy between days from 94.5% to 104.5%. The selectivity of the Nessler's reaction was tested towards the main vitreous humor compounds, and no significant interferences were found. This paper-based analytical device was successfully used for the determination of ammonium ion in VH samples from forensic autopsies. The results obtained with the proposed method, although for a limited number of cases (n = 25), showed a close correlation with the data obtained with an instrumental analysis based on capillary electrophoresis. Moreover, in order to make the evaluation of results as simple as possible, a direct correlation between the color intensity, expressed as RGB distance, and the post-mortem interval was studied and a significant correlation was found (R2 > 0.78). In conclusion, the present preliminary study showes that the proposed device could be an additional tool to the traditional methods for a more accurate, although still presumptive, estimation of the time of death directly at the crime scene.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/análise , Medicina Legal/métodos , Papel , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Corpo Vítreo/química , Adulto , Idoso , Colorimetria/instrumentação , Colorimetria/métodos , Medicina Legal/instrumentação , Humanos , Iodetos/química , Limite de Detecção , Compostos de Mercúrio/química , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472445

RESUMO

Fingermarks are highly relevant in criminal investigations for individualization purposes. In some cases, the question in court changes from 'Who is the source of the fingermarks?' to 'How did the fingermark end up on the surface?'. In this paper, we explore the evaluation of fingermarks given activity level propositions by using Bayesian networks. The variables that provide information on activity level questions for fingermarks are identified and their current state of knowledge with regards to fingermarks is discussed. We identified the variables transfer, persistency, recovery, background fingermarks, location of the fingermarks, direction of the fingermarks, the area of friction ridge skin that left the mark and pressure distortions as variables that may provide information on how a fingermark ended up on a surface. Using three case examples, we show how Bayesian networks can be used for the evaluation of fingermarks given activity level propositions.


Assuntos
Dermatoglifia , Teorema de Bayes , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Tato
18.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(4): 63-67, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407710

RESUMO

A review of the techniques used by Nizhny Novgorod forensic physicians in studying the possibility of using biochemical methods in expert practice is presented. Changes at the molecular level in pathological conditions precede functional and morphological disorders in tissues and organs. The use of biochemical methods - in particular, the study of the concentration of myoglobin and substances of low and medium molecular weight - significantly expands the possibilities of forensic-medical ekspertise. The authors study investigated the effect of the sampling period and the storage conditions of biomaterial on the results of biochemical studies; the dynamics of myoglobin content in determining whether a victim was dead or alive at the time of injury, and how long ago the injury occurred; and the nature of ischemic myocardial damage. The possibility of using substances of low and medium molecular weight in determining the cause of death was evaluated.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Medicina Legal/métodos , Mioglobina/análise , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109918, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421437

RESUMO

In forensic settings, diluted bloodstains are regularly encountered for example when bloodstains are mixed with tap-/rainwater, after deliberate cleaning attempts, or when blood is dropped on a wet surface such as a towel. Such diluted bloodstain scenarios can be subdivided into sequences of events in which a blood drop was either (1) readily diluted (a mixture of blood and water is deposited); (2) deposited on a surface that was readily moistened (first water, then blood) or (3) deposited and subsequently moistened (first blood, then water). Current bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) lacks data and tools to distinguish these three ways of derivation of a diluted bloodstain that vary in the sequence of deposition of blood and water on textile. In this study, 880 bloodstains were examined for characteristics that can be used to determine the derivation of diluted bloodstains. A guideline to assist BPA-analysts in interpreting diluted bloodstains was extracted. The added value of this guideline was confirmed by conducting two surveys: one survey with and one without the guideline. A third survey confirmed that the characteristics also function on a broader range of textile types that have different weave and knit styles. This guideline can aid BPA-experts to determine, in an objective way, how diluted bloodstains derived which can aid in determining which activities took place at a crime scene.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Árvores de Decisões , Medicina Legal/métodos , Medicina Legal/normas , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Têxteis
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109907, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401415

RESUMO

In sexual assault cases, the detection and identification of semen is extremely important as this type of evidence can be used as a source for investigative leads and contributes to case evidence. However, the detection of semen stains is often difficult, even indoors, because of different (environmental) factors, such as substrate type, coloured items and large search areas. In 2015, a project was initiated by the Dutch police to evaluate the feasibility of the use of detection dogs to locate semen stains in forensic practise. Since promising results were obtained, here, a double-blind study was designed to investigate how these detection dogs can optimally be implemented in the current work flow of crime scene investigators and to compare the dog's sensitivity and specificity with current detection methods. The performance of the detection dogs was compared to three commonly used detection methods for semen, (i) forensic light sources (FLS), (ii) the RSID semen field kit and (iii) the enzymatic Acid Phosphatase (AP)-test on semen deposited at different types of fabrics. A 100% sensitivity and specificity for the detection of semen stains using the detection dogs was obtained, compared to an overall sensitivity and specificity of 76.3% and 100% for FLS, 81.6% and 100% for RSID-test, and 92.1% and 100% for AP-test, respectively. Especially, on fabrics with a pattern or interfering fluorescent properties, detection dogs demonstrated to be of additional value to locate the semen stains. We recommend to use the following order of testing, FLS, detection dog, AP-test and RSID test in a forensic workflow.


Assuntos
Cães/fisiologia , Medicina Legal/métodos , Odorantes , Sêmen , Olfato/fisiologia , Têxteis , Fosfatase Ácida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Crime , Fluorescência , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Luz , Masculino , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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