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1.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 216(4): 1126-1133, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility of 2D shear wave ultrasound elastography to quantitatively measure changes of rigor mortis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Muscle stiffness of two live pigs and nine sacrificed pigs was measured in kilopascals using ultrasound elastography. The nine sacrificed pigs were divided into three groups of three pigs each and placed in one of three environments at 90°F (32°C), 70°F (21°C), or 34°F (1°C). Ultrasound elastography of five muscles was performed at 1- to 2-hour intervals for up to 50 hours postmortem. For each pig and muscle location, the time to start, peak intensity, duration of peak, and time to decline of rigor mortis were identified from the graphs of muscle stiffness values over time. These outcome variables were then compared across ambient temperature, body weight, and age groups using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS. Postmortem measurements show a rise, peak, and decline of muscle stiffness after death. Rigor mortis was highly significantly affected by ambient temperature (p < .001), was significantly affected by body weight (p = .04), and was not significantly affected by animal age or muscle location (facial vs truncal vs limb) (p > .50). Peak intensity of rigor mortis developed more quickly but attained lower levels of muscle stiffness at 90°F (80-100 kPa) compared with 70°F and 34°F (280-300 kPa) (p < .001). The duration of peak rigor mortis and the time to decline of rigor mortis were significantly longer for the lower temperatures (p < .001). CONCLUSION. Two-dimensional shear wave ultrasound elastography can quantifi-ably measure the trajectory of rigor mortis in an animal model. This new approach may have direct implications for human forensic investigations.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Medicina Legal/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Rigor Mortis/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores Etários , Animais , Peso Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Rigor Mortis/diagnóstico , Suínos , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 77: 102101, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338801

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has surged globally bringing the whole world virtually to a standstill. Due to its highly contagious nature, various guidelines, protocols and preventive strategies have been devised for the safety of healthcare workers during management of the living as well as the dead. However, guidelines and precautions to be followed during the examination of the human skeletal remains are largely lacking. The present communication intends to address the issue of safe handling of human remains during medicolegal investigations in the COVID-19 pandemic times.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Medicina Legal/métodos , Autopsia , Medicina Legal/instrumentação , Medicina Legal/normas , Humanos
5.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101758, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702606

RESUMO

We investigated whether bloodstain examination and DNA typing can be performed on washed bloodstains on clothes. Blood was dropped onto T-shirts made from 100% cotton or 100% polyester. After drying, the T-shirts were hand-washed with handwashing soap, dishwashing detergent, laundry detergent, soap, or just water until the bloodstains could not be seen. After drying the T-shirts, DNA and RNA were extracted simultaneously from the bloodstained areas using commercial kits. RNA was reverse-transcribed to DNA, and then the detection of the mRNAs for HBB, ACTB, and 18S rRNA was examined. DNA was quantified via real-time PCR, and then STR typing was performed with a commercial kit. The luminol and leucomalachite green tests were used as preliminary bloodstain tests, and an immuno-chromatography kit was used to identify human bloodstains. DNA could be extracted from all washed bloodstains, but more DNA was extracted from cotton T-shirts than from polyester T-shirts. STR typing was successful for all bloodstains without issues such as PCR inhibition. In the human bloodstain identification test using mRNA, almost all bloodstains produced a Ct value for HBB and all bloodstains produced a Ct value for 18S rRNA, whereas few bloodstains produced a Ct value for ACTB. All bloodstains reacted positively to luminol, but some were negative for leucomalachite green. Most of the bloodstains did not react positively in the human bloodstain identification test using the immuno-chromatography kit. The results suggest that human bloodstain identification and DNA typing can still be performed after clothes with bloodstains are washed.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Vestuário , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Medicina Legal/métodos , Detergentes , Humanos , Temperatura , Água
6.
Med Leg J ; 88(2): 80-83, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501134

RESUMO

Covid-19 has reached almost all the nations in the world. More and more people are dying from it and in some countries, even the army has been called upon to help dispose of the dead as there is a shortage of coffins, and undertakers are overwhelmed. Therefore, it is essential to have measures in place to contain the spread of infection while handling dead bodies. In view of this, different guidelines and protocols have been proposed bearing in mind the limited information we have about the virus. This review article sets them out for better reference.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Cadáver , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Medicina Legal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Autopsia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Cremação , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Práticas Mortuárias , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 46: 101724, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516737

RESUMO

Hypochlorous acid, produced by myeloperoxidase upon neutrophil activation, can oxidize various compounds and exert antimicrobial activity in vivo. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the reactions of the unsaturated phosphatidylcholines, which abound in cell membranes, with hypochlorous acid, we identified and examined phosphatidylcholine chlorination and oxidation products formed under various reaction conditions. We first investigated the products of unsaturated phosphatidylcholine and hypochlorous acid reaction with respect to hypochlorite concentration and reaction time. Next, we examined the lipids extracted postmortem from human abscesses. For all the analyses, we used liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Various compounds, including phosphatidylcholine chlorohydrin and phosphatidylcholine hydroxide/epoxide, were detected. Oxidized phosphatidylcholines were mainly detectable upon reaction with low concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, whereas chlorinated phosphatidylcholines formed in the presence of higher concentrations. In human abscesses, oxidized phosphatidylcholines were detected in the cases with high procalcitonin concentration, whereas chlorinated phosphatidylcholines were undetected. The detections of oxidized phosphatidylcholines in human tissues might indicate previous exposure to hypochlorous acid in septic cases. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms underlying pathogen survival following inflammation associated with neutrophil activation and topical myeloperoxidase release and show postmortem biomarkers candidates for sepsis.


Assuntos
Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/metabolismo , Ácido Hipocloroso/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicina Legal/métodos , Halogenação , Humanos , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Oxirredução , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/química
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 726-730, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098312

RESUMO

Determination of age represents one of the most important aspects in forensic identification. Through aging, changes can occur in morphological structures of the heart valves. The objective is to examine the relationship between the dimensions of the rigth atrioventricular (tricuspid), pulmonary, left atrioventricular (mitral), and aortic valves and age at death. Sixty fresh human hearts were obtained from Department of Anatomy and Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The age of individuals was between 20-90 years. We investigated the morphometric parameters of the valves were taken including: valve circumference, length, the height and area of each leaflet. All parameters were measured by using specific image analysis software. The correlation test and predictive equation were established. The positive correlation between the circumference, area of posterior leaflet, height of anterior leaflet, and area of anterior leaflet of the rigth atrioventricular valve were found. The left atrioventricular valve showed correlation with age in circumference, length and area of posterior leaflet. For the pulmonary and aortic valves, there were correlated between circumference at sinotubular junction and leaflet sizes in almost leaflets. The circumference at sinotubular junction of the pulmonary valve was highest significantly correlation with age (r=0.693). The predictive equation was age = -3.659+0.652(Circumference at sinotubular junction of the pulmonary valve) with standard error of ± 14.7 years. Additional knowledge of morphometric features in human heart valves and its relationship with age could be used as age indicator in forensic field.


La determinación de la edad representa uno de los aspectos más importantes en la identificación forense. Pueden ocurrir cambios a través del envejecimiento, en las estructuras morfológicas de las válvulas cardíacas. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar la relación entre las dimensiones de las valvas atrioventricular derecha (tricúspide), pulmonar, atrioventricular izquierda (mitral) y aórtica, y la edad en relación a la muerte. Se obtuvieron sesenta corazones humanos frescos del Departamento de Anatomía y el Departamento de Medicina Forense de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Chiang Mai, Tailandia. La edad de las personas fluctuaba entre los 20 y 90 años. Investigamos los parámetros morfométricos de las valvas analizadas, incluyendo: circunferencia de la valva, longitud, altura y área de cada valva. Todos los parámetros se midieron utilizando un software de análisis de imagen específico. Se estableció la prueba de correlación y la ecuación predictiva. Se encontró la correlación positiva entre la circunferencia, el área de la valvula posterior, la altura de la valvula anterior y el área de la valvula anterior de la valva atrioventricular derecha. La valva atrioventricular izquierda mostró correlación con la edad en la circunferencia, longitud y área de la valvula posterior. Para las valvas pulmonar y aórtica, se correlacionó entre la circunferencia en la unión sinotubular y el tamaño de las válvulas. La circunferencia en la unión sinotubular de la valva pulmonar fue la mayor correlación significativa con la edad (r = 0,693). La ecuación predictiva fue edad = -3,659 + 0,652 (circunferencia en la unión sinotubular de la valva pulmonar) con error estándar de ± 14,7 años. El conocimiento adicional de las características morfométricas en las valvas cardíacas humanas y su relación con la edad podría usarse como indicador de edad en el campo forense.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Medicina Legal/métodos , Valvas Cardíacas/anatomia & histologia , Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tailândia , Cadáver
9.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 46: 101713, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442862

RESUMO

An evaluation of a Rapid DNA system was performed using buccal swab samples and mock Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) samples collected postmortem. The allelic ladder success rate was 90% and samples analyzed simultaneously with this allelic ladder were used for further analysis. Sample success rate of the Rapid DNA system for buccal swab samples, and blood and muscle DVI samples were calculated. Success rates of buccal swab samples were 100% and 75% using cassettes preloaded with all reagents suitable for high- and low-DNA content samples, respectively. Success rates of fresh DVI samples were 80% to 100%. Success rates of putrefied DVI samples varied widely between 0% and 20% and 50% to 80% depending on cassette and sample types. Conventional DNA analysis was performed for comparison with the results of the Rapid DNA system. DNA quantity and degradation of human DNA were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. DVI samples that yielded more than 1 ng/µL of DNA when extracted with conventional protocols were suitable for analysis using cassettes for both high- and low-DNA content samples. DVI samples with less than 0.1 ng/µL of DNA were suitable only for analysis using cassettes for low-DNA content samples. All alleles called and exported by the Expert system software implemented in the Rapid DNA system were concordant with allele calls made by conventional capillary electrophoresis DNA analysis.


Assuntos
Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Vítimas de Desastres , Medicina Legal/métodos , Mucosa Bucal , DNA/análise , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes
10.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(2): 25-28, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297495

RESUMO

Aim is to study morphology of the traces of a large drop of blood formed on snow-covered surface when it falls from different heights. In the experiment, we studied the morphology of blood drop traces fallen from 20, 50 and 100 cm on a just settled dry snow cover in a moderately frosty environment (-8 °C) Dropping from a height of up to 20 cm, a blood drop formed a cylindrical channel in the snow cover and spread out to form a disc-shaped element. However if the bleeding source was located at a 50 and 100 cm distance, an element close to a ball, consisting of blood crystals and ice was formed in the final section of the cylindrical channel. Morphology of the trace in freshly settled dry snow is due to the realization of the kinetic energy of a falling drop on the one hand, and the cooling of blood and crystallization on the other. Data obtained may be used to identify and describe traces of blood found on the scene in the street in the winter.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Medicina Legal/métodos , Neve , Humanos
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18770, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011467

RESUMO

Discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnoses range from 30% to 37%. The significance of deontological examinations remains high. In the pursuit of proper evaluation of diagnostic discrepancies, the establishment of pathogenesis, the mechanism of death, and a correct diagnosis are of particular importance.A retrospective study of deontological examinations, aimed at the detection of medical errors and carried out by the State Forensic Medicine Service during the period 1989 to 2016, was performed. The clinical and autopsy data from 1007 cases were collected in compliance with the research protocol.The number of deontological examinations tends to increase. In 60% of cases, the deceased were men. Most cases were in the age group of 50 to 59 years. Most examinations were carried out in relation to improperly provided healthcare services and the patient's death in surgery, admission, intensive care and obstetrics-gynecology departments. In 13% of cases, the diagnosis did not coincide and, in 79% of cases, the diagnoses fully coincided. In 68% of cases, the medical error was disproved.The number of deontological examinations is increasing. In most cases, clinical and autopsy diagnoses fully matched. Incorrectly clinically diagnosed intracranial injuries were the most common diagnostic mistakes. The data are similar to the results of research in other countries and would be relevant to ensuring the prevention of medical mistakes and the improvement of healthcare quality.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Erros de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Legal/métodos , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Autopsia , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Talanta ; 209: 120533, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892043

RESUMO

For the first time the method DI-SPME/LC-TOFMS was used and developed in order to determine the large antidepressant drugs in real forensic cases. The aim of the study was to optimize the new DI-SPME/LC-TOFMS method for the quantification of the large group of psychotropic drugs such as benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants and sleeping pills "Z". The volume of the sample, adsorption time, post-adsorption purification and desorption time were precisely optimized. The validation parameters such as limit of detection and quantification, linearity, precision during and between days and the matrix effect were determined. All obtained values are within the acceptable range for toxicological analyses. The usefulness of the method was confirmed by analyzing the post-mortem samples. Drug concentrations were determined in real samples with high precision, which gives perspectives for the DI-SPME/LC-TOFMS routine application in toxicological and forensic analyses in the future.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/sangue , Medula Óssea/química , Medicina Legal/métodos , Psicotrópicos/sangue , Antidepressivos/análise , Autopsia/economia , Autopsia/métodos , Medicina Legal/economia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas/economia , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Psicotrópicos/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/economia , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Talanta ; 209: 120565, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892086

RESUMO

Answers to questions about the time of bloodstains formation are often essential to unravel the sequence of events behind criminal acts. Unfortunately, the relevance of preserved evidence to the committed offence usually cannot be verified, because forensic experts are still incapable of providing an accurate estimate of the bloodstains' age. An antidote to this impediment might be substituting the classical dating approach - founded on the application of calibration models - by the comparison problem addressed using likelihood ratio tests. The key aspect of this concept involves comparing the evidential data with results characterizing reference bloodstains, formed during the process of supervised ageing so as to reproduce the evidence. Since this comparison requires data that conveys information inherent to changes accompanying the process of blood decomposition, this study provided a Raman-based procedure, designated for probing into the chemistry of ageing bloodstains. To circumvent limitations experienced with single-point measurements - the risk of laser-induced degradation of hemoglobin and subsampling errors - the rotating mode of spectral acquisition was introduced. In order to verify the performance of this novel sampling method, obtained spectra were confronted with those acquired during conventional static measurements. The visual comparison was followed by analysis of data structure using regularized MANOVA, which boosted the variance between differently-aged samples while minimizing the variance observed for bloodstains deposited at the same time. Studies of relation between these variances demonstrated the superiority of novel procedure, as it provided Raman signatures that enabled a better distinction between differently-aged bloodstains.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Medicina Legal/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Análise de Variância , Humanos
14.
Sci Justice ; 60(1): 63-71, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924290

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare three gunshot residue (GSR) collection methods used in conjunction with chemographic detection applied by different regional Swiss police services. The specimens were collected from the hands of a shooter with either filter paper (Filter method) or adhesive foil. The adhesive foil was then either applied against photographic paper during visualisation (AF Photo method) or coated with a layer of polyvinyl alcohol (AF PVAL method). The experiments involved two conditions of the examined hands, i.e. dry and humidified. The residues were revealed using the sodium rhodizonate test (SRT). Preliminary tests assessing the possibility of conducting a confirmatory Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analysis after the chemographic test were performed on a number of specimens by cutting positive spots and mounting them on stubs. Obtained results were compared in terms of effectiveness - number of positive spots, time requirements, quality of subsequent SEM-EDX analysis, ease of use and cost. The Filter method generally yielded a high-quality detection with both dry and humidified hands, as well as a simple, quick and efficient confirmation by SEM/EDX. The AF Photo performed well on dry hands, but not on humidified hands. The AF PVAL method performance was lower compared to the other methods in both examined conditions of the hands. The SEM/EDX analysis showed that the Filter and AF PVAL method provided satisfactory results when a sufficient carbon coating thickness was applied to the cuttings. It was also observed that the thinner the PVAL layer, the better the quality of the spectra and obtained images in SEM/EDX. Furthermore, the surface of the photographic paper did not seem to be conductive, even after the application of a thick layer of carbon. In conclusion, the Filter method gave the best overall results, but its application required slightly more time and expertise than the two other methods.


Assuntos
Balística Forense/métodos , Medicina Legal/métodos , Mãos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Cicloexanonas/análise , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pele/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Suíça
15.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(1): 56-59, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929321

RESUMO

Postmortem personal identification in forensic science is performed using various methods. However, severely burnt bodies are hard to identify using odontological or skeletal features because of carbonization, and sometimes DNA profiling is impracticable because of the unavailability of the relatives. We present a case of a burn victim found after a house fire. Personal identification was attempted, but the body was heavily charred to the bones and the use of physical appearance was impracticable. There were no known relatives or personal belongings of the deceased for comparison of DNA typing. We obtained a series of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans taken antemortem and found bilateral multiple renal cysts, left renal artery calcification, and a big right inguinal hernia, which matched the deceased's postmortem CT findings and autopsy findings. To date, studies of identification by CT have acted for a rise in precision, but they require complicated calculation or high graphical methods. Calcification of the arteries or renal cysts seen in our case are very common lesions present in many adults with abundant variation; thus, they may be helpful as simple indicators for identification.


Assuntos
Fogo , Hérnia Inguinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Autopsia/métodos , Queimaduras/patologia , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(1): 52-55, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895099

RESUMO

Characteristic injury patterns have been described in pedestrians struck by motor vehicles. The common injury pattern seen in upright pedestrians consists of a triad of head, pelvis, and lower extremity trauma. There are several factors such as vehicular type, design, mass and speed, and impact surfaces that influence the type and distribution of these injuries. We report a case that illustrates the importance of examination of the knee at autopsy when the typical lower extremity diaphyseal fractures that are usually seen in a motor vehicle-pedestrian collision are absent.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Fraturas do Fêmur/patologia , Traumatismos do Joelho/patologia , Pedestres , Adulto , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/patologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/patologia
17.
J Vis Commun Med ; 43(1): 27-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815567

RESUMO

Jurors are often subject to psychological health issues like secondary trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to exposure to gruesome graphic evidence. Against this background, the current study investigated the usefulness of medical-legal illustrations that include important details on the victim, including nature and position of wounds and cause of death. However, there have been no attempts to establish an effective format for medical-legal illustrations to facilitate the delivery of accurate information while also minimising traumatic stress or PTSD symptoms. We interviewed forensic doctors to determine the most suitable representational format for conveying relevant information. We concluded that the degree of detail (realistic and inclusive of characteristics) and colouring were important factors in determining the effectiveness of illustrations' representational format.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/métodos , Jurisprudência , Ilustração Médica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Humanos
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110063, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790891

RESUMO

Diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings has always been a challenging task due to the susceptibility to alterations of the optical state and degradation of blood samples during sampling, transport and storage, which highly affects the analysis with spectrophotometric methods. Methodological improvements are then required urgently because of increased reports of cases with discrepancies between results of the measured biomarker carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and reported symptoms. Total blood CO (TBCO) measured chromatographically was thus proposed in a previous study as alternative biomarker to COHb. This approach was investigated in this study by comparing the two biomarkers and assessing the effects of various storage parameters (temperature, preservative, time, tube headspace (HS) volume, initial saturation level, freeze- and thaw- and reopening-cycles) over a period of one month. Results show that while for TBCO, concentrations are relatively stable over the observation period regardless of parameters such as temperature, time and HS volume, for COHb, concentrations are altered significantly during storage. Therefore, the use of TBCO as alternative biomarker for CO poisonings has been proposed, since it provides more valid results and is more stable even under non-optimal storage conditions. Additionally, it can be used to predict COHb in cases where sample degradation hinders optical measurement. Furthermore, a correction formula for COHb and TBCO is provided to be used in laboratories or circumstances where optimal storage or analysis is not possible, to obtain more accurate results.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Monóxido de Carbono/sangue , Carboxihemoglobina/análise , Medicina Legal/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Oximetria , Manejo de Espécimes , Espectrofotometria
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110059, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780351

RESUMO

In traffic accidents, the differentiation of run-over and other injuries is crucial because questions about the origin of fatal injuries often arise. It is sometimes difficult for forensic pathologists to answer them due to the superimposition of injuries or competing, potentially fatal findings. Therefore, using morphometric three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions offers new perspectives based on an interdisciplinary evaluation of all findings and traces. The morphometric 3D reconstruction includes the allocation of patterned injuries or transferred material, the determination of the origin of injuries as well as the reconstruction of the incident. The generated 3D models of persons, clothes, vehicles, incident sites and relevant objects resulting from forensic imaging, photogrammetry, 3D structured-light and laser scanning are included, as are all detected traces and damages. Three case studies are presented to illustrate the possibilities and results of morphometric 3D reconstruction. Run-over accidents have received less attention than the topic of pedestrian, bicycle and motorbike accident analysis for which there is a large body of literature. Our goal is to add to the understanding of run-over accidents using morphometric reconstruction in order to improve their analysis in the future. The possibilities of morphometric reconstructions by means of 3D techniques in run-over accidents are wide-ranging and can provide new, unexpected and significant insights.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Simulação por Computador , Medicina Legal/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Pedestres , Humanos , Lasers , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fotogrametria , Software , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ferimentos e Lesões/patologia
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110118, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869653

RESUMO

Brain and cervical injuries are often described after major facial impacts but rarely after low-intensity mandibular impacts. Force transmission to the brain and spinal cord from a mandibular impact such as a punch was evaluated by the creation and validation of a complete finite element model of the head and neck. Anteroposterior uppercut impacts on the jaw were associated with considerable extension and strong stresses at the junction of the brainstem and spinal cord. Hook punch impacts transmitted forces directly to the brainstem and the spinal cord without extension of the spinal cord. Deaths after this type of blow with no observed histological lesions may be related to excessive stressing of the brainstem, through which pass the sensory-motor pathways and the vagus nerve and which is the regulatory center of the major vegetative functions. Biological parameters are different in each individual, and by using digital modeling they can be modulated at will (jaw shape, dentition…) for a realistic approach to forensic applications.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Simulação por Computador , Traumatismos Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/etiologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Traumatismos Mandibulares/complicações , Abuso Físico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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