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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(42): e383, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140593

RESUMO

Multiple neurological complications have been associated with the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This is a narrative review to gather information on all aspects of COVID-19 in elderly patients with cognitive impairment. First, the following three mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the neurological complications associated with COVID-19: 1) direct invasion, 2) immune and inflammatory reaction, and 3) hypoxic brain damage by COVID-19. Next, because the elderly dementia patient population is particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, we discussed risk factors and difficulties associated with cognitive disorders in this vulnerable population. We also reviewed the effects of the patient living environment in COVID-19 cases that required intensive care unit (ICU) care. Furthermore, we analyzed the impact of stringent social restrictions and COVID-19 pandemic-mediated policies on dementia patients and care providers. Finally, we provided the following strategies for working with elderly dementia patients: general preventive methods; dementia care at home and nursing facilities according to the activities of daily living and dementia characteristics; ICU care after COVID-19 infection; and public health care system and government response. We propose that longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to fully examine COVID-19 associated neurological complications, such as dementia, and the efficacy of telemedicine/telehealth care programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Demência/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cuidadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cuidados Críticos , Demência/complicações , Humanos , Hipóxia , Sistema Imunitário , Inflamação , Casas de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Medicina Preventiva , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Isolamento Social , Telemedicina
2.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720965080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084496

RESUMO

Hospitals and health systems suffer an over-reliance on elective surgeries to remain profitable. As a result, systems report record losses, while demand for emergency room, hospital, and intensive care beds have surged. Studies have admitted that many surgeries are unnecessary, and physician leaders admit that profit plays a role in driving such needless cost and risk. Most diseases are better managed with medications and lifestyle changes. But it pays more to replace a knee than to prevent that replacement. We must bring surgical and medical value closer in-line. Communities of color are suffering disproportionately from coronavirus. The social determinants of health that lead to higher concentrations of hypertension and diabetes can be mitigated by investment in primary care. Such investment has been proven to decrease cost and increase quality of life. However, the United States spends 50% less on primary care, than other developed countries. While showing promise, telehealth is not a panacea. It relies on continued reimbursement parity, and there remains a digital divide. Any meaningful fix will draw the ire from those who profit from such a profligate system. If we want to improve quality, access and equity, while avoiding unnecessary hospitalizations, risky surgeries, and runaway costs, we must invest in primary care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Medicina Preventiva , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Pandemias , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(5): 416-425, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886051

RESUMO

Early Childhood Intervention for Children of Parents with Mental Health Issues - Results of the Research Program of the National Center for Early Prevention In Germany, networks and measures of early childhood intervention (ECI) have been implemented nationwide. By specifically targeting families with multiple psychosocial challenges, ECI contributes to the enhancement of families' parenting skills, in order to promote equal opportunities for all children to grow up healthy and safe. In many families supported by ECI measures at least one parent shows symptoms of a mental health disorder, which poses a major challenge to ECI practitioners. Nevertheless, there is a lack of valid scientific knowledge about the proportion of young families living with symptoms of mental disorders, the degree to which parents' psychic burdens affect care in ECI measures and about the cooperation of different care providing systems. The National Center for Early Prevention (NCEP) monitors and evaluates the scaling up of ECI networks and measures in Germany. The present article compiles results of different NCEP studies focusing on parents with mental illness in Early Childhood Intervention. Results are discussed with regard to their relevance for further improving the care systems.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Medicina Preventiva , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Alemanha , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Saúde Mental , Poder Familiar/psicologia
5.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(5): 923-944, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888690

RESUMO

Although progress had been made in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, the positive trend has reversed in recent years, and CVD remains the most common cause of mortality in US women and men. Youth represent the future of CVD prevention; emerging evidence suggests exposure to risk factors in children contributes to atherosclerosis and results in vascular changes and increased CVD events. The contributors to CVD include those commonly seen in adults. This article reviews hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and smoking. It discusses the prevalence of each disease, diagnosis, treatment, and cardiovascular complications.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Criança , Humanos
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1155-1159, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741187

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the provision of preventive medicine curriculum system in the training programs of clinical medicine in the era of Healthy China. Methods: A total of 36 training programs of clinical medicine were selected from different areas of China for a statistical analysis on their basic information, involvement of concept of preventive medicine in program objectives, and provision of preventive medicine curriculum system. Results: Of all the 36 training programs of clinical medicine, 22(61%) have no mentions of prevention medicine in their program objectives; only one university's training program states preventive medicine together with basic medicine and clinical medicine as one of the three main disciplines. The total class hours for the core courses of preventive medicine (hygiene, medical statistics, epidemiology, evidence-based medicine, and social medicine) range from 80 to 252, with an average of (156.7±43.2) hours. The average percentage of class hours for preventive medicine courses among the total class hours is 4.3%±1.1% (range: 2.5%-7.5%), and obvious differences exist among universities. Conclusions: In current training programs of clinical medicine, the proportion of prevention medicine curriculum is insufficient, the percentage of hours for preventive medicine course is very low, and the differences among various universities are obvious. It is urgently needed to strengthen preventive medicine curriculum in training programs for clinical medical students in new era. It is suggested to further promote the concept of putting prevention first, improve the curriculum system of clinical medicine, intensify the integrated development preventive medicine and clinical medicine and pay attention to clinical research ability enhancement for the further improvement of training program of clinical medicine.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Medicina Preventiva/educação , China , Humanos
9.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(3): 610-612, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781200

RESUMO

This article reports the observed rate of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 in healthcare workers (HCWs) who worked on wards dedicated to care of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared with HCWs who worked on non-COVID-19 wards. The infection rate was significantly higher among HCWs who worked on non-COVID-19 wards (odds ratio 2.3, P=0.005), illustrating the need to strengthen social distancing measures and training.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Medicina Preventiva/educação , Medicina Preventiva/normas , Distância Social , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
10.
Front Med ; 14(5): 681-688, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651936

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an ancient system of alternative medicine, played an active role in the prevention and control of COVID-19 in China. It improved the clinical symptoms of patients, reduced the mortality rate, improved the recovery rate, and effectively relieved the operating pressure on the national medical system during critical conditions. In light of the current global pandemic, TCM-related measures might open up a new channel in the control of COVID-19 in other countries and regions. Here, we summarize the TCM-related measures that were widely used in China, including TCM guidelines, the Wuchang pattern, mobile cabin hospitals, integrated treatment of TCM and modern medicine for critical patients, and non-medicine therapy for convalescent patients, and describe how TCM effectively treated patients afflicted with the COVID-19. Effective TCM therapies could, therefore, be recommended and practiced based on the existing medical evidence from increased scientific studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Assistência ao Convalescente/organização & administração , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/classificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
11.
Urologe A ; 59(9): 1051-1058, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617623

RESUMO

Urology is an important medical discipline for men, women and children due to the variety and frequency of urologic diseases-a fact which is unknown to the majority of the population. In 2016, the "triple F" campaign was initiated in order to inform about both the role of urology and the importance of timely urologic investigations as well as prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based early examination. With the Roth brothers as the face of the campaign, a homepage was created with information about the main important urologic diseases. Flyers and posters for physicians and their patients were sent to 3500 urologists, a urologist search tool for patients with so far 2200 registered urologists is available on the homepage, etc. Further activities using social media are planned with the objective of increasing participation of German urologists and their patients.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Doenças Urológicas , Urologistas , Urologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicos , Medicina Preventiva , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S2): S186-S190, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663085

RESUMO

The seminal Consensus Study by the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine released in September 2019 describes the benefits of integrating health and social care service delivery, underscoring the central role of social determinants of health (SDOH) in health outcomes. Although the report's focus on the integration of health and social care contributes a much needed perspective to the national discourse on SDOH and offers a useful framework for organizing service delivery activities, the omission of prevention and health promotion throughout the report is a substantial limitation.We call for increased attention to and investment in prevention and health promotion in the proposed 5As framework. We contend that effectively addressing SDOH and improving alignment between health and social systems require reconceptualization of the traditional health care workforce and renewed state and national advocacy efforts.A paradigm shift encompassing a broader "workforce for health" that is well trained in prevention, health promotion, and advocacy is critical to addressing SDOH, improving population health outcomes, and achieving health equity. Given their professional mission, training, expertise, and scope of practice, social workers are well positioned to lead this effort.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Medicina Preventiva/economia , Serviço Social , Defesa do Consumidor , Ocupações em Saúde , Humanos
13.
Health Rep ; 31(5): 3-8, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of experiencing adverse outcomes from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), such as hospitalization, admission to intensive care units and death, is elevated for older individuals and those with certain underlying health conditions including diabetes, chronic conditions affecting lungs, heart or kidneys, and a compromised immune system. DATA AND METHODS: Data collected between March 29 and April 3, 2020 from the Canadian Perspectives Survey Series 1: Impacts of COVID-19 (n=4,627) were used to estimate the prevalence of underlying health conditions, health concerns and precautionary behaviours among Canadians aged 15 or older living in the provinces. Multivariate analyses examined associations between these variables after accounting for age, sex and education. RESULTS: Close to 1 in 4 Canadians (24%) had an underlying health condition that increased their risk of adverse outcomes from COVID-19. Overall, 36% of the population were very or extremely concerned about the impact of COVID-19 on their own health. Individuals with underlying health conditions had higher odds (odds ratio: 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 2.5) of being highly concerned than those without these conditions, after adjustment for demographic characteristics. High percentages of Canadians took precautions to reduce the risk of infection regardless of whether or not they had underlying health conditions. DISCUSSION: Health status was associated with higher levels of concern for one's own health in the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Most Canadians were taking precautions recommended by public health authorities to protect themselves and others.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Medicina Preventiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
14.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E63, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678061

RESUMO

Data suggest that more men than women are dying of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, but it is unclear why. A biopsychosocial approach is critical for understanding the disproportionate death rate among men. Biological, psychological, behavioral, and social factors may put men at disproportionate risk of death. We propose a stepwise approach to clinical, public health, and policy interventions to reduce COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality among men. We also review what health professionals and policy makers can do, and are doing, to address the unique COVID-19-associated needs of men.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Medicina Preventiva , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200700. 20 p. tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1102563

RESUMO

El documento contiene los lineamientos de prevención, reducción y contención de infecciones respiratorias y COVID-19 en los ámbitos geográficos identificados con presencia de PIA y PICI, con un enfoque intercultural y de derechos humanos.


Assuntos
Medicina Preventiva , Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Povos Indígenas
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e208953, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584408

RESUMO

Importance: Statins are prescribed to help lower cholesterol levels but have poor adherence rates. Attitudes or beliefs toward medications are important to ascertain because they may be associated with patient behavior. Objective: To identify health-related discussion in Twitter posts mentioning a statin and analyze the content within these posts. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study included 11 852 posts related to 1 of 8 statins (7 licensed for use in the United States and 5 licensed in the United Kingdom) collected from May 10, 2013, to August 28, 2018. Twitter posts were identified as health related or not, and if health related, whether they were posted by a statin user, someone who knows a statin user, a health care professional, or undetermined. The health-related tweets were classified by the type of information posted, such as a belief about the medication, an adverse event, a question, or a reference to the cost of the medication. Data were analyzed from January 22 to November 19, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The number of posts by each user type identified and the categories identified by analyzing the content. Results: Of the 11 852 Twitter posts about statins, 5201 (43.9%) were health related. The most frequent posts provided resource information, such as a link to a journal article (1824 of 5201 [35.1%]). The second most frequent type of health-related posts included personal beliefs or attitudes toward statins (1097 of 5201 [21.1%]). Personal experiences of adverse events (353 of 5201 [6.8%]), discussions about dosage (320 of 5201 [6.2%]), and questions about statins (191 of 5201 [3.7%]) followed. Posts indicated polarized beliefs and attitudes to statins from saving lives to causing death. Some beliefs, such as the direct confirmation that the use of statins mitigates the effects of an unhealthy diet, have not been extensively highlighted as common practice in the literature. Conclusion and Relevance: This qualitative content analysis of Twitter posts about statins provides insights into beliefs about statins. Patient perspectives gathered from social media may help to inform research and improve public health messages and communication between health care professionals and patients.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Mídias Sociais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Medicina Preventiva , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526123

RESUMO

The diseases of skin and subcutaneous tissue, despite the constantly improving methods of their diagnosis and treatment, continue to widespread in the population of the Russian Federation. Consequently, it is relevant to develop evidence-based measures of improving dermatological medical care for the population. The purpose of study is to develop and substantiate proposals for improving specialized medical care of patients with chronic dermatitis in megalopolis. The questionnaire survey of 412 patients with chronic dermatitis, residing in Moscow, and 197 dermatovenerologists from Moscow state medical institutions was carried out. The measures of improving dermatological medical care were proposed. The study identified lacking of adequate provision of therapeutic and preventive medical care of patients with chronic dermatitis and their relatively low medical activity. The article substantiates proposals for improving of organization and provision of dermatological medical care, provided by medical and organizational activities for patients and doctors. To select the optimal strategy for patients with chronic dermatitis, the appropriate algorithm was developed that included four consecutive stages: initial examination of patient; patient records filling in with data of additional laboratory diagnosis; prescription of drug and non-drug therapy; conducting of preventive courses of drug therapy and prescription of SPA-treatment. The results of study inputted into identification of risks associated with provision of specialized medical care in area of Dermatovenerology and medical activity of patients including subsequent development of proposals for their elimination.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Medicina Preventiva , Dermatite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Moscou , Federação Russa
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