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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 159, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705943

RESUMO

Croton macrostachyus is an important plant in traditional African medicine, widely utilized to treat a variety of diseases. In Kenya, HIV-infected patients use leaf and root decoctions of the plant as a cure for cough, back pain, bleeding, skin diseases, warts, pneumonia, and wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HIV activities and cytotoxic effects of extracts and chemical constituents isolated from C. macrostachyus. In our previous study we demonstrated that the hexane, CH2Cl2, ethyl acetate and methanol soluble fractions of a 1:1 v/v/ CH2Cl2/MeOH crude extracts of the leaves and stem bark of C. macrostachyus exhibited potent anti-HIV activities against HIV-1 with IC50 values ranging from 0.02-8.1 µg/mL and cytotoxicity effects against MT-4 cells ranging from IC50 = 0.58-174 µg/mL. Hence, hexane soluble extract of 1:1 v/v/ CH2Cl2/MeOH crude extract of the leaves of C. macrostachyus, that was more potent against HIV-1 at IC50 = 0.02 µg/mL was subjected to column chromatography leading to the isolation of 2-methoxy benzyl benzoate (1), lupenone (2), lupeol acetate (3), betulin (4), lupeol (5), sitosterol (6) and stigmasterol (7). Lupenone (2), lupeol acetate (3) and betulin (4) exhibited anti-HIV-1 inhibition at IC50 = 4.7 nM, 4.3 and 4.5 µg/mL respectively. The results obtained from this study support the potential of C. macrostachyus, as a source of anti-HIV constituents.


Assuntos
Croton , Hexanos/análise , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267447, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613136

RESUMO

Ethnoveterinary study was conducted from March 2020 to December 2020 in Mojana Wodera district, centeral Ethiopia. The study was aimed to identify and document ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species and traditional medicinal knowledge of the traditional health practitioners. A total of 105 informants were selected purposely and volunteer sampling approaches, and from these total informants, 15 key informants were identified based on their knowledge difference. Semi-structured interviews, field observation, and discussion were employed to collect information. Descriptive statistical method was employed to analyze the collected data. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) values were calculated to determine the most common livestock ailment categories that occurred and identify potentially effective medicinal plant species in respective disease categories. T-test was applied to compare knowledge difference. The result showed that a higher average (p< 0.05) was recorded for key informants, illiterate and elder group; however, there is no significance difference (p = 0.53) between gender. A total of 33 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species, which belong to 23 families and 31 genera were identified. Family Asteraceae and family Solanaceae were the dominant. From this total number of plant species (12.12%) were endemic for Ethiopia. The finding showed that shrubs accounted for 39.39% followed by herbs (36.36%) and trees (15.15%). The medicinal plant parts that were most commonly utilized were leaf (55.36%) followed by root (23.21%) and seed (8.93%) respectively. Higher ICF was recorded for Blackleg (0.82) followed by general illness (0.8) and pasturalosis. In this study, Vernonia amygdalina was the most effective medicinal plants to treat blackleg.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Plantas Medicinais , Idoso , Etiópia , Etnobotânica/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Fitoterapia/veterinária
3.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35209008

RESUMO

A South African traditional formulation, PHELA®, is consumed by the traditional people for severe chest problems with coughing, diarrhea, oral ulcers etc. The present study focused on establishing the anti-infective properties of a safe and standardized poly-herbal formulation through a series of criteria and specifications.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
4.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 59(3): 263-273, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35225090

RESUMO

While intellectual disability is experienced worldwide, with much greater rates in contexts of poverty, relatively few studies on intellectual disability have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries. High levels of intellectual disability in South Africa exist alongside high levels of poverty, malnutrition and poor or inaccessible healthcare services. The lack of access to services partly explains why many turn to traditional healers. Within this context there is very limited research on the role that traditional healers play in relation to intellectual disability in South Africa. The current study investigated traditional healers' understanding and beliefs about intellectual disabilities and the treatment modalities that they use. An exploratory qualitative research design was used to examine the views and perspectives of traditional healers on intellectual disability. Fifteen traditional healers participated in the study. Key findings show that the naming of and the terminology used to describe and identify intellectual disability are very much similar to what has been observed in African cultures in general where intellectual disability is identified as an abnormality. Some traditional healers located the presentation of intellectual disability within the biomedical sphere while others gave supernatural explanations for how intellectual disability presents in children and for its causes. All traditional healers expressed a willingness to work with the Western formal healthcare system. Findings on traditional healers' views on future collaborations with the formal health system provide opportunities for these two forms of healthcare services to be synergised for the strengthening and improvement of services provided to children with intellectual disability and their families.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , África do Sul
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 288: 114977, 2022 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017037

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In African traditional medicine, there are several plant species that are used in combination with either other plant species or non-plant derived combinations such as sugar and honey, salt and vinegar, milk, fat etc. This review examines the role of these combinations and postulates the scientific and therapeutic validation of such combinations. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study reviewed the ethnopharmacological literature and documented the use of southern African plant combinations to find a scientific rationale for such combinations, and provide recommendations for future studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethnobotanical books and online databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed and Google Scholar were used to find ethnobotanical studies within the southern African context that focus on the combinations of plants with other plants or various additional ingredients. The scientific literature was examined to determine if evidence was available to substantiate such combinations. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-seven medicinal plant (plant-to-plant) combinations that are used in the southern African traditional healing system were recorded. These plant combinations were used against infections of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and skin as well other non-infectious diseases such as reproductive and psychiatric disorders. Respiratory infections were the most documented infections to be treated using plant combinations. The plant that was documented to be most commonly used in combination with other plants was Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. While plant-plant combinations have drawn a marked interest, comparatively, plant-adjuvant (e.g. milk, sugar, honey, salt, vinegar, fats) combinations have attracted less research interest. Milk was reported as the most used additional ingredient in combination with medicinal plants. The combination of animal urine and dung with medicinal plants has been reported as a treatment for treat prostate infections, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Other ingredients such as clay and flour were also documented, and these are often mixed with medicinal plants to treat fever, stomach ailments, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and skin conditions. Although combination therapy has been frequently reported in ethnobotanical records, over 90% of the combinations reviewed still need to be scientifically validated. CONCLUSION: Scientific reports on the antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacological effects of these combinations may offer an understanding of traditional combination therapy. In addition, investigation into the mechanisms of action of these combinations are also recommended to supplement the findings. Nonetheless, the use of plant combinations is still an untapped research area in southern Africa and there is a need to validate the use of those documented combinations to obtain a better understanding of combined traditional medicinal plant use.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , África Austral , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem
6.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 8, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of traditional medicinal plants in the management of diarrhea has long been practiced in Ethiopia. B. abyssinica fresen is one of the plants traditionally used to treat diarrhea whereas an in vivo study had not yet been conducted. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of crude extract and solvent fractions of the leaf of B. abyssinica in mice. METHODS: Cold maceration within 80% methanol was used to extract the leaf powder and extract of the leaf was fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform, and distilled water. The in vivo antidiarrheal activity of crude extracts and solvent fractions were tested in experimental models of castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and antimotility test. Five groups each with 6 mice were used under the three antidiarrheal models. Positive controls were treated with loperamide 3 mg/kg and atropine 5 mg/kg and 2% tween 80 was used in the treatment of negative controls. The extract and solvent fractions were administered at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg. Time of onset of diarrhea, number and weight of total and wet feces, the percent reduction in the number of wet feces, weight and volume of intestinal contents, and percent inhibition of intestinal motility were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. RESULT: Defecation of castor oil-induced diarrheal or loose stools was inhibited (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of crude extract and aqueous fraction. The crude extract and the aqueous fraction at three doses (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001), the chloroform fraction at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001), and the n-hexane fraction at 400 mg/kg (p < 0.05) reduced intraluminal fluid accumulation compared with the negative control. Castor oil-induced intestinal motility was significantly suppressed with the three-doses of aqueous fraction (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001), 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of crude extract (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01), 400 mg/kg of chloroform and n-hexane (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) compared with negative control. CONCLUSION: The crude extract, aqueous, and chloroform fractions of B. abyyssinica leaves have promising anti-diarrheal effects, supporting the plant's traditional use to treat diarrhea.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/uso terapêutico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Magnoliopsida , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Óleo de Rícino , Clorofórmio , Defecação/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Etiópia , Fezes , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Metanol , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Distribuição Aleatória , Solventes
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 285: 114868, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826541

RESUMO

ETHNOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: Smoke from the wood of Acacia seyal Delile has been used by Sudanese women for making a smoke bath locally called Dukhan. The ritual is performed to relieve rheumatic pain, smooth skin, heal wounds and achieve general body relaxation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of the smoke condensate using cyclooxygenase -1 (COX-1) and -2 (COX-2) as well as its potential genotoxic effects using the bacterial-based Ames test and the mammalian cells-based micronucleus/cytome and comet assays. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The smoke was prepared in a similar way to that commonly used traditionally by Sudanese women then condensed using a funnel. Cyclooxygenase assay was used to evaluate its in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The neutral red uptake assay was conducted to determine the range of concentrations in the mammalian cells-based assays. The Ames, cytome and comet assays were used to assess its potential adverse (long-term) effects. RESULTS: The smoke condensate did not inhibit the cyclooxygenases at the highest concentration tested. All smoke condensate concentrations tested in the Salmonella/microsome assay induced mutation in both TA98 and TA100 in a dose dependent manner. A significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds was observed in the cytome assay as well as in the % DNA damage in the comet assay. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated a dose dependent genotoxic potential of the smoke condensate in the bacterial and human C3A cells and may pose a health risk to women since the smoke bath is frequently practised. The study highlighted the need for further rigorous assessment of the risks associated with the smoke bath practice.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Fumaça , Madeira/química , Adulto , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Sudão
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 286: 114867, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822956

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In South Africa, medicinal plants have a history of traditional use, with many species used for treating wounds. The scientific basis of such uses remains largely unexplored. AIM OF THE STUDY: To screen South African plants used ethnomedicinally for wound healing based on their pro-angiogenic and wound healing activity, using transgenic zebrafish larvae and cell culture assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: South African medicinal plants used for wound healing were chosen according to literature. Dried plant material was extracted using six solvents of varying polarities. Pro-angiogenesis was assessed in vivo by observing morphological changes in sub-intestinal vessels after crude extract treatment of transgenic zebrafish larvae with vasculature-specific expression of a green fluorescent protein. Subsequently, the in vitro anti-inflammatory, fibroblast proliferation and collagen production effects of the plant extracts that were active in the zebrafish angiogenesis assay were investigated using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) and human fibroblast (MRHF) cell lines. RESULTS: Fourteen plants were extracted using six different solvents to yield 84 extracts and the non-toxic (n=72) were initially screened for pro-angiogenic activity in the zebrafish assay. Of these plant species, extracts of Lobostemon fruticosus, Scabiosa columbaria and Cotyledon orbiculata exhibited good activity in a concentration-dependent manner. All active extracts showed negligible in vitro toxicity using the MTT assay. Lobostemon fruticosus and Scabiosa columbaria extracts showed noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The acetone extract of Lobostemon fruticosus stimulated the most collagen production at 122% above control values using the MRHF cell line, while all four of the selected extracts significantly stimulated cellular proliferation in vitro in the MRHF cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The screening of the selected plant species provided valuable preliminary information validating the use of some of the plants in traditional medicine used for wound healing in South Africa. This study is the first to discover through an evidence-based pharmacology approach the wound healing properties of such plant species using the zebrafish as an in vivo model.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Larva , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , África do Sul , Peixe-Zebra
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 285: 114468, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390796

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neurodegenerative diseases are neuronal diseases that affect the brain components by degenerating the structure and function of the central or peripheral nervous system progressively. It is a leading cause of death and affects huge amount of people worldwide. Plant-based medicines have been utilised in the therapies for many illnesses that have defied western treatments, including neurodegenerative diseases. AIM OF THIS REVIEW: This review presents an overview of the major neurodegenerative diseases and reported prominent medicinal plants used in managing those diseases in West Africa. METHODS: Scientific articles regarding medicinal plants and their usefulness in managing neurodegenerative diseases in West Africa were pooled from different scientific databases. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses to filter articles based on their relevance. Pharmacological activity, plant parts used, experimental models, and some isolated chemical compounds of those plants were summarised. RESULTS: In the West Africa region, Fabaceae (19%) and Solanaceae (13%) have the highest representation of plant families used to treat neurological diseases, while Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae have also been utilised. Flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, coumarins present in those plants and their derivatives are reported to possess neuro-protective effects. Biochemical enzymes correlating to antioxidants, anti-inflammatory effects are the potential targets against neurodegenerative diseases. CONCLUSION: Medicinal plants for anti-neurodegenerative diseases in West Africa have been documented with their neuropharmacological activities. Plant families such as Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, and Euphorbiaceae could be a major natural source for discovery of anti-neurodegenerative drugs, thus the metabolites from them should be given priority for neurological research. This review will provide clues for further investigations on the screening and development of anti-neurodegenerative natural products from West African medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , África Ocidental , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114781, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715298

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Genus Fagaropsis belonging to the Rutaceae family, is widely distributed in Africa. The various parts of the species in this genus are used in traditional herbal medicine in different parts of the continent for the treatment of malaria, intestinal disorders, cancer, respiratory diseases, and other ailments. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study provides a comprehensive and updated review on the ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Fagaropsis species and highlights possible research gaps for further research opportunities, which will be important in the development of new therapeutic drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data was retrieved using ethnobotanical books, published articles, electronic sources, and scientific databases such as Google Scholar, Plants of the World, The Plant List, Scopus, Wiley, Web of Science, PubMed, Science direct, and Sci-Finder. Various key search words Fagaropsis, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry, and ethnobotanical uses were used in the detailed study survey. RESULTS: Fagaropsis species are used traditionally to treat a wide range of infections such as respiratory diseases, cancer, malaria, intestinal diseases, and ethnoveterinary. Phytochemical investigations indicated 18 phytoconstituents that have been isolated as the main compounds in this genus; triterpenoids (limonoids, norhopane, and norneohopane derivatives), alkaloids, and essential oils. Few in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities have been analyzed in this genus. They indicated that the extracts and pure compounds contained anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and insecticidal activities. The phytochemical compounds that may be responsible for these activities are flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids. CONCLUSION: The ethnobotanical values, phytochemistry, and pharmacology discussed in this review paper showed that Fagaropsis species contain different compounds possessing a wide range of biological activities, and they have high medicinal value that is significant in treating different types of diseases. Phytochemical analyses have been performed on two species (F. angolensis and F. glabra) in the literature. More scientific research analyses are still required to explore this genus. In addition, the majority of the currently available bioactivity-related analyses were applied to crude extracts. Thus, further research studies are important to reveal the links between ethnobotanical uses and bioactivity in the future.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Africana , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia , Rutaceae/química , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114763, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688800

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal plants are used to manage and treat epilepsy in Malawi because of traditional beliefs and barriers to conventional anti-seizure drugs. Among the plants prescribed by traditional medical practitioners are Margaritaria discoidea, Dalbergia boehmii, Dalbergia nitidula, Catunaregam spinosa, and Lannea discolor. Despite the wide use of these plants, there is a lack of scientific evidence to support their anti-seizure efficacy. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study used the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced larval zebrafish seizure model to screen for anti-seizure effects of a collection of medicinal plants traditionally used in Malawi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Zebrafish larvae were incubated in decoctions at maximum tolerated concentrations for 18 h and exposed to PTZ. As a primary screen, the effects of the decoctions on seizure-induced locomotor activity were determined. Decoctions that significantly reduced total distance traveled were further checked for effects on seizure latency and frequency, brain activity, immediate early gene expression, and c-fos protein expression. RESULTS: M. discoidea male leaves, D. boehmii roots, and D. nitidula leaves showed significant anti-seizure effects in the primary screen and were selected for further study. Electrophysiological and immediate early gene analyses corroborated anti-seizure effect of D. boehmii and D. nitidula. The results of c-fos protein expression further suggested that the anti-seizure effects in the larval brain may be mediated by the suppression of neurons localized in midbrain regions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide pioneering scientific evidence of the presence of anti-seizure activity in M. discoidea, D. boehmii, and D. nitidula, prescribed by traditional Malawian medical practitioners. Further studies are needed to identify and isolate compounds responsible for such biological activities and elucidate the possible mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Pentilenotetrazol/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Malaui , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais , Peixe-Zebra
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114768, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688802

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND AIM: Hura crepitans is commonly used to treat liver diseases in Nigeria and Ghana. Previous studies have supported its ethnomedicinal use in protecting the liver. The present study aimed at assessing the effect of H. crepitans stem bark on the subacute carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protective activities of ethanolic extract of H. crepitans stem bark was evaluated in CCl4-induced subacute liver damage in rats (1:1 v/v in olive oil, intraperitoneally (i.p.), twice weekly for 8 weeks). Blood samples were obtained from the rats and used for some biochemical analysis such as liver function test (Aspartate transaminase, AST; Alanine aminotransferase, ALT; and Alkaline phosphatase, ALP), liver fibrotic indices (Aspartate platelet ratio index, APRI; AST/ALT and AST/PLT ratios) and oxidative stress markers (Malondialdehyde, MDA; Reduced glutathione, GSH; Glutathione S-transferase, GST; Glutathione peroxidase, GPx; and superoxide dismutase, SOD). Histopathological analyses were carried out to determine the expression of pro-inflammatory (NF-κB, COX-2, IL-17 and IL-23) using immunohistochemical techniques. RESULTS: Oral administration of H. crepitans to CCl4-induced hepatic injured rats significantly decreased oxidative stress, increased the levels of SOD, GSH, GST and GPx with reduced MDA levels. The plant also mitigated liver injury as evidenced in the significantly reduced levels of AST, ALT and ALP, while it inhibited the inflammatory process via the inhibition of NF-κB, and consequently down-regulateed the pro-inflammatory cytokines COX-2, IL-17 and IL-23, respectively. Biochemical observations were supported by improvement in liver microarchitecture. CONCLUSION: The Hura crepitans demonstrated antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effect in hepatic injured rats. The study in a way justifies the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of subacute liver diseases in Nigerian Traditional medicine.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fitoterapia , Casca de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Animais , Intoxicação por Tetracloreto de Carbono , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Nigéria , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114704, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601082

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Spiny monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam.) is an African endemic fruit tree that is widely consumed by humans and animals for its nutritional value. In folk medicine, different parts of S. spinosa are widely used for the management of the health and well-being of humans and livestock. AIM: We provide a critical appraisal on the ethnobotanical uses, nutritional and pytochemical as well as the biological activities of S. spinosa. METHODS: Articles were mined from online databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciELO and SpringerLink. We captured research outputs that aligned with the scope of the review. RESULTS: Strychnos spinosa remains a commonly consumed fruit due to its high nutritional (e.g. carbohydrates, crude protein and fats) content and energy. In folk medicine, different parts of S. spinosa are prescribed as remedy for diverse medical conditions especially for treating malaria, diabetes, snakebites, skin-related conditions and sexually transmitted infections in humans as well as sleeping sickness in livestock. Together with essential oils, more than 25 compounds have been profiled using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and approximately 45 compounds have been isolated and structurally elucidated using diverse spectroscopic techniques such as UV-visible, Infrared (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). Strychnos spinosa exerts varying degrees of biological activities against different microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) and parasites (plasmodia, trypanosomes and ticks) responsible for many diseases in humans and livestock. Furthermore, low to moderate enzyme-inhibitory effects of S. spinosa extracts suggest its ability to mitigate pains, inflammations and diabetics as well as snakebite venom. Increasing evidence from the in vivo studies support the use of the plant as a popular remedy for managing diabetics in folk medicine. The low cytotoxic effect of the plant extracts against different cell lines could be an indication of its relative safety. CONCLUSION: Strychnos spinosa exhibits various health-promoting benefits due to its diverse nutritional and phytochemical constituents. Given that the majority of the existing evidence on these aforementioned therapeutic properties and safety are in vitro-based, the clinical significance of these results remain limited.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Strychnos/química , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Frutas , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114436, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289396

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Inflammation is a serious global concern due to its debilitating symptoms, resulting in considerable suffering and lost productivity. Chronic and auto-immune inflammatory diseases are of particular concern. Several pharmaceutical therapies are already available. However, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's) is accompanied by harmful and toxic side effects. Hence, the search for safer alternative therapeutics with limited side effects is imperative. The use of medicinal plants is common practice amongst the southern African population and may provide targets for drug development. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to review and document the medicinal uses and pharmacological properties of southern African medicinal plants used for inflammation and pain-related ailments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify southern African plants used traditionally to treat inflammation. A variety of ethnobotanical books and grey literature, as well as ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus search engines were used as sources of information. RESULTS: This review identified 555 medicinal plants from 118 families which were traditionally used in southern Africa to treat inflammation and pain. Fabaceae was the most prominent family with 63 species, followed by Asteraceae (54 species) and Apocynaceae (33 species). The top category of ailments indicated include non-specific inflammation with 150 species, followed by inflammatory pain (148 species), headache (114 species) and toothache (114 species). CONCLUSION: Despite a large number of southern African medicinal plants used to treat inflammation and pain, relatively few have been screened for their anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, biologically active plant extracts have been tested against relatively few inflammatory markers and considerable further work is required.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , África Austral , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114564, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438034

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional pharmacopoeias are constantly evolving and adapting, hence the assimilation of alien plants and weeds into traditional systems of healing. Invasive plants are detrimental to the ecosystem, however they are also potential sources of secondary metabolites with useful biological activities. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this review was to investigate published reports of traditional use and biological activity of declared invasive alien plants and other weeds in South Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information was retrieved from scientific databases including Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, PubMed, Chemical Abstracts Services and books, theses, dissertations and technical reports. Keywords used for the search engines were "South Africa" or "southern Africa" in conjunction with "(native weeds OR alien invasive)" AND "medicinal". Separate searches were conducted on the individual invasive plant species recorded as having been used in ethnobotanical surveys to determine their known biological activities and chemical components. RESULTS: A total of 89 plant species regarded as invasive species or weeds in South Africa were identified as being used in traditional medicine. The most commonly mentioned plant family was the Asteraceae with a total of 15 species followed by the Fabaceae and Solanaceae with 6 species each. Of the 89 species recorded, 68% were reported to have traditional usage with both phytochemical and biological data available. A history of traditional usage coupled with biological data was available for 12% of species. Records of traditional usage alone were linked to 11% of species. Invasive alien species comprised 61% of recorded species, while native and non-invasive alien weeds formed the remaining 39%. CONCLUSIONS: The exploration of alternative uses for weeds and particularly invasive plants, whether native or alien, as medicines for possible commercialisation may lead to innovative mechanisms for putting such species to good use.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Daninhas/química , África do Sul
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 285: 114869, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896209

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Benin, traditional recipes are used to improve livestock dairy performance, but they are not sufficient documented. The study aimed to inventory the galactogenic recipes used by herders to improve production in cow farming. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to inventory the galactogenic recipes used by herders to improve production in cow farming. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews among 65 peuls camps, 4 bioclimatic zones, and 565 farmers dialogue partners, including agro-pastoralist, healers and pastoralists from the rainy season April and May 2019. Detailed information about homemade herbal remedies of galactogenic recipes (plant species, plant part, manufacturing process) and the corresponding use reports (dialogue partner, category of use and route of administration) was collected. Then other to classify the various recipes identified into homogeneneous groups according to their effectiveness in stimulating milk, a numerical classification was carried out on the recipes taking into account the milk gain. RESULTS: They showed that Peuls and Gandos sociocultural groups have a better knowledge of galactogenic recipes. Of the 295 recipes inventoried, 102 frequently cited recipes were divided into two groups. Group 2, consisting of 16 recipes, had a significantly (p < 0.001) higher milk yield than group 1. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. and Arachis hypogaea L. were the main ingredients of the recipes (respectively 56 and 31% of incorporation rate). The composition of the recipes varied according to the agro-ecological zones. Herders in Northern Benin used more recipes based on Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Harms) J.H.Kirkbr. & Wiersema, Saba comorensis (Bojer ex A.DC.) Pichon and Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton. Those in Southern Benin mainly used recipes based on Gardenia aqualla associated with Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp or Arachis hypogaea L.. To improve the effectiveness of galactogenic recipes, socio-cultural and magical-religious practices are used when procuring the plant material to be used, preparing the galactogen and administering the recipe to the animals. These include pronounced incantations or recited Koranic verses. The most commonly used route of administration is the oral route with an average treatment duration not exceeding 5 days. CONCLUSION: The study reveals that the majority of breeders (90%) opt for the use of galactogenic plants rather than synthetic products to improve milk production.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Leite/fisiologia , Fitoterapia/veterinária , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Benin , Etnofarmacologia , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114673, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571077

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cancer is a multistep disease and its management is exceedingly expensive. Nowadays medicinal plants are gaining more attention in drug discovery and approximately 70% of anticancer drugs were developed from natural products or plants. A strong candidate from medicinal plant with anticancer potential should have four major properties: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and cytotoxic activities. AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to assess Togolese traditional healer's claims about the anticancer potential of medicinal plants and obtain candidate plants for anticancer drug discovery, some species were selected from surveys and evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic activities. METHODS: Four species, Cochlospermum planchonii (CP), Piliostigma thonningii (PT), Paullinia pinnata (PP), and Securidaca longipedunculata (SL) were selected and analyzed to detect the phytochemical components. The mentioned bioactivities were evaluated using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays. RESULTS: Relative to SL extract, CP and PT have shown significantly high polyphenols and flavonoids content. The DPPH, FRAP, and TAC of the extracts revealed that CP, PT, and PP have a potent antioxidant effect compared to SL. MDA analysis revealed the same antioxidant activity as CP, PT and PP showed a minor MDA level. The egg albumin denaturation assay showed that IC50 of CP and PP was significantly higher than control (P < 0.05). In contrast, the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) results showed a nonsignificant effect (P > 0.05). Notably, SL extract was nonsignificant to control in both Egg Albumin and BSA. Furthermore, angiogenesis assay showed that SL at 50 µg/ml and PP at 100 µg/ml effectively reduced the number of blood vessels than control and showed a potent anti-angiogenic effect (2.7-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively, P < 0.05). No cytotoxicity on PBMC was reported for CP, PP, and PT up to 1000 µg/ml, whereas SL at 1000 µg/ml exhibit benign cytotoxicity (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study provided in vitro evidence supporting further evaluation on cancer cell lines and tumors in vivo.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/prevenção & controle , Plantas Medicinais/química , Albuminas/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Soroalbumina Bovina , Togo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114596, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492319

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The African Continent harbours approximately 26 Croton species. Many Croton species are used in traditional medicine in southern Africa to treat a variety of ailments including malaria, tuberculosis, microbial infection and inflammation. Considering the high diversity of the genus Croton, the ethnopharmacological information available on southern African species is rather limited. Furthermore, the potential for novel anti-inflammatory drug scaffolds has not previously been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of four South African Croton species extracts (Croton gratissimus, Croton pseudopulchellus, Croton sylvaticus, and Croton steenkampianus) for anti-inflammatory activity targeting the TLR4 signalling pathway and to assess the potential risk for hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity using an in vitro cellomics approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Leaf extracts of C. gratissimus, C. pseudopulchellus, C. sylvaticus and C. steenkampianus were prepared using methanol and chloroform (1:1, v/v). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using LPS induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, while the hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity was evaluated using multi-parameter end point analysis in C3A and Vero cells, respectively. Mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial mass, oxidative stress, lysosomal content and lipid accumulation were used as markers to assess the risk for hepatotoxicity. RESULTS: All four species attenuated nitric oxide production with negligible cytotoxicity. However, C. gratissimus yielded the most favorable profile. Cell density was significantly reduced in both C3A and Vero cells with the C. gratissimus extract providing a suitable toxicity profile amenable to further high content analysis. While there was no meaningful effect on mitochondrial dynamics, a strong dose dependent increase in lipid content, paralleled by an expansion of the lysosomal compartment, identifies a potential risk for steatosis. Risk for genotoxicity was investigated using the micronucleus assay which revealed a dose dependent increase in micronuclei formation. Changes in nuclear morphology and cell ploidy further strengthens the associated risk for genotoxicity and suggests the extract from C. gratissimus may function as an aneugen. Collectively, the data demonstrates that although the selected species possess anti-inflammatory components, the risk for possible hepatotoxic and genotoxic side effects may negate their prospect towards further drug development.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Croton , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Chlorocebus aethiops , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta , Células RAW 264.7 , Medição de Risco/métodos , Células Vero
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1314, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional healing plays an important role in healthcare in Eswatini, and innovative collaborations with traditional healers may enable hard-to-reach men to access HIV and tuberculosis diagnostic services. This study explored attitudes towards integration of traditional healers into the provision of HIV self-testing kits and sputum collection containers. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in 2019-2020 in Shiselweni region, Eswatini. Eight male traditional healers were trained on HIV and tuberculosis care including distribution of HIV self-testing kits and sputum collection containers. Attitudes towards the intervention were elicited through in-depth interviews with the eight traditional healers, ten clients, five healthcare workers and seven focus group discussions with community members. Interviews and group discussions were conducted in SiSwati, audio-recorded, translated and transcribed into English. Data were coded inductively and analysed thematically. RESULTS: 81 HIV self-testing kits and 24 sputum collection containers were distributed by the healers to 99 clients, with 14% of participants reporting a reactive HIV self-test result. The distribution of sputum containers did not result in any tuberculosis diagnoses, as samples were refused at health centres. Traditional healers perceived themselves as important healthcare providers, and after training, were willing and able to distribute HIV self-test kits and sputum containers to clients. Many saw themselves as peers who could address barriers to health-seeking among Swazi men that reflected hegemonic masculinities and patriarchal attitudes. Traditional healers were considered to provide services that were private, flexible, efficient and non-judgemental, although some clients and community members expressed concerns over confidentiality breaches. Attitudes among health workers were mixed, with some calling for greater collaboration with traditional healers and others expressing doubts about their potential role in promoting HIV and tuberculosis services. Specifically, many health workers did not accept sputum samples collected outside health facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Offering HIV self-testing kits and sputum containers through traditional healers led to high HIV yields, but no TB diagnoses. The intervention was appreciated by healers' clients, due to the cultural literacy of traditional healers and practical considerations. Scaling-up this approach could bridge testing gaps if traditional healers are supported, but procedures for receiving sputum samples at health facilities need further strengthening.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Autoteste , Essuatíni , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Medicina Tradicional Africana
20.
Curr Drug Metab ; 22(14): 1103-1113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbal medicine represents a significant component of disease prevention and therapy in most African countries. Herb-drug interactions (HDI) can arise from the co-administration of herbal and orthodox medicines. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the potential for HDI of V. amygdalina, O. gratissimum, M. oleifera, A. indica, and P. nitida extracts using in vitro assays. Little is known about these medicinal plants' potential for drug interaction despite their extensive use in Nigeria for several disease conditions. METHOD: The medicinal plant crude extracts were evaluated for Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme induction using cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Enzyme activity was determined by quantifying probe substrate metabolism and metabolite formation using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The extracts were evaluated for the potential to inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity using human embryonic kidney membrane vesicles over-expressing human P-gp. The herbal extracts in vivo drug interaction potential was predicted based on the USFDA drug interaction guidance. RESULT: O. gratissimum and P. nitida methanol extracts induced CYP1A2 enzyme activity by greater than 3-fold. P. nitida methanol extracts showed over 2-fold induction of CYP1A2 mRNA expression. O. gratissimum methanol extract induced CYP2B6 mRNA expression over 2-fold. P. nitida and A. indica methanol extracts showed potent inhibition of P-gp activity (IC50: 3.8 and 5.4 µg/mL), respectively, while V. amygdalina and M. oleifera methanol extracts showed moderate P-gp inhibition (IC50: 12.1 and 37.2 µg/mL, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our studies suggested that the medicinal plants' extracts can modulate CYP enzymes and P-gp activity with the potential to cause herb-drug interaction in vivo.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Indutores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Indutores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/isolamento & purificação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Nigéria , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
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