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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255916, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364509

RESUMO

This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.


Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Florestas , Gastroenteropatias , Povos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250256, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355912

RESUMO

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados ​​no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Gleiquênias , Traqueófitas , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

RESUMO

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Plantas Medicinais , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Folhas de Planta , Etnobotânica , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1982): 20221011, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100029

RESUMO

The pet trade and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) consumption are major drivers of global biodiversity loss. Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) are among the most traded reptile species worldwide. In Hong Kong, pet and TCM markets sell tokay geckos while wild populations also persist. To clarify connections between trade sources and destinations, we compared genetics and stable isotopes of wild tokays in local and non-local populations to dried individuals from TCM markets across Hong Kong. We found that TCM tokays are likely not of local origin. Most wild tokays were related to individuals in South China, indicating a probable natural origin. However, two populations contained individuals more similar to distant populations, indicating pet trade origins. Our results highlight the complexity of wildlife trade impacts within trade hubs. Such trade dynamics complicate local legal regulation when endangered species are protected, but the same species might also be non-native and possibly damaging to the environment.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Lagartos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional
5.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(5): 477-483, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117574

RESUMO

Background: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common type of cancer in the world. In traditional Persian medicine (TPM), various types of temperament (Mizaj) are considered to diagnose, treat, and prevent a variety of illnesses. The present study aimed to evaluate the temperament of patients with NMSC in comparison with a control group. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 2018 at the Dermatology Clinic of Shahid Faghihi Hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Iran). A total of 110 patients, aged ≥20 years with confirmed NMSC (case group), and 181 individuals without NMSC (control group) were enrolled in the study. The temperament of the participants in both groups was evaluated using Mojahedi's Mizaj questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that the odds ratio of developing NMSC was 2.62 (95%CI: 1.42-4.83, P=0.002) times higher in individuals with dry temperament than other types of temperament. Moreover, the odds ratio of patients with a history of chronic skin ulcers and other types of cancer was 35.7 (95%CI: 11.9-107.15, P<0.001) and 5.22 (95%CI: 1.43-19.06, P=0.012) times higher, respectively, than the control group. Conclusion: Temperament is associated with NMSC, particularly the dry temperament type, and should be considered a risk factor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Temperamento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Brancos
6.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079856

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV) system dysfunction can result in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), a key cause of death around the world. For many people, the most common treatment choices are still based on various plants used in traditional and folk medicine. Interestingly, many of these plants demonstrate various biological activities and pro-health properties; as such, there has been growing scientific interest in their use as medicines, including treatments for CVDs. Due to their varied biological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential, the members of the Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae have long been used in traditional medicine. These properties are believed to derive from the chemical composition of the plants, which includes various flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenes. Although many of their pro-health properties have been well described, their effect on the cardiovascular system and CVDs remains unclear. The present work reviews the current literature about the effects of preparations of vegetables of the Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae families on the cardiovascular system and CVDs. Various species from the two families demonstrate antioxidant and antiplatelet activities in vitro and in vivo, which play key roles in the prophylaxis and treatment of CVDs. Additionally, some species have been evaluated for their anticoagulant activity. This review also describes the biological properties of these vegetables and discusses their anti-hyperlipidemic action, and their potential for obesity prevention and body weight control.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Sistema Cardiovascular , Cucurbitaceae , Asteraceae/química , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Verduras
7.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080156

RESUMO

For centuries, traditional medicine from plants (phytotherapy) was the only treatment for infectious and non-infectious diseases. Although it is still practiced in several countries with excellent therapeutic results, it is frequently underestimated because, unlike Western medicine, it is not based on an empirical scientific foundation. However, interest in the search for plant-based therapeutic resources has been stimulated by disciplines such as phytochemistry and the side effects of conventional pharmacological therapies. For example, Larrea tridentata is a perennial shrub used in traditional medicine in northern Mexico and the southern United States to treat infertility, rheumatism, arthritis, colds, diarrhea, skin problems, pain, inflammation and excess body weight. Scientific research has revealed its beneficial effects-antioxidant, antitumor, neuroprotective, regenerative, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anthelmintic, antiprotozoal and insecticidal-although reports indicate that some compounds in Larrea tridentata may be hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic. Therefore, the aim of this review was to highlight the updates regarding phytochemical compounds and the pharmacological properties of Larrea tridentata.


Assuntos
Larrea , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Larrea/química , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas
8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 5628601, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105486

RESUMO

Artemisia plants are traditional and ethnopharmacologically used to treat several diseases and in addition in food, spices, and beverages. The genus is widely distributed in all continents except the Antarctica, and traditional medicine has been used as antimalarial, antioxidant, anticancer, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral agents. This review is aimed at systematizing scientific data on the geographical distribution, chemical composition, and pharmacological and toxicological profiles of the Artemisia genus. Data from the literature on Artemisia plants were taken using electronic databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science. Selected papers for this updated study included data about phytochemicals, preclinical pharmacological experimental studies with molecular mechanisms included, clinical studies, and toxicological and safety data. In addition, ancient texts and books were consulted. The essential oils and phytochemicals of the Artemisia genus have reported important biological activities, among them the artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, with antimalarial activity. Artemisia absinthium L. is one of the most famous Artemisia spp. due to its use in the production of the absinthe drink which is restricted in most countries because of neurotoxicity. The analyzed studies confirmed that Artemisia plants have many traditional and pharmacological applications. However, scientific data are limited to clinical and toxicological research. Therefore, further research is needed on these aspects to understand the full therapeutic potential and molecular pharmacological mechanisms of this medicinal species.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Artemisia , Óleos Voláteis , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisia/química , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
9.
Curr Drug Discov Technol ; 19(5): e280422204213, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genus Dracocephalum belongs to the Lamiaceae family, representing 11 species in Iran, containing D. ghahremanii Jamzad, D. lindbergii Rech. F, D. oligadenium Bornm. & Gauba, D. kotschyi Boiss., D.multicaule, D.Aucheri, D.Subcapitatum, D.Thymifolium, D.Moldavica, D. polychaetum Borm, and D. surmandinum Rech.f. The current study aimed to investigate the morphological and phytochemical properties of Dracocephalum species in Iran and their pharmacological effects. METHODS: The search was restricted to scientific articles from PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, SpringerLink, and Scopus. The search was limited to scientific journals, books, and book chapters focusing on the medicinal properties of Dracocephalum in Iran for the era from 1993 to 2020. RESULTS: Findings show that Dracocephalum species were utilized to treat various disorders in traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies show that the main constituents isolated from the plant consist of lignans, phytosterol, flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids, Sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated and hydro carbonated monoterpenes. These main components are responsible for antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, anticancer, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and cardiovascular effects of the plant. CONCLUSION: This plant has a good potential for drug discovery and curing different diseases. Therefore, more research will be done on the Iranian species of Dracocephalum based on clinical and animal studies to develop an effective drug formulation.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Animais , Irã (Geográfico) , Lamiaceae/química , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
10.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956939

RESUMO

The genus Cetraria s. str. (Parmeliaceae family, Cetrarioid clade) consists of 15 species of mostly erect brown or greenish yellow fruticose or subfoliose thallus. These Cetraria species have a cosmopolitan distribution, being primarily located in the Northern Hemisphere, in North America and in the Eurasia area. Phytochemical analysis has demonstrated the presence of dibenzofuran derivatives (usnic acid), depsidones (fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids) and fatty acids (lichesterinic and protolichesterinic acids). The species of Cetraria, and more particularly Cetraria islandica, has been widely employed in folk medicine for the treatment of digestive and respiratory diseases as decoctions, tinctures, aqueous extract, and infusions. Moreover, Cetraria islandica has had an important nutritional and cosmetic value. These traditional uses have been validated in in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies. Additionally, new therapeutic activities are being investigated, such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic. Among all Cetraria species, the most investigated by far has been Cetraria islandica, followed by Cetraria pinastri and Cetraria aculeata. The aim of the current review is to update all the knowledge about the genus Cetraria covering aspects that include taxonomy and phylogeny, morphology and distribution, ecological and environmental interest, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological properties.


Assuntos
Botânica , Parmeliaceae , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Parmeliaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
11.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 54, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aboriginal peoples have occupied the island continent of Australia for millennia. Over 500 different clan groups or nations with distinctive cultures, beliefs, and languages have learnt to live sustainably and harmoniously with nature. They have developed an intimate and profound relationship with the environment, and their use of native plants in food and medicine is largely determined by the environment they lived in. Over 1511 plant species have been recorded as having been used medicinally in Australia. Most of these medicinal plants were recorded from the Aboriginal communities in Northern Territory, New South Wales, South Australia, and Western Australia. Not much has yet been reported on Aboriginal medicinal plants of Queensland. Therefore, the main aim of this review is to collect the literature on the medicinal plants used by Aboriginal peoples of Queensland and critically assess their ethnopharmacological uses. METHODS: The information used in this review was collected from archival material and uploaded into the Tropical Indigenous Ethnobotany Centre (TIEC) database. Archival material included botanist's journals/books and old hard copy books. Scientific names of the medicinal plant species were matched against the 'World Flora Online Plant List', and 'Australian Plant Census' for currently accepted species names to avoid repetition. An oral traditional medical knowledge obtained through interviewing traditional knowledge holders (entered in the TIEC database) has not been captured in this review to protect their knowledge. RESULTS: This review identified 135 species of Queensland Aboriginal medicinal plants, which belong to 103 genera from 53 families, with Myrtaceae being the highest represented plant family. While trees represented the biggest habit, leaves were the most commonly used plant parts. Of 62 different diseases treated by the medicinal plants, highest number of plants are used for treating skin sores and infections. Few plants identified through this review can be found in other tropical countries but many of these medicinal plants are native to Australia. Many of these medicinal plants are also used as bush food by Aboriginal peoples. CONCLUSION: Through extensive literature review, we found that 135 medicinal plants native to Queensland are used for treating 62 different diseases, especially skin infections. Since these medicinal plants are also used as bush food and are rarely studied using the Western scientific protocols, there is a huge potential for bioprospecting and bush food industry.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Austrália , Etnobotânica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Queensland
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 298: 115591, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963418

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bio-assay guided phytoextracts and derived phytoconstituents reported having multipotent biological activities and nearly 60-80% of the global population still using natural regimens as an alternative therapeutic source. This study focused on the ethnopharmacological and experimental evidence of natural remedies that are effective in treating oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic T-cell mediated autoimmune disease that is associated with oral cancer transmission. AIM OF THE REVIEW: A number of studies have shown that antioxidants and antiinflammatory phytoextracts and phyto-constituents are effective against OLP. In this systematic review, we summarize the details of experimentally assessed ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Indian Ayurveda or Ayurvedic Medicine, and Japanese Kampo Medicine (JKM) regimens (crude extracts, individual phytochemicals, and phyto-formulations) that reduce oral lesion, severity index and pain associated with OLP based on studies conducted in vivo, in vitro, and in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental, clinical and RCT investigation reports were gathered and presented according to PRISMA-2020 format. Briefly, the information was obtained from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Wiley journal library, Scopus, Google Scholar with ClinicalTrials.gov (a clinical trial registry database operated by the National Library of Medicine in the United States). Further, individual phytochemical structures were verified from PubChem and ChemSpider databases and visualized by ChemDraw 18.0 software. RESULTS: We summarized 11 crude phytoextracts, 7 individual phytochemicals, 9 crude formulations, 8 specific TCM and JKM herbal cocktails, and 6 RCTs/patents corroborated by multiple in vitro, in vivo and enzyme assay methods. Briefly, plants and their family name, used plant parts, reported phytochemicals and their chemical structure, treatment doses, and duration of each experiment were presented more concisely and scientifically. CONCLUSION: Documentation of evidence-based natural ethnomedicines or remedies could be useful for promoting them as potential, cost-effective and less toxic alternatives or as complementary to commonly prescribed steroids towards the control of OLP.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano Bucal , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Líquen Plano Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 298: 115642, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973633

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tubiechong comprises mainly Eupolyphaga and Steleophaga is widely distributed in China. It has been used in the traditional medicine systems in Asian countries specially in China,Japan and Singapore for thousand years. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this work is to review the scientific work about Tubiechong regarding their ethnomedicinal uses, bioactive chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant literature of Tubiechong was collected for its traditional uses, pharmacological activities, and bioactive compounds released from inception until May 2022. The online databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, SciFinder Scholar, Springer Link, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP database were used as electronic search engines for articles with the various specific keywords. Additionally, references from ancient texts and local information such as PhD and MSc theses, books, and Chinese journals were also included. RESULTS: The clinical researches have revealed that Tubiechong alone has been successfully used to treat bone disease, ache, sprain, herpes zoster, paronychia and so on. Tubichong's main clinical application is to form formulations with other herbs. The most widely used 34 kinds of Chinese patent medicine containing Tubiechong were included in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2020 Edition) for the treatment of traumatic injury, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, tumors or mass and nodule, cervical spondylopathy, osteoarthritis and psoriasis. Its other derived formulas have been used in the clinical treatment of various diseases, such as blood stasis, hepatic cirrhosis, cyclomastopathy, chronic active hepatitis, nephropathy, gynaecopathia, cancer diseases. To date, the bioactive substances reported are limited to protein and peptides, fatty acids, polysaccharides and alkaloids from Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. So far, the pharmacological activities of Tubiechong and its various extracts have been evaluated, including anticoagulant and antithrombotic, anticancer, bone repair, immunomodulation, analgesia, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antimicrobial and protective and repair functions for damage to the liver, heart, brain and skin. As an edible insect, its safety has also been confirmed by acute toxicity tests and 30-day feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Tubiechong is an important insect medicine with the effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years for the treatment of trauma and abdominal lumps, and has now been clinically extended to the treatment of a variety of diseases. Its multiple pharmacological activities indicate that it has great potential for development and application. However, its chemical constituents with pharmacological activity require further excavation and detailed study. In addition, the in-depth molecular pharmacological mechanisms deserve further explanation.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 219: 114975, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926329

RESUMO

Turnera ulmifolia L. is used in folk medicine and it is known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect on the organism in order to reduce complications in diabetic patients. Glycation process is directly related to oxidative stress, acting as an important endogenous source, inducing the production of free radicals, and thus increasing the production of reactive oxygen species. The encapsulation technology on natural compounds can minimize and even mitigate the risk of loss of biological activity in order to maintain their activities against oxidative stress and glycation. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiglycation and antioxidant activities of T. ulmifolia extract before and after encapsulation and cytotoxicity of the crude extract. This study presents important information about the biological activities, highlighting antioxidant and antiglycation potential and no cytotoxicity of Turnera ulmifolia crude extract, a species of genus Turnera that has been poorly studied. T. ulmifolia crude extract presented flavonoids as main active compounds. The results showed a promising activity in scavenging free and peroxyl radicals, chelating iron ions and inhibiting BSA glycation. In addition, this study showed the possible encapsulation of bioactive compounds using maltodextrin as wall material.


Assuntos
Turnera , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
18.
Salud Colect ; 18: e4051, 2022 05 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901015

RESUMO

This article analyzes two general lines of research on traditional medicine used by Mexican indigenous peoples since the 15th century up to the present day. The first - pioneered by anthropologists and physicians with anthropological training - addresses traditional medicine so as to promote biomedicine among indigenous groups, with the purpose of improving their health conditions. This line of research developed between the 1930s and 1960s, reemerged in the mid-1970s with the Alma Ata Conference, and has maintained momentum into the present day, seeking to expand coverage of the health sector in marginalized areas, but while subordinating traditional medicine to biomedical programs in all aspects. The second line of research has been fostered by anthropologists, in particular from the 1960s onward, and seeks to comprehend indigenous cultures through traditional medicine, with a particular focus on healers, who express the cosmovision, identity, sense of belonging, and cultural autonomy of indigenous peoples. However, these enquiries attempt to comprehend and validate the ways in which traditional medicine encapsulates cultural identity, and in some cases to justify political, economic, and above all ideological objectives. These perspectives do not take into consideration information regarding morbility, mortality, and life expectancy, despite the fact that indigenous peoples are the social group with the highest mortality rates and lowest life expectancy.


Este trabajo analiza dos líneas básicas de estudios que se centran en la medicina tradicional utilizada por los pueblos originarios mexicanos desde el siglo XV hasta la actualidad. La primera, impulsada por antropólogos y médicos con formación antropológica, aborda la medicina tradicional para impulsar la biomedicina en los pueblos indígenas, procurando mejorar sus condiciones de salud. Esta línea se desarrolló entre las décadas de 1930 y 1960, para reaparecer a mediados de 1970 a partir de la Conferencia de Alma Ata, y se mantuvo hasta la actualidad buscando expandir la cobertura de atención del sector salud en áreas marginadas, pero supeditando la medicina tradicional, en todos los aspectos, a los programas biomédicos. La segunda línea, ha sido impulsada por antropólogos, sobre todo desde la década de 1960, buscando comprender las culturas originarias a través de la medicina tradicional y de lxs curadorxs, que expresan la cosmovisión, identidad, pertenencia y autonomía cultural de los pueblos originarios. Pero esta búsqueda la realizan tratando de comprender y revalidar el papel de identificador cultural de la medicina tradicional y, en algunas orientaciones, justificar objetivos económico-políticos y, especialmente, ideológicos. Esto lo hacen excluyendo la información sobre morbilidad, mortalidad y esperanza de vida, pese a que los pueblos originarios constituyen el sector social con mayores tasas de mortalidad y menor esperanza de vida.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Medicina Tradicional , Humanos , México
19.
Phytother Res ; 36(9): 3505-3528, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858779

RESUMO

Phytolaccaceae is a plant family of the order Caryophyllales, which includes species used in traditional medicine to treat diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate Phytolaccaceae family plants with potential antimicrobial action, through a systematic review. The study was conducted following the criteria of PRISMA protocol. The search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and LILACS, in March 2021. The search strategy used free descriptors and terms, limiting articles to the English language, regardless of publication year. The risk of bias and the quality of publications were based on the CONSORT checklist, modified for in vitro studies and SYRCLE's RoB tool for in vivo study. Five independent judges performed quality assessments of publications and risk of bias analysis. Ninety-five publications were retrieved from the databases and, after screening and eligibility criteria, 22 articles remained, from 1998 to 2019. In the selected studies, the plants were obtained from eight countries. In vivo and in vitro studies of extracts from the Phytolaccaceae family plants, evaluating antibacterial (8 publications), antifungal (8), anti-Trypanosoma (2), anti-Leishmania (2), antiviral (1), and antiamoebic (1) activities, are included. The plant species identified belong to genera Petiveria, Phytolacca, Gallesia, Trichostigma, and Seguieria. The risk of bias in the 22 publications both in vitro and in vitro was suboptimal. The evidence obtained showed that the Phytolaccaceae family, a source of plants with antimicrobial action, can serve as a basis for the creation of new herbal medicines, expanding the possibility of treatment for infectious diseases and stimulating their preservation and biodiversity. However, more high-quality studies are needed to establish the clinical efficacy of the plant.


Assuntos
Phytolaccaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
20.
Phytochemistry ; 202: 113291, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787353

RESUMO

The Monimiaceae, Siparunaceae, and Atherospermataceae, formerly included in the broad ''old'' Monimiaceae family, have long been known for their uses in traditional medicine and have proven to be rich sources of chemically diverse specialized metabolites with numerous potent biological and therapeutical properties. The progress made recently has expanded their phytochemistry and pharmacology albeit to different extents. This review focuses on the non-volatile constituents isolated from the three plant families during the last two decades and their emerging therapeutic potential. Based on the data collected from multiple databases without statistical analysis, approximately 93 components, of which 35 undescribed compounds including γ-lactones, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and homogentisic acid derivatives, have been reported. Moreover, diverse biological activities of pure isolated compounds such as anticancer, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiviral, and antibacterial activities have been evidenced. Besides offering new important perspectives for different diseases' management, the chemical and biological diversities among the isolated compounds, open promising avenues of research and contribute to renewed interest in these families needing further studies. This review provides an updated overview of their potential as sources of leads for drug discovery, while also highlighting ongoing challenges and future research opportunities.


Assuntos
Monimiaceae , Antioxidantes , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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