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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3631-3641, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893552

RESUMO

Zha-xun is widely used in Tibetan medicine and is also an international traditional medicine. This study believes that the black organic matter constituting Zha-xun is mainly stored in the rocks. The exudation points of Zha-xun mostly distribute on the cliffs of high mountains, which makes it difficult to evaluate its resource distribution and storage area. This paper was aimed at the exudation environment of Tibetan medicine Zha-xun in Sichuan province and 6 ecological environmental factors of the Zha-xun were determined via the field investigation. Combining with these 6 factors as well as the GIS data of Sichuan province, ArcGIS software was used to extract ideal environmental factors which are suitable for exudation of Zha-xun, including geology types, geomorphological types, altitude, slope, vegetation types, and mean annual temperature. The spatial overlay analyses on the extracted environmental factors were carried out to predict the distribution area of Zha-xun in Sichuan province. Afterwards, field investigation was conducted to verify the prediction. The prediction showed that the exudation spots of Zha-xun in Sichuan province mainly located in 29 counties including 12 in Aba Prefecture, 15 in Ganzi Prefecture, and Muli County and Dechang County in Liangshan Prefecture. The deposit areas of Zha-xun were located in the Triassic, Devonian and Silurian strata and were basically distributed in 9 basins, including Dingqu River, Yalong River, Xianshui River, Dadu River, Suomo River, Minjiang River and Baishui River, characterized by a fragmented patch-like distribution along the mountain ranges, and the exudation spots of Zha-xun were mainly scattered among the rain-free cliffs' concavities of river valleys at a certain altitude. The prediction was consistent with the field investigation results, which suggested that it is possible and feasible to predict distribution of Zha-xun resources based on GIS-analysis. The study may provide a scientific basis for comprehensive investigations into Zha-xun's distribution and formation mechanism, thus promoting rational development and utilization of Zha-xun resources.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , China , Geologia , Medicina Tradicional , Temperatura
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): 240-: I-244, II, agosto 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118480

RESUMO

Introducción. Las poblaciones indígenas están atravesando profundos cambios en su estilo de vida que afectan la salud y la manera en que tratan sus enfermedades. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los itinerarios terapéuticos que las madres qom siguen cuando perciben que sus hijos están enfermos.Población y métodos. Se trabajó en la comunidad periurbana de Namqom, en la provincia de Formosa, con un grupo de madres con niños pequeños, quienes fueron entrevistadas en sus hogares hasta lograr saturación. El estudio siguió un diseño exploratorio cualitativo, basado en un modelo conceptual de creencias de salud.Resultados. Los itinerarios terapéuticos elegidos por 16 madres qom incluyeron el uso de remedios caseros, la sanación bíblica/religiosa, la sanación por curanderos y la visita al centro de salud provincial. El itinerario para seguir, por lo general, depende de la caracterización que hace la madre de los síntomas como naturales (con origen biológico) o no naturales (relacionados con brujería). Los diferentes métodos no son necesariamente incompatibles y, muchas veces, se usan como complementarios. Tanto la confianza en la efectividad como el temor a las consecuencias juegan un papel importante en la selección del tratamiento. Estos resultados son de extrema utilidad para mejorar el diálogo entre la comunidad y el centro de salud. Resulta prioritario promover una mejor coordinación entre diferentes agentes de salud en comunidades indígenas en transición.Conclusiones. Los resultados de este estudio permitieron describir los itinerarios terapéuticos elegidos y, consecuentemente, se puso en evidencia la marcada presencia del pluralismo médico en esta comunidad


Introduction. Indigenous peoples are undergoing profound lifestyle changes that affect their health and the way they manage their diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic itineraries followed by Qom mothers whenever they perceive their children are sick.Population and methods. The study was done in the Namqom peri-urban community, in the province of Formosa, with a group of mothers with young children interviewed at their houses until achieving saturation. The study followed an exploratory, qualitative design based on a conceptual health belief model.Results. The therapeutic itineraries selected by 16 Qom mothers included using home remedies, biblical/faith healing, healers, and visiting the provincial health center. In general, the itinerary depends on how the mother characterizes disease symptoms: natural (biological cause) or unnatural (sorcery-related). The different methods are not necessarily incompatible and, many times, are used as complementary. Both reliability on effectiveness and fear of consequences play an important role on treatment selection. These results are extremely helpful to improve the dialog between the community and the health center. It is necessary to promote an improved coordination among the different health care agents working in transitioning indigenous communities.Conclusions. The results of this study described selected therapeutic itineraries and, as a consequence, evidenced the strong presence of pluralistic medical systems in this community


Assuntos
Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Terapêutica , Cura pela Fé , Medicina Tradicional , Mães
3.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 182-187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820730

RESUMO

Background: Snakebite and envenomation remains a public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010 developed guidelines for the prevention and management of snakebite in Africa. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of first aid treatment among children presenting with snakebite/envenomation with the 2010 WHO guideline for the prevention and clinical management of snakebite in Africa. Patients and Methods: All children who presented with snakebite over a 7-year period in a teaching hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. The first aid treatment given to these children was obtained and was compared with the provisions of the WHO guideline for the prevention and clinical management of snakebite in Africa (2010). Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: Five (71.4%) of the snakebites occurred in the rainy season and in the dark involving the lower limbs in 85.7% of cases. Six (87.5%) of the patients received one form of first aid before presentation to a health facility. None received first aid interventions in line with the WHO recommendation. Topical application of herbal concoctions to the site of the bite (37.5%) was the most common intervention. One (14.3%) of the children was promptly brought to the health facility following snakebite. The interval from bite to presentation to the health facility ranged from 1 to 12 h (median 5 h: 43 min). Conclusion: Huge gaps still exist in the first aid treatment given to snakebite victims compared to the WHO guidelines.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros/métodos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Organização Mundial da Saúde
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810139

RESUMO

The recent focus is on the analysis of biological activities of extracts from thirteen folk medicinal plants from arid and semi-arid zones of Balochistan, Pakistan. Only a small proportion of them have been scientifically analyzed. Therefore the present investigation explores the biochemical and bioactive potential of different plant parts. Superoxide dismutase was detected maximum in Fagonia indica, (184.7±5.17 units/g), ascorbate peroxidase in Tribulus pentandrus (947.5±12.5 units/g), catalase and peroxidase were higher in Peganum harmala (555.0±5.0 and 2597.8±0.4 units/g, respectively). Maximum esterase and α-amylase activity was found in Zygophyllum fabago (14.3±0.44 and 140±18.8 mg/g, respectively). Flavonoid content was high in T. pentandrus (666.1±49 µg/ml). The highest total phenolic content and tannin was revealed in F. olivieri (72125±425 and 37050±1900 µM/g, respectively). The highest value of ascorbic acid was depicted in F. bruguieri (F.b.N) (448±1.5 µg/g). Total soluble proteins and reducing sugars were detected higher in P. harmala (372.3±54 and 5.9±0.1 mg/g, respectively). The maximum total antioxidant capacity was depicted in Tetraena simplex (16.9±0.01 µM/g). The highest value of lycopene and total carotenoids exhibited in T. terrestris (7.44±0.2 and 35.5±0.0 mg/g, respectively). Chlorophyll contents were found maximum in T. pentandrus var. pterophorus (549.1±9.9, 154.3±10, and 703.4±20.2 ug/g, respectively). All taxa exhibited anti-inflammatory activity and anti-diabetic potential. Z. eurypterum seeds exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory potential (96%), along with other taxa indicated (96-76%) activity when compared with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (79%). Seeds of T. pentandrus (85%) exhibited the highest anti-diabetic activity. The other taxa also exhibited inhibitory activity of α-amylase ranging from (85-69%) compared with Metformin (67%) standard drug. Phytochemical screening revealed that selected taxa proved to be the potential source of natural antioxidants and could further be explored for in-vivo studies and utilized in pharmaceutical industries as potent therapeutic agents validating their ethno-pharmacological uses.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Paquistão , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas Medicinais/química
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20181113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785429

RESUMO

Research on the past use of animals in medicine, particularly in Brazil, is still scarce. This work aimed to perform a dialogical analysis of information retrieved from historical documents composed in the nineteenth century about the therapeutic use of animal species in Benedictine monasteries in Brazil and their contemporary medicinal applications. Cross-referencing of seven written codices from the nineteenth century Benedictine monasteries infirmaries was performed for taxonomic identification and with therapeutic indications. Animal species provided 13 zootherapeutic resources, which were related to 17 therapeutic indications. Insects, birds and mammals concentrated the greatest number of pharmaceutical actions (37%, 32% and 16% of the therapeutic indications). Medicinal animals used in the past are species commonly applied in the European medicine over centuries. This reveals that the practiced medicine in Benedictine monasteries was influenced by medical concepts from Europe. Also, it shows that still today this European medicine is the basis of therapeutic practice. Such research is essential for a better scientific understanding of the history of medicine, focusing on how different cultures have contributed to the actual therapeutic practice. In this way it is possible to trace a history zootherapy in Brazil, demonstrating the persistence of their use over the time.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Animais , Brasil , Mamíferos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237531, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the documented continued use of traditional healing methods, modalities and its associated practitioners by Indigenous groups across North America, it is presumed that widespread knowledge is elusive amongst most Western trained health professionals and systems. This despite that the approximately 7.5 million Indigenous peoples who currently reside in Canada and the United States (US) are most often served by Western systems of medicine. A state of the literature is currently needed in this area to provide an accessible resource tool for medical practitioners, scholars, and communities to better understand Indigenous traditional medicine in the context of current clinical care delivery and future policy making. METHODS: A systematic search of multiple databases was performed utilizing an established scoping review framework. A consequent title and abstract review of articles published on traditional Indigenous medicine in the North American context was completed. FINDINGS: Of the 4,277 published studies identified, 249 met the inclusion criteria divided into the following five categorical themes: General traditional medicine, integration of traditional and Western medicine systems, ceremonial practice for healing, usage of traditional medicine, and traditional healer perspectives. CONCLUSIONS: This scoping review was an attempt to catalogue the wide array of published research in the peer-reviewed and online grey literature on traditional Indigenous medicine in North America in order to provide an accessible database for medical practitioners, scholars, and communities to better inform practice, policymaking, and research in Indigenous communities.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , América do Norte
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 548, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720051

RESUMO

This paper aims to determine the potential for using medicinal aromatic plants, which have been considered living heritage since prehistoric times, in urban landscapes. The area of study covers Malatya City and its counties, which are found in Eastern Anatolia, a region of importance in terms of the endemic species in Turkey. Malatya is specifically selected as the study area, as the city's geomorphological, hydrological and climatic characteristics favour a high floral diversity. The methods used in this paper consist of five stages: floristic field works conducted in Battalgazi county (Malatya) in the scope of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Project No. 217O290, the identification of the plants by a taxonomist, the determination of the medicinal and aromatic species in other counties of Malatya based on literature review, the establishment of criteria for the application potential of the identified species in landscape designs and the assessment of the use of the identified species in landscape architecture according to the parameters set in the criteria. Aromatic medicinal species were analysed to generate planting designs in landscape projects; the aesthetic properties (flower, leaf and fruit characteristics), sensory properties (scent and texture), seasonal change characteristics (flowering period and colour change) and use areas (flower parterres, solitary plantings, live fences and site coverings) of the plants were analysed. As a result of ethnobotanical and floristic studies carried out within the boundaries of the study area, a total of 189 medical aromatic species were identified. A total of 157 of these species were herbaceous plants. In conclusion, it was determined that 80 aromatic medicinal species conform to the planting design criteria and could be used in landscape designs in Malatya City.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Medicinais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Etnobotânica , Turquia
8.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(8): 1049-1061, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602832

RESUMO

Introduction. Metal exposure is an important factor for inducing antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Dandelion extracts have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese and Native American medicine.Aim. We assessed the effects of dandelion water extracts and taraxasterol on heavy metal-induced antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli as well as the underlying mechanisms.Methodology. Dandelion extracts were obtained through 4 h of boiling in distilled water. Bacterial growth was monitored with a spectrophotometer. Biochemical assays were performed to assess the activities and gene transcriptions of ß-lactamase and acetyltransferase. Oxidative stress was determined using an oxidation-sensitive probe, H2DCFDA.Results. The present study demonstrated that higher concentrations of nickel (>5 µg ml-1), cadmium (>0.1 µg ml-1), arsenic (>0.1 µg ml-1) and copper (>5 µg ml-1) significantly inhibited the growth of E. coli. Lower concentrations of nickel (0.5 µg ml-1), cadmium (0.05 µg ml-1) and arsenic (0.05 µg ml-1) had no effect on bacterial growth, but helped the bacteria become resistant to two antibiotics, kanamycin and ampicillin. The addition of dandelion root extracts and taraxasterol significantly reversed the antibiotic resistance induced by these heavy metals. The supplements of antibiotics and cadmium generated synergistic effects on the activities of ß-lactamase and acetyltransferase (two antibiotic resistance-related proteins), which were significantly blocked by either dandelion root extract or taraxasterol. In contrast, oxidative stress was not involved in the preventative roles of dandelion root extracts and taraxasterol in heavy metal-induced antibiotic resistance.Conclusion. This study suggests that heavy metals induce bacterial antibiotic resistance and dandelion root extracts and taraxasterol could be used to help reverse bacterial resistance to antibiotics.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esteróis/farmacologia , Taraxacum/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Resistência a Ampicilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cobre/efeitos adversos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Resistência a Canamicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Raízes de Plantas/química
9.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(8): 1040-1048, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692643

RESUMO

Given the increased reporting of multi-resistant bacteria and the shortage of newly approved medicines, researchers have been looking towards extreme and unusual environments as a new source of antibiotics. Streptomyces currently provides many of the world's clinical antibiotics, so it comes as no surprise that these bacteria have recently been isolated from traditional medicine. Given the wide array of traditional medicines, it is hoped that these discoveries can provide the much sought after core structure diversity that will be required of a new generation of antibiotics. This review discusses the contribution of Streptomyces to antibiotics and the potential of newly discovered species in traditional medicine. We also explore how knowledge of traditional medicines can aid current initiatives in sourcing new and chemically diverse antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Microbiologia do Solo , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Cavernas/química , Invertebrados/química , Medicina Tradicional , Peptídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Poríferos/química , Streptomyces/química , Streptomyces/enzimologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21074, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is challenging; however, proper evaluation and treatment ensure relief from symptoms in most patients. A comprehensive approach to treatment is important, considering the multifactorial etiology of TOS. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the methods for evaluating the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture-based traditional medicine treatments for TOS. METHODS: A total of 13 databases will be searched, from their inception to the present date, for studies that have investigated the treatment of TOS. Databases that will be included are MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and 4 Korean, 2 Chinese, and 2 Japanese databases.We will include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing acupuncture-based traditional medicine for the treatment of any type of TOS. All RCTs on traditional medicine with any form of acupuncture will be eligible for inclusion. The methodologic quality of the RCTs will be analyzed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool to assess the risk of bias, and the confidence in the cumulative evidence will be assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation instrument. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The results of this systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print. The review will be updated to inform and guide health care practices. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020164869.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Síndrome do Desfiladeiro Torácico/terapia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Medicina Tradicional/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Síndrome do Desfiladeiro Torácico/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 15-26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638597

RESUMO

The heritage of Slovenian house names and surnames reflects, among others, the former medicine and pharmaceutical occupations, midwifery, and folk medicine practices, and besides that, also health status and illnesses of people. Surnames, which are especially strongly intertwined with family, local and social history, are closely related to folk medicine and magic. Unlike house names (vulgo), which are the usual nicknames for physical and mental characteristics and abilities, surnames denote medical occupations and medicinal folk practice as such. According to the most recent data (as of January 1, 2020) of The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, at least 40 surnames reminiscent former medical or pharmaceutical professions. These newly discovered digital data in open access are precious for the history of medicine because they allow comparing surnames geographically, by frequency, and through the time.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , História da Farmácia , Nomes , Médicos/história , Animais , Educação Médica/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/história , Eslovênia
12.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 89-104, 2020 06.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638601

RESUMO

The paper presents a folk recipe collection manuscript written by an unknown author in Poljica area, in the 18th century. It is owned by the philologist, historian of literature and bibliophile, Josip Bratulic. Therefore, the author suggests that this recipe collection should bear the name Great folk medicine book from Poljica (Bratulic's folk medicine book). The manuscript is written in Latin script and Croatian language. It consists of 288 pages written in black ink and contains more than 1,100 recipes making it one of the largest known manuscripts. Although well preserved, a small part of it is unreadable. Most recommended recipes are for treating humans and domestic animals, while several recipes contain household tips. The abundance of its content, expressions, and healing instructions add this recipe collection to other similar manuscripts of this region, which create precious part of the Croatian medical, pharmaceutical, and cultural heritage.


Assuntos
Manuscritos Médicos como Assunto/história , Medicina Tradicional/história , Farmacopeias como Assunto/história , Croácia , História do Século XVIII
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(12): 2800-2807, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627453

RESUMO

Moringa has a long history of edible and medicinal use in foreign countries, this paper collected and sorted out the traditional application of Moringa recorded in the ancient medical books and historical materials of countries and regions along the ancient Silk Road. According to preliminary research, the earliest record of Moringa in China can be traced back to The Bower Manuscript(volume Ⅱ)(about the 4 th-6 th century A.D.) unearthed in Kuqa, Xinjiang. Around the 8 th century, with the communication between countries along the ancient Silk Road becoming prosperous, more and more medical books containing Moringa and its prescriptions were introduced to Tibet, Xinjiang and other places in today's China. The leaves, root bark, seeds and stem bark of Moringa all can be used for medicinal purposes and are recorded in The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India(API). Among them, Moringa leaves have been approved as a new resource food in China. According to the API, it is of cold property and sweet taste, its post-digestive effect is sweet and has the functions of removing wind, bile and fat, relieving pain, killing abdominal worms, moistening skin, brightening eyes and clearing brain. It can be used to treat edema, parasitic diseases, spleen diseases, abscess, tumor, pharyngeal swelling and other diseases. This study explored and organized the historical evidence of communication through the Silk Road and traditional application records of Moringa, in order to provide the evidence of traditional medicine basis, medicine property and efficacy application reference for the realization of the introduction of Moringa as a new resource of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Moringa , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional , Tibet
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2265-2274, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398790

RESUMO

In December 2019, an outbreak of viral pneumonia began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, which caused the spread of infectious pneumonia to a certain extent in China and neighboring countries and regions, and triggered the epidemic crisis. The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease listed as a B infectious disease, which is managed according to standards for A infectious disease. Traditional Chinese medicine and integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine have played an active role in the prevention and control of this epidemic. China's ethnomedicine has recognized infectious diseases since ancient times, and formed a medical system including theory, therapies, formula and herbal medicines for such diseases. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Chuxiong Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, Qiandongnan Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou have issued the prevention and control programs for COVID-19 using Tibetan, Mongolian, Uygur, Yi and Miao medicines. These programs reflect the wisdom of ethnomedicine in preventing and treating diseases, which have successfully extracted prescriptions and preventive measures for the outbreak of the epidemic from their own medical theories and traditional experiences. In this paper, we summarized and explained the prescriptions and medicinal materials of ethnomedicine in these programs, and the origin of Tibetan medicine prescriptions and Mongolian medicine prescriptions in ancient books were studied. These become the common characteristics of medical prevention and treatment programs for ethnomedicine to formulate therapeutic programs under the guidance of traditional medicine theories, recommend prescriptions and prevention and treatment methods with characteristics of ethnomedicine, and focus on the conve-nience and standardization. However, strengthening the support of science and technology and the popularization to the public, and improving the participation of ethnomedicine in national public health services and the capacity-building to deal with sudden and critical diseases are key contents in the development of ethnomedicine in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Pandemias , Tibet
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008334, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Snakebite envenoming causes 81,000-138,000 annual human deaths and pain, terror, or disability in 4.5-5.4 million victims. Accurate community-based epidemiological data is scarce. Our objective was to assess snakebite incidence, mortality, and health-seeking behavior, in an affected health district of Cameroon. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional multicluster household survey in Akonolinga health district, Centre Region, Cameroon, from October to December 2016. Using probability-proportional-to-size, 20 villages were randomly selected, then, all inhabited households were systematically selected. Annual incidence and adjusted odds-ratio for predictors were estimated. FINDINGS: Among the 9,924 participants, 66 suffered a snakebite during the past year: the resulting incidence is 665 (95%CI: 519-841) per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Victims were aged 5-75y (median: 34y), 53% were male and 57% farmer-cultivators. Two children died (case-fatality rate: 3%); 39 (59%) presented severity signs, including 2 (3%) neurotoxic syndromes, 20 (30%) systemic digestive syndromes, and 17 (26%) severe cytotoxic syndromes. Non-severe cases included 20 (30%) mild cytotoxic syndromes and 7 (11%) dry bites. Only two victims (3%) received antivenom. 59 (89%) used family traditional practices, 25 (38%) traditional healers, and 31 (47%) consulted health facilities. Median delays to these three care-options were 5, 45, and 60 minutes, respectively. Traditional treatments included incisions (n = 57; 86%), tourniquets (n = 51; 77%) and black-stones (n = 44; 67%). The two last procedures were also used in health facilities (n = 18). Consulting traditional healers was associated with severity (adjusted-OR: 19.6 (2.5-156), p = 0.005) and complications (aOR: 17.3, 2.4-123, p = 0.004). Long-term disabilities were subjective psychological trauma (n = 47; 71%), finger amputation (n = 1; 2%), ankylosis (n = 1; 2%) and chronic pain (n = 1; 2%). CONCLUSIONS: We observed alarming levels of snakebite incidence, mortality, antivenom scarcity, and use of traditional medicine. It could represent several thousands of victims at national level. We suggested conducting a country-wide study, and improving antivenom supply, first-aid training, for traditional healers and health professionals.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivenenos/administração & dosagem , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Mordeduras de Serpentes/prevenção & controle , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Toxicon ; 184: 99-108, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522619

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the region of Western Pará, Amazonia, Brazil, Philodendron megalophyllum is widely used for the treatment of envenomations caused by bites from venomous snakes. The traditional use of plants is usually done through oral administration of an infusion (decoction) soon after the bite occurs. The efficiency of aqueous extracts of P. megalophyllum was demonstrated for blocking the activity of the venom of Bothrops sp., but only for a pre-incubation protocol (venom:extract), which fails to simulate the real form of use of this species. In this context, the objective of this research was to evaluate the anti-snakebite potential of the aqueous extract of P. megalophyllum to inhibit for the biological activity induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV) using traditional treatment methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Initially, an aqueous extract using the stem of P. megalophyllum (AEPm) was prepared following the standard procedure used by the residents of the rural area along the Tapajós River (Eixo Forte region) in Santarém, PA, Brazil. The phytochemical profile of AEPm was conducted using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and phenolic compounds were quantified through colorimetric trials. The cytotoxicity of AEPm was evaluated using the MRC-5 human fibroblast line, and the antioxidant potential was measured using DPPH methods and cell culture. AEPm antimicrobial action was evaluated by the 96-well plate microdilution and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods using 18 types of microorganisms including bacteria that are present in the oral cavity of snakes. AEPm blocking potential was tested against BaV activity in vitro (fibrinolytic) and in vivo (defibrinating and hemorrhagic). In order to test for an interaction between BaV and AEPm SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was conducted. RESULTS: The presence of coumarins, fatty acids, and hydrolysable tannins were detected in the AEPm. The colorimetric trials showed that AEPm had a high concentration of condensed tannins (20.1 ± 1.2%). The potential of AEPm for blocking of hemorrhagic and fibrinolytic activity of BaV showed a maximum reduction of 86.1% and 96.5%, respectively, for the pre-incubation protocol (1:10, venom:extract). However, when the extract was administered orally there was no significant blocking of these activities. The interaction of BaV and AEPm showed a modification of the profile of proteic bands when compared to the pattern of bands obtained from the BaV alone. The AEPm was not considered toxic, demonstrated antioxidant activity, and was capable of reducing the growth of 10 of the 18 studied microorganisms. CONCLUSION: Although the stem of P. megalophyllum is indicated by traditional medicine techniques as effective against snakebites, the extract, when tested orally was not able to significantly inhibit (p ˃ 0.05) hemorrhage and defibrinating activity induced by the B. atrox venom. On the other hand, the extract yielded a promising result with respect to antioxidant and antimicrobial potential, and after further studies it could be used as a complementary treatment for localized action and secondary infections that frequently occur with snakebites from the genus of Bothrops sp.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Venenos de Crotalídeos , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Philodendron , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2265-2274, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495579

RESUMO

In December 2019, an outbreak of viral pneumonia began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, which caused the spread of infectious pneumonia to a certain extent in China and neighboring countries and regions, and triggered the epidemic crisis. The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease listed as a B infectious disease, which is managed according to standards for A infectious disease. Traditional Chinese medicine and integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine have played an active role in the prevention and control of this epidemic. China's ethnomedicine has recognized infectious diseases since ancient times, and formed a medical system including theory, therapies, formula and herbal medicines for such diseases. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Chuxiong Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, Qiandongnan Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou have issued the prevention and control programs for COVID-19 using Tibetan, Mongolian, Uygur, Yi and Miao medicines. These programs reflect the wisdom of ethnomedicine in preventing and treating diseases, which have successfully extracted prescriptions and preventive measures for the outbreak of the epidemic from their own medical theories and traditional experiences. In this paper, we summarized and explained the prescriptions and medicinal materials of ethnomedicine in these programs, and the origin of Tibetan medicine prescriptions and Mongolian medicine prescriptions in ancient books were studied. These become the common characteristics of medical prevention and treatment programs for ethnomedicine to formulate therapeutic programs under the guidance of traditional medicine theories, recommend prescriptions and prevention and treatment methods with characteristics of ethnomedicine, and focus on the conve-nience and standardization. However, strengthening the support of science and technology and the popularization to the public, and improving the participation of ethnomedicine in national public health services and the capacity-building to deal with sudden and critical diseases are key contents in the development of ethnomedicine in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Pandemias , Tibet
19.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526114

RESUMO

The article devoted to consideration of ethnic feature of primary choice of subjects of health preservation by residents of the Republic of Khakassia. It is established that at equal consumption of medical care in out-patient and polyclinic organizations, among the ethnic population of there is higher demand of services of traditional healers, especially representatives of shaman practices. The primary effecting on decision making in choosing health care institutions is provided by folk customs and family traditions received from senior relatives that is especially expressed among the Khakass ethnos.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Medicina Tradicional , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
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