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1.
Edumecentro ; 13(3): 426-430, jul.-sept. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-1283607

RESUMO

Las enfermedades respiratorias infecciosas afectan con frecuencia a los pacientes que acuden a consultas; constituyen una de las más incapacitantes e incluso, si no se atienden adecuadamente generan una evolución tórpida y pueden comprometer la vida del paciente. En su tratamiento se emplean medicamentos alopáticos, así como modalidades terapéuticas de medicina natural y tradicional. Teniendo en cuenta el desarrollo de la homeopatía en Cuba en los últimos años, se propone como objetivo enfatizar en la importancia de la superación por parte de los profesionales de la salud en el uso de esta modalidad terapéutica, a fin de utilizarla en los diferentes niveles de atención por su pertinencia en tiempos de pandemia.


Infectious respiratory diseases frequently affect patients who attend consultations; they constitute one of the most incapacitating and even, if they are not taken care properly they generate a torpid evolution and can jeopardize the life of the patient. In its treatment allopathic medications are used, as well as therapeutic modalities of herbal and folk medicine. Taking into account the development of homeopathy in Cuba in recent years, it is proposed as an objective to emphasize the importance of improvement by health professionals in the use of this therapeutic modality, in order to use it at different levels of care for its relevance in times of pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Homeopatia , Doenças Respiratórias , Cuba , Medicina Tradicional
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246803, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495160

RESUMO

Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(9): 943-50, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491640

RESUMO

Although acupuncture has spanned thousands of years in the history of traditional medicine, still some basic questions are not clarified. Acupuncture is the theory based on long time medical practice of the ancient sage, combined with objectivesymptom and medical expertise from diseases, and being applied for the instruction in clinic. In this way, acupoint is discovered by doctors in the practice of disease treatment other than a natural occurrence in the healthy population. And acupoint specificity is attached to the target organ involved in pathological condition. In our opinion, acupoint originates from somatic referred area reactive to visceral disorders. And accordingly, referred hyperesthesia of the somatic area is phenomenon of acupoint sensitization. Acupoint is the situ having health code formed in the biological evolution. Corresponding acupoint of a given organ is the alarmer for the state of health, and also is the trigger for self-healing where acupuncture can work as a gating-button. Therefore, acupoint must be accompanied with diseases in that it is reinforced by, relayed on, responsive to and neutralize by the pathological course. In conclusion, acupoint cannot exist without the disease. In another word, acupoint will be unshown, or be functionally hidden, under physiological condition.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Médicos , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 301, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MPDB 2.0 is built to be the continuation of MPDB 1.0, to serve as a more comprehensive data repertoire for Bangladeshi medicinal plants, and to provide a user-friendly interface for researchers, health practitioners, drug developers, and students who wish to study the various medicinal & nutritive plants scattered around Bangladesh and the underlying phytochemicals contributing to their efficacy in Bangladeshi folk medicine. RESULTS: MPDB 2.0 database ( https://www.medicinalplantbd.com/ ) comprises a collection of more than five hundred Bangladeshi medicinal plants, alongside a record of their corresponding scientific, family, and local names together with their utilized parts, information regarding ailments, active compounds, and PubMed ID of related publications. While medicinal plants are not limited to the borders of any country, Bangladesh and its Southeast Asian neighbors do boast a huge collection of potent medicinal plants with considerable folk-medicinal history compared to most other countries in the world. Development of MPDB 2.0 has been highly focused upon human diseases, albeit many of the plants indexed here can serve in developing biofuel (e.g.: Jatropha curcas used in biofuel) or bioremediation technologies (e.g.: Amaranthus cruentus helps to reduce cadmium level in soil) or nutritive diets (Terminalia chebula can be used in nutritive diets) or cosmetics (Aloe vera used in cosmetics), etc.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Bangladesh , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia
5.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(16-17): 6257-6274, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415391

RESUMO

The consumption of medicinal plants has increased in recent decades due to the fact that they biosynthesize compounds with many biological activities; thus, some plant species with biological potential are being utilized as raw material by the industries for preparation of drugs, phytodrugs, or food supplements. This has the consequence of overexploitation and deforestation, which endangers plant species-of-interest. In recent years, alternatives have been sought to eradicate this problem. A solution that was given and is maintained is plant biotechnology, which favors the production of secondary metabolites (SMt) with important biological activity. Plant biotechnology allows us to increase the yield of a compound-of-interest, reduces its production times and costs, and allows constant and controlled production of the raw material, while aiding in the protection of medicinal plants that are found in danger of extinction. In the scientific literature, procuring the SMt by means of biotechnological processes is described, highlighting the study of five species from Mexican traditional medicine (Lopezia racemosa, Galphimia glauca, Cnidoscolus chayamansa, and Buddleja cordata), and the main biological activities are as follows: anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotector, neuroprotector, anxiolytic, antitumoral, antibacterial, and antioxidant, among others. KEY POINTS: • Secondary metabolites produce by biotechnology processes • Active secondary metabolites isolated from Mexican medicinal plants • Recent advances on the production of some bioactive secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Biotecnologia , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais
6.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361609

RESUMO

The use of copaiba oil has been reported since the 16th century in Amazon traditional medicine, especially as an anti-inflammatory ingredient and for wound healing. The use of copaiba oil continues today, and it is sold in various parts of the world, including the United States. Copaiba oil contains mainly sesquiterpenes, bioactive compounds that are popular for their positive effect on human health. As part of our ongoing research endeavors to identify the chemical constituents of broadly consumed herbal supplements or their adulterants, copaiba oil was investigated. In this regard, copaiba oil was subjected to repeated silica gel column chromatography to purify the compounds. As a result, one new and seven known sesquiterpenes/sesquiterpenoids were isolated and identified from the copaiba oil. The new compound was elucidated as (E)-2,6,10-trimethyldodec-8-en-2-ol. Structure elucidation was achieved by 1D- and 2D NMR and GC/Q-ToF mass spectral data analyses. The isolated chemical constituents in this study could be used as chemical markers to evaluate the safety or quality of copaiba oil.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Fabaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 693449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368014

RESUMO

Intestinal parasites are a global problem, mainly in developing countries. Obtaining information about plants and compounds that can combat gastrointestinal disorders and gastrointestinal symptoms is a fundamental first step in designing new treatment strategies. In this study, we analyzed the antiamoebic activity of the aerial part of Croton sonorae. The dichloromethane fraction of C. sonorae (CsDCMfx) contained flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and glycosides. The ultrastructural morphology of the amoebae treated for 72 h with CsDCMfx was completely abnormal. CsDCMfx reduced erythrophagocytosis of trophozoites and the expression of genes involved in erythrocyte adhesion (gal/galnac lectin) and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in the phagocytosis pathway (rho1 gtpase and formin1). Interestingly, CsDCMfx decreased the expression of genes involved in Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite pathogenesis, such as cysteine proteases (cp1, cp4, and cp5), sod, pfor, and enolase. These results showed that C. sonorae is a potential source of antiamoebic compounds.


Assuntos
Croton , Entamoeba histolytica , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Entamoeba histolytica/efeitos dos fármacos , Entamoeba histolytica/genética , Expressão Gênica , Medicina Tradicional , Cloreto de Metileno , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
8.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(9): 3455-3458, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272755

RESUMO

There has been high interest in the use of traditional medicines for COVID-19 from early in the course of the pandemic. Significant advances in the science of ethnopharmacology have helped to introduce chemical entities identified from natural sources into modern medicine. However, the wider integration of natural products into the modern drug discovery process will require enhanced collaboration amongst the pharmaceutical industry, academic research units, regulatory bodies, ethics review committees and local, regional, continental and international organizations. Revisiting this topic holds promise of benefit for both the current and future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112865, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314905

RESUMO

The present article is a systematic and constructive review of the traditional medicinal uses, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and formulation aspects of Glycosmis species. The genus Glycosmis comprise 51 accepted species broadly distributed in Australia, China, India, and South-East Asia. Traditionally, Glycosmis species are used in folk medicines to treat cancer, anaemia, rheumatism, fever, cough, liver-related problems, skin ailments, intestinal worm infections, wounds, and facial inflammation. This review aims to provide readers with the latest information highlighting chemical constituents isolated from the Glycosmis species, plant parts utilized for their isolation and their pharmacological activities. So far, 307 chemical constituents have been isolated and characterized from different species of the genus Glycosmis; among these constituents, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolics, and sulphur-containing amides are the major bioactive compounds. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the crude extracts and compounds isolated from this genus exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities like anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, larvicidal, insecticidal, hepatoprotective, wound healing, antiviral, antidiarrheal, and anxiolytic. The carbazole and acridone alkaloids from this genus have shown potential anticancer activity in various in vitro and in vivo studies. Rare scaffolds like dimeric carbazoles, dimeric acridone alkaloids, flavanocoumarins and sulphur-containing amides from this genus need further exploration for their potential bioactivity. This article also briefs about the toxicological screening and discusses various polyherbal and nano formulation aspects of Glycosmis species. Most of the pharmacological studies reported from this genus were carried out in vitro. An in-depth in vivo and toxicology evaluation of the crude extracts and isolated specialized compounds is required to explore the full therapeutic potential of this genus.


Assuntos
Rutaceae , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais
10.
Planta Med ; 87(10-11): 764-779, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284521

RESUMO

This work covers a systematic review of literature about the genus Cecropia from 1978 to 2020, emphasizing the analysis of 10 of the most relevant species and their associated biological activities. Cecropia is a neotropical genus, which comprises about 61 native species in the American continent where it is known to be part of the traditional medicine of numerous countries. Secondary metabolites described for this genus showed an elevated structural and functional diversity, where polyphenols have been the most abundant. Based on this diversity, Cecropia phytochemicals represent an important source of potential therapeutic agents yet to be exploited. This review also highlights the effectiveness of combining chemometrics and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a novel approach to successfully single out Cecropia species phytochemicals. While the medicinal use of Cecropia species is officially recognized in National Pharmacopoeias and Formularies of several Latin American countries, it is important to recognize that these phytomedicines are complex mixtures requiring a thorough understanding of their chemical composition and their correlation with biological activities to guarantee their quality, safety, and efficacy.


Assuntos
Cecropia (Planta) , Extratos Vegetais , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis
11.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203927

RESUMO

Artemisia ludoviciana subsp. mexicana has been traditionally used for the treatment of digestive ailments such as gastritis, whose main etiological agent is Helicobacter pylori. In a previous screening study, the aqueous extract exhibited a good in vitro anti-H. pylori activity. With the aim of determining the efficacy of this species as a treatment for H. pylori related diseases and finding bioactive compounds, its aqueous extract was subjected to solvent partitioning and the fractions obtained were tested for their in vitro anti-H. pylori effect, as well as for their in vivo gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. The aqueous extract showed a MIC = 250 µg/mL. No acute toxicity was induced in mice. A gastroprotection of 69.8 ± 3.8%, as well as anti-inflammatory effects of 47.6 ± 12.4% and 38.8 ± 10.2% (by oral and topical administration, respectively), were attained. Estafiatin and eupatilin were isolated and exhibited anti-H. pylori activity with MBCs of 15.6 and 31.2 µg/mL, respectively. The finding that A. ludoviciana aqueous extract has significant anti-H. pylori, gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities is a relevant contribution to the ethnopharmacological knowledge of this species. This work is the first report about the in vivo gastroprotective activity of A. ludoviciana and the anti-H. pylori activity of eupatilin and estafiatin.


Assuntos
Artemisia/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207006

RESUMO

The Lamiaceae is undoubtedly an important plant family, having a rich history of use that spans the globe with many species being used in folk medicine and modern industries alike. Their ability to produce aromatic volatile oils has made them valuable sources of materials in the cosmetic, culinary, and pharmaceutical industries. A thorough account of the taxonomic diversity, chemistry and ethnobotany is lacking for southern African Lamiaceae, which feature some of the region's most notable medicinal and edible plant species. We provide a comprehensive insight into the Lamiaceae flora of southern Africa, comprising 297 species in 42 genera, 105 of which are endemic to the subcontinent. We further explore the medicinal and traditional uses, where all genera with documented uses are covered for the region. A broad review of the chemistry of southern African Lamiaceae is presented, noting that only 101 species (34%) have been investigated chemically (either their volatile oils or phytochemical characterization of secondary metabolites), thus presenting many and varied opportunities for further studies. The main aim of our study was therefore to present an up-to-date account of the botany, chemistry and traditional uses of the family in southern Africa, and to identify obvious knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Etnobotânica/métodos , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Comestíveis/química
13.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208750

RESUMO

Entamoeba histolytica (protozoan; family Endomoebidae) is the cause of amoebiasis, a disease related to high morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, this illness is considered a significant public health issue in developing countries. In addition, parasite resistance to conventional medicinal treatment has increased in recent years. Traditional medicine around the world represents a valuable source of alternative treatment for many parasite diseases. In a previous paper, we communicated about the antiprotozoal activity in vitro of the methanolic (MeOH) extract of Ruta chalepensis (Rutaceae) against E. histolytica. The plant is extensively employed in Mexican traditional medicine. The following workup of the MeOH extract of R. chalepensis afforded the furocoumarins rutamarin (1) and chalepin (2), which showed high antiprotozoal activity on Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites employing in vitro tests (IC50 values of 6.52 and 28.95 µg/mL, respectively). Therefore, we offer a full scientific report about the bioguided isolation and the amebicide activity of chalepin and rutamarin.


Assuntos
Furocumarinas/isolamento & purificação , Ruta/metabolismo , Amebicidas/isolamento & purificação , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/metabolismo , Entamoeba histolytica/efeitos dos fármacos , Entamoeba histolytica/patogenicidade , Furocumarinas/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Medicina Tradicional , México , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201147

RESUMO

Many plants that are commonly used in folk medicine have multidirectional biological properties confirmed by scientific research. One of them is Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. (F. Amaranthaceae). It is widely used, but there are very few scientific data about its chemical composition and pharmacological activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of phenolic acid (PA)-rich fractions isolated from methanolic extracts of A. lanata (L.) Juss. herb using the liquid/liquid extraction method and their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. The free PA fraction (FA), the PA fraction (FB) released after acid hydrolysis, and the PA fraction (FC) obtained after alkaline hydrolysis were analysed using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The phenolic profile of each sample showed a high concentration of PAs and their presence in A. lanata (L.) Juss. herb mainly in bound states. Thirteen compounds were detected and quantified in all samples, including some PAs that had not been previously detected in this plant species. Bioactivity assays of all fractions revealed high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) (2.85 mM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g) and 2,2-azino-bis-3(ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+) (2.88 mM TE/g) scavenging activity. Fraction FB definitely exhibited not only the highest antiradical activity but also the strongest xanthine oxidase (XO) (EC50 = 1.77 mg/mL) and lipoxygenase (LOX)(EC50 = 1.88 mg/mL) inhibitory potential. The fraction had the best anti-diabetic properties, i.e., mild inhibition of α-amylase (EC50 = 7.46 mg/mL) and strong inhibition of α-glucosidase (EC50 = 0.30 mg/mL). The activities of all analysed samples were strongly related to the presence of PA compounds and the total PA content.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Flavonoides/química , Lipoxigenase/química , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Metanol/química , Fenóis/química , Xantina Oxidase/química , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
15.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201193

RESUMO

Ehretia laevis Roxb. (Boraginaceae) has been extensively used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of a diverse range of ailments related to the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system, and against several infections. This review critically assesses and documents, for the first time, the fragmented information on E. laevis, including its botanical description, folklore uses, bioactive phyto metabolites and pharmacological activities. The goal is to explore this plant therapeutically. Ethnomedicinal surveys reveal that E. laevis has been used by tribal communities in Asian countries for the treatment of various disorders. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical investigations of E. laevis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such as pentacyclic triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acids, steroids, alkaloids, aliphatic alcohols, hydrocarbons, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Fresh plant parts, crude extracts, fractions and isolated compounds have been reported to exhibit broad spectrum of therapeutic activities viz., antioxidant, antiarthritic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiarrheal, antidysenteric, wound healing and anti-infective activities. E. laevis is shown to be an excellent potential source of drugs for the mitigation of jaundice, asthma, dysentery, ulcers, diarrhea, ringworm, eczema, diabetes, fissure, syphilis, cuts and wounds, inflammation, liver problems, venereal and infectious disorders. Although few investigations authenticated its traditional uses but employed uncharacterized crude extracts of the plant, the major concerns raised are reproducibility of therapeutic efficacy and safety of plant material. The outcomes of limited pharmacological screening and reported bioactive compounds of E. laevis suggest that there is an urgent need for in-depth pharmacological investigations of the plant.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ásia , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066562

RESUMO

The Stevia genus (Asteraceae) comprises around 230 species, distributed from the southern United States to the South American Andean region. Stevia rebaudiana, a Paraguayan herb that produces an intensely sweet diterpene glycoside called stevioside, is the most relevant member of this genus. Apart from S. rebaudiana, many other species belonging to the Stevia genus are considered medicinal and have been popularly used to treat different ailments. The members from this genus produce sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, longipinanes, and flavonoids as the main types of phytochemicals. Many pharmacological activities have been described for Stevia extracts and isolated compounds, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities being the most frequently mentioned. This review aims to present an update of the Stevia genus covering ethnobotanical aspects and traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of the extracts and isolated compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/química , Glucosídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Stevia/química , Edulcorantes/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54427

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Access to information and intercultural approaches in the field of health are essential for the elimination of inequities in health access and care. Intercultural models such as traditional, complementary, and integrative medicine (TCIM) are an important part of health care in most countries and often contribute to expanding access to primary health care. Despite legal recognition and policies to integrate TCIM into health systems, their contribution to health, well-being, and people-centered care to achieve universal health is still underestimated. This article presents the progress (2017-2020) achieved by the Virtual Health Library specialized in the TCIM (VHL TCIM Americas), an initiative created as a tool to reduce the gaps in the production and access to validated information on TCIM. Through collaborative network work, VHL TCIM Americas contributes to the democratization of health, access to verified scientific data, visibility of non-conventional knowledge, strengthening of research capacities, and exchange of experiences for informed decision-making.


[RESUMEN]. El acceso a la información y los abordajes interculturales en el ámbito de la salud son esenciales para la eliminación de inequidades en el acceso a los servicios de salud y la atención sanitaria. Los modelos interculturales, como las medicinas tradicionales, complementarias e integrativas (MTCI) son una parte importante del cuidado de la salud en la mayoría de los países y frecuentemente contribuyen a ampliar el acceso a la atención primaria de salud. A pesar del reconocimiento legal y de la existencia de políticas para la integración de las MTCI en los sistemas de salud, aún se subestima su contribución a la salud, el bienestar y la atención de la salud centrada en las personas para alcanzar la salud universal. En este artículo se presentan los avances (2017-2020) alcanzados por la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud especializada en las MTCI (BVS MTCI Américas), iniciativa creada como herramienta para disminuir las brechas en la producción y el acceso a la información validada sobre las MTCI. Mediante el trabajo colaborativo en red, la BVS MTCI Américas contribuye a la democratización de la salud, el acceso a datos científicos verificados disponibles, la visibilización de conocimientos no convencionales, el fortalecimiento de capacidades de investigación y el intercambio de experiencias para la toma informada de decisiones.


[RESUMO]. O acesso à informação e as abordagens interculturais no setor da saúde são essenciais para eliminar as desigualdades no acesso aos serviços de saúde. Os modelos interculturais, como as medicinas tradicionais, complementares e integrativas (MTCI), são uma parte importante da atenção à saúde na maioria dos países e frequentemente contribuem para ampliar o acesso à atenção primária. Apesar do reconhecimento legal e da existência de políticas para a integração das MTCI nos sistemas de saúde, a sua contribuição para a saúde, o bem-estar e a atenção centrada nas pessoas para alcançar a saúde universal ainda é subestimada. Este artigo apresenta o progresso (de 2017 a 2020) alcançado pela Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde especializada em MTCI (BVS MTCI Américas), uma iniciativa criada como ferramenta para reduzir as disparidades na produção e no acesso a informações validadas sobre as MTCI. Realizando um trabalho colaborativo em rede, a BVS MTCI Américas contribui para a democratização da saúde, o acesso a dados científicos verificados, a visibilidade dos conhecimentos não convencionais, o fortalecimento das capacidades de pesquisa e a troca de experiências para a tomada de decisões bem informada.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Terapias Complementares , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Acesso à Informação , Bibliotecas Digitais , Medicina Tradicional , Terapias Complementares , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Acesso à Informação , Bibliotecas Digitais , Terapias Complementares , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Acesso à Informação , Bibliotecas Digitais
18.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076167

RESUMO

An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document indigenous medicinal plants and their usage from knowledgeable and elderly persons in Razzar and Gadoon valley of Swabi and Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region of Pakistan during 2016-2019. Several systematic field visits and questionnaire surveys were carried out in selected sites of the study area to gather relevant information from the local community. Rapid assessment method was adopted for data collection by interviewing the local people having enough knowledge of medicinal plants use for treatment of different ailments. UV (UV) formula was applied to calculate the relative importance of medicinal plant species in each site of the study area. In the present study, 221 medicinal plants belonging to 105 families have been reported through 580 respondents (385 males, 138 females and 57 local health healer) from the Swabi and Hazara region. The main sources of herbal medicines were leaves (21%) followed by fruits (21%), seeds (17%), whole plants (14%), roots (9%), bark (9%), flowers (7%) and gum (2%). Mentha spicata L. and Berberis lycium Royle were reported with highest UV (UV) i.e. 0.92 and 0.68 in Razzar tehsil and Gadoon valley of Swabi, whereas Mentha longifolia L and Geranium wallichianum D were reported with highest UV i.e. (0.65) and (0.88) in Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region, respectively. It was concluded that Swabi and Hazara region is rich in medicinal plants species and associated traditional knowledge. Moreover, ethno-medicines have played significant role in the indigenous healthcare system of the study area. However, uprooting the entire plant for ethno-medicine is a big threat to conservation of medicinal plants diversity in the study area.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Idoso , Etnobotânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão , Fitoterapia
19.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e239747, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105681

RESUMO

Oncideres females girdle tree branches of the Fabaceae family, interrupting the sap flow and turning the wood conditions ideal for their larvae development. The bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, a species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, is widely used in the traditional medicine. The objectives were to report, for the first time, Oncideres saga (Dalman), using S. adstringens as a host and to describe the pattern of branch girdling and oviposition distribution by this insect on these branches. The diameter at the base and the length of the girdled branches were measured and the number of incisions made by the O. saga females to oviposit, per branch section (basal, median and apical), counted. The emerged specimens were counted and the diameter of the exit holes measured. The average diameter at the base of the girdled branches was 2.5 ± 0.16 cm and the length was 90.6 ± 4.6 cm. The average number of incisions per branch was 37.7 ± 2.7. Damage by O. saga can reduce the growth and cause losses on S. adstringens, a tree with great extractivism potential.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Brasil , Feminino , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais
20.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069178

RESUMO

To meet the growing interest in natural antibacterial agents, we evaluated the physicochemical and biological properties of the folk medicine known as "five thieves' oil" (Polish name: olejek pieciu zlodziei). Five thieves' oil consists of a mixture of five oils: rosemary, lemon, clove, eucalyptus, and cinnamon. In this study, we performed gas chromatography, FTIR, and UV-vis spectroscopic analysis, as well as L-a-b color tests, contact angle determination, and surface tension determination. To verify its antibacterial activity, the metabolic activity and changes in cell membrane permeability of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas were studied. As a result, it was found that among the constituent oils, the oils of clove and cinnamon were the least volatile and, at the same time, had the strongest antibacterial activity. However, a mix of all the oils also showed comparable activity, which was even more pronounced for the oils after 4 weeks of aging. This effect can be linked to the high content of terpene derivatives such as eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, which can cause changes in bacterial membrane permeability, affecting cell activity and survival. This study is the first to characterize the constituents of the popular folk medicine five thieves' oil, confirming and explaining its strong antibacterial activity, thus constituting a significant contribution to contemporary health education.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional , Óleos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/citologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Refratometria , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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