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2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027688

RESUMO

Postpartum care is a critical element for ensuring survival and health of mothers and newborns but is often inadequate in low- and middle-income countries due to barriers to access and resource constraints. Newly delivered mothers and their families often rely on traditional forms of postnatal care rooted in social and cultural customs or may blend modern and traditional forms of care. This ethnographic study sought to explore use of biomedical and traditional forms of postnatal care. Data were collected through unstructured observation and in-depth interviews with 15 mothers. Participants reported embracing traditional understandings of health and illness in the post-partum period centered on heating the body through diet, steaming, and other applications of heat, yet also seeking injections from private health care providers. Thematic analysis explored concepts related to transitioning forms of postnatal care, valuing of care through different lenses, and diverse sources of advice on postnatal care. Mothers also described concurrent use of both traditional medicine and biomedical postnatal care, and the importance of adhering to cultural traditions of postnatal care for future health. Maternal and newborn health are closely associated with postnatal care, so ensuring culturally appropriate and high-quality care must be an important priority for stakeholders including understand health practices that are evolving to include injections.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/uso terapêutico , Injeções , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Camboja/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Hipertermia Induzida/psicologia , Hipertermia Induzida/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Injeções/psicologia , Injeções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Phytother Res ; 34(1): 33-50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496018

RESUMO

The aim of this review is to collect together the results of the numerous studies over the last two decades on the pharmacological properties of palmatine published in scientific databases like Scopus and PubMed, which are scattered across different publications. Palmatine, an isoquinoline alkaloid from the class of protoberberines, is a yellow compound present in the extracts from different representatives of Berberidaceae, Papaveraceae, Ranunculaceae, and Menispermaceae. It has been extensively used in traditional medicine of Asia in the treatment of jaundice, liver-related diseases, hypertension, inflammation, and dysentery. New findings describe its possible applications in the treatment of civilization diseases like central nervous system-related problems. This review intends to let this alkaloid come out from the shade of a more frequently described alkaloid: berberine. The toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and biological activities of this protoberberine alkaloid will be developed in this work.


Assuntos
Berberidaceae/química , Alcaloides de Berberina/farmacocinética , Alcaloides de Berberina/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Humanos , Ratos
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112255, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568819

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Piper longum, commonly referred as 'Pippali', has found its traditional use in India, Malaysia, Singapore and other South Asian countries as an analgesic, carminative, anti-diarrhoeic, immunostimulant, post childbirth to check postpartum hemorrhage and to treat asthma, insomnia, dementia, epilepsy, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, spleen disorder, puerperal fever, leprosy etc. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review offers essential data focusing on the traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacological profile of Piper longum thereby identifying research gaps and future opportunities for investigation on this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic survey was accomplished as per the PRISMA guidelines. The information was collected from books, and electronic search (PubMed, Science Direct, Lilca and Scielo) during 1967-2019. RESULTS: Many phytochemicals have been identified till date, including alkaloids as its major secondary metabolites (piperine and piperlongumine), essential oil, flavonoids and steroids. These exhibit a wide range of activities including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-parkinsonian, anti-stress, nootropic, anti-epileptic, anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-platelet, anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, anti-arthritic, anti-ulcer, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic action, anti-amebic, anti-fungal, mosquito larvicidal and anti-snake venom. CONCLUSION: Amongst various activities, bioscientific clarification in relation to its ethnopharmacological perspective has been evidenced mainly for anti-amebic, anthelminthic, anti-tumor and anti-diabetic activity. However, despite traditional claims, insufficient scientific validation for the treatment of insomnia, dementia, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, spleen disorder, puerperal fever and leprosy, necessitate future investigations in this direction. It is also essential and critical to generate toxicological data and pharmacokinetics on human subjects so as to confirm its conceivable bio-active components in the body.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Piper/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Etnofarmacologia/tendências , Humanos , Índia , Malásia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Singapura , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/tendências
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112258, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574342

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In northwestern Argentina inhabit several ancient indigenous communities with diverse cultural and historical background. Geographical isolation has contributed to the prevalence of a native plant-based folk medicine; "jarilla" species are medicinal plants widely used in local communities for the treatment of mycosis, respiratory, gastrointestinal and rheumatic disorders. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: To assemble the traditional knowledge acquired through years with scientific data concerning to phytochemistry, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of three "jarillas" species. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ethnobotanical data of three "jarillas", Zuccagnia punctata (Zp), Larrea cuneifolia (Lc), and Larrea divaricata (Ld), were explored by interviewing native people from Indigenous Community of Amaicha del Valle, Tucumán. Phenolic profiles from each infusion were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging capacity, lipoperoxidation inhibition, and ferrous iron chelating activity. It was also assessed their ability to inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase, lipoxygenase, and hyaluronidase. RESULTS: Ethnobotanical interviews showed that local people use "jarillas" mainly as infusions and baths. It was reported different categories of uses, such as medicinal (10 curative applications), to religious purposes, tinctorial, as construction material and as fuel. From infusions prepared, the MS and MS/MS data allowed the identification of 27 compounds from Z. punctata, and 11 from both Larrea sp. The infusions showed an important antioxidant activity through different mechanisms, highlighting Zp and Lc in free radical scavenging capacity and Ld on lipid peroxidation inhibition and iron binding. They were also capable of inhibit xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase enzymes, being Lc the most active one. CONCLUSIONS: This research work provides novel information concerning to several categories of traditional uses of "jarilla" species in a Diaguita-Calchaquí community and focus attention to infusions from a phytochemical and biological approach.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Etnobotânica , Magnoliopsida/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Argentina , Banhos , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112265, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580941

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hymenaea cangaceira Pinto, Mansano & Azevedo (Fabaceae) is a Brazilian medicinal plant widely known as "Jatobá". In folk medicine, it is used to treat infections, respiratory problems, rheumatism, antitumoral, inflammation and pain, however, no activity has been scientifically validated. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated chemical composition of essential oil from Hymenaea cangaceira (EOHc), antimicrobial, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities besides protection against DNA damage and hemolysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation, and characterized by GC-MS and GC-FID. The evaluation of antimicrobial activity was performed by microdilution method. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity was performed using the radicals DPPH, ABTS, O2- and OH-, and the protection of DNA damage using plasmid pBR322. Different experimental models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive effect (acetic acid and formalin), and evaluate the mechanisms of action involved with pharmacological antagonists (naloxone, atropine and gibenclamide) in mice. The essential oil was evaluated for hemolysis on human erythrocytes. RESULTS: The extraction of EOHc showed a yield of 0.18% on a dry basis, presenting high content of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (79.04%), high antioxidant activity and protect DNA from damage, besides presenting antifungal and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vitro. It was found that the essential oil had no acute toxicity in mice up to 5000 mg/kg oral administration (o.a.), in addition to no hemolysis on human erythrocytes. The reduction of antinociceptive activity was 75%, with the opioid system as the mechanism of action. CONCLUSION: Our results validate the main activities by the traditional use attributed to H. cangaceira for antimicrobial and analgesic activity. In addition, the oil has a potent antioxidant activity, protecting the body against oxidative stress damage, adding new value to an endemic species not known to the industry.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hymenaea/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Etnofarmacologia , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112250, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586694

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) Hong is important medicinal plant that is native to the eastern Himalayas and Hengduan mountains in China. It is also distributed in Nepal, north east India, Bhutan and northern Myanmar. Plant parts are traditionally used against different kinds of diseases and various compounds present in different plant parts are also effective against many diseases. Thus, N. scrophulariiflora has a high potential to maintain human health. AIM OF THE REVIEW: Although N. scrophulariiflora is very important and widely studied plant species but there is no comprehensive up-to-date review of published and unpublished literature. So, in the present article we have compiled and critically commented on the botanical characteristics, traditional uses, plant growth and cultivation, micropropagation, conservation status, secondary metabolites, pharmacology and toxicity of the plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extensive literature searches both electronic online databases (Google Scholar, Scopus, Springer Link, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate, PubMed, ChemSpider, USPTO, Google patents and Espacenet) and library visits in Nepal were carried out to collect the literature on information published prior to April 2019. RESULTS: N. scrophulariiflora was traditionally used for 82 ailments/diseases. There are 124 major phytochemicals extracted from the plant. Several compounds are effective in bioactivity. Pharmacologically, the plant is proved to be anti-atherosclerotic, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory in-vivo studies, and antimicrobial, antimalarial, antioxidative, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory and nerve growth factor potentiating from in-vitro studies. Renal improvement activities were confirmed from both in-vivo and in-vitro studies. Toxicological tests and a single clinical trial in human beings have supported the notion that the plant is not poisonous but beneficial for curing wide ranges of diseases. CONCLUSION: N. scrophulariiflora is valuable medicinal plant that can serve as promising source of non-harmful and potential medicinal herbal remedies for human beings.


Assuntos
Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantaginaceae/química , Butão , China , Humanos , Índia , Mianmar , Nepal , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112270, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589965

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Primates forage on a variety of plant parts to balance their dietary intake to meet requirements of energy, nutrition and maintenance, however the reason(s) leading them to ingest some plants which have no nutritional value and/or contain bioactive or even toxic secondary metabolites is recently gaining closer attention. The growing literature suggests that primates consume plants for medicinal purposes (self-medication) as well, particularly when infected with parasites and pathogens (bacteria, viruses, microbes). Interestingly, some of the plants they consume are also used by humans for similar purposes or may have potential uses for humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a 16-month study of the parasite ecology of a sub-species of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on the island of Yakushima, we surveyed their feeding habits and collected a subset of plants and plant parts observed being ingested by macaques. The ethnomedicinal value of these plants was surveyed and methanolic extracts of 45 plant parts were tested in vitro against important parasites of humans, including four protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, and the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Potential toxicity of the extracts was also assessed on mammalian cells. RESULTS: A wide range of ethnomedicinal uses in Asia for these plants is noted, with 37% associated with the treatment of parasites, pathogens and related symptoms. Additionally, the 45 extracts tested showed broad and significant activity against our test organisms. All extracts were active against T. b. rhodesiense. The majority (over 80%) inhibited the growth of P. falciparum and L. donovani. Half of the extracts also displayed antiprotozoal potential against T. cruzi while only several extracts were active against both larval and adult stages of S. mansoni. Cytotoxicity was generally low, although several extracts lacked specific toxicity to test parasites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a number of plants and their parts to have antiparasitic activity not previously reported in the ethnopharmacological literature. Enhanced understanding of the primate diets, particularly during periods of intensified parasite infection risk may help to further narrow down plants of interest for lead compound development. The study of animal self-medication is a complementary approach, with precedence, to drug discovery of new lead drug compounds against human parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Macaca fuscata/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Ilhas , Japão , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/veterinária , Automedicação/veterinária , Testes de Toxicidade , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112264, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600561

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The global problem of diabetes, together with the limited access of large numbers of patients to conventional antidiabetic medicines, continues to drive the search for new agents. Ancient Asian systems such as traditional Chinese medicine, Japanese Kampo medicine, and Indian Ayurvedic medicine, as well as African traditional medicine and many others have identified numerous plants reported anecdotally to treat diabetes; there are probably more than 800 such plants for which there is scientific evidence for their activity, mostly from studies using various models of diabetes in experimental animals. AIM OF THE REVIEW: Rather than a comprehensive coverage of the literature, this article aims to identify discrepancies between findings in animal and human studies, and to highlight some of the problems in developing plant extract-based medicines that lower blood glucose in patients with diabetes, as well as to suggest potential ways forward. METHODS: In addition to searching the 2018 PubMed literature using the terms 'extract AND blood glucose, a search of the whole literature was conducted using the terms 'plant extracts' AND 'blood glucose' AND 'diabetes' AND 'double blind' with 'clinical trials' as a filter. A third search using PubMed and Medline was undertaken for systematic reviews and meta-analyses investigating the effects of plant extracts on blood glucose/glycosylated haemoglobin in patients with relevant metabolic pathologies. FINDINGS: Despite numerous animal studies demonstrating the effects of plant extracts on blood glucose, few randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to confirm efficacy in treating humans with diabetes; there have been only a small number of systematic reviews with meta-analyses of clinical studies. Qualitative and quantitative discrepancies between animal and human clinical studies in some cases were marked; the factors contributing to this included variations in the products among different studies, the doses used, differences between animal models and the human disease, and the impact of concomitant therapy in patients, as well as differences in the duration of treatment, and the fact that treatment in animals may begin before or very soon after the induction of diabetes. CONCLUSION: The potential afforded by natural products has not yet been realised in the context of treating diabetes mellitus. A systematic, coordinated, international effort is required to achieve the goal of providing anti-diabetic treatments derived from medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metanálise como Assunto , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Especificidade da Espécie , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112282, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604138

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Extracts of Smilax campestris Griseb (Smilacaceae) have been employed in the treatment of several inflammatory diseases as a traditional herbal medicine. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the observed effects remain elusive. Macrophages are known to play a central role in inflammatory responses. These cells are activated in response to a diversity of danger signals and produce several mediators of inflammation that eventually regulate the immune response. For all the above mentioned, scientific evidence is required to support the popular use of S. campestris. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of S. campestris aqueous extract (SME) in activated THP-1 human macrophages, on the production of some mediators of inflammation and oxidative stress in order to provide scientific support for its popular use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The characterization of SME was assessed by HPLC-MS/MS. The production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was evaluated by ELISA. The activity of metalloproteases was evaluated by zymography. The subcellular localization of the NF-κB transcription factor was analysed by Western blot. The superoxide anion and glutathione levels were assessed by flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity induced by SME in THP-1 macrophages was also investigated by the LDH release test. RESULTS: In the present study, we have identified catechin and glycosylated derivatives of quercetin (quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, rutin and quercetin-3-rhamnoside) as major components of the aqueous SME. We found that SME significantly decreased the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and the activity of the metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages derived from the monocytic cell line THP-1. Furthermore, SME diminished the expression of NF-κB p65 subunit in the nuclear fraction. In addition, SME decreased the production of superoxide anion in THP-1 macrophages, without altering the levels of reduced glutathione. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SME exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in human activated macrophages by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases and the NF-κB transcription factor pathway along with a reduction of oxidative stress mediators. Moreover, catechin and glycosylated derivatives of were identified by HPLC-MS/MS in SME. Our findings provide scientific support for the traditional use of the S. campestris extracts.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Smilax/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Argentina , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Água/química
11.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol ; 35(1): 1-7, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361653

RESUMO

Traditional medicines in the form of health food and supplements are highly popular nowadays. They are often aggressively promoted with unsubstantiated health benefit claims. Patients suffering from chronic illness, such as psychiatric disorders may be attracted to these products and use them concurrently with their prescribed drugs. The potential danger of these health supplements and traditional medicines containing products have prompted repeated warnings by the US Food and Drug Administration in recent years. A new initiative by the Food and Drug Administration in 2019 was also implemented to strengthen the oversight of these supplements. The WHO global compendium will include traditional medicines in 2019, which has generated much debate about their safety. Many practising psychiatrists are not familiar with traditional medicines, and clinically useful information is also not easily available. In this review, we examine the nature and safety of commonly encountered traditional medicine in these health food products and supplements.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Psiquiatria/métodos , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/efeitos adversos , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5): 1971-1977, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813860

RESUMO

Based on the ethnomedicinal use of Isodon rugosus the current study was designed to evaluate its crude saponins (Ir.Sp), and subsequent fractions for anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor potentials. Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used in anti-angiogenic potentials with Dexamethasone as positive control. The antitumor activity was evaluated with potato disk method using Vincristine sulfate as positive control. Moreover, antibacterial activity was also conducted against A. tumefaciens. The highest anti-angiogenic effect was observed with Ir.Sp, i.e., 79.00±0.58% at concentration of 1000 µg/ml which drop drown to 48.67±1.20% at lowest tested concentration of 31.25 µg/ml with IC50 of 41 µg/ml. Similarly, in the anti-tumor activity the Ir. Chf revealed excellent inhibition of tumor with IC50 value of 60 µg/ml. All the samples (excluding Ir. Sp and Ir. Cr) were inactive against A. tumefaciens, which demonstrates that the samples which did not show any antibacterial activity are rich in certain bioactive principles which may be responsible for the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic potentials. Our results conclude that the Ir.Sp, Ir.Chfmay be good targets for isolation of bioactive compounds responsible for the inhibition of excessive proliferation of cells and angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Isodon/química , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Metanol/química , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5): 2155-2162, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813882

RESUMO

The "noni" species of Morinda citrifolia L., is using in traditional medicine in the tropical country for over 2000 years. Noni fruit has come from the Morinda citrifolia tree which is called Rubiaceae, and it is from the coffee family. It is a perennial herb whose ripe fruit has a robust butyric acid smell and flavor. Recently scientists have proven that this fruit has antioxidant and antibiotic properties in vitro. An anthraquinone, damnacanthal, is one of the constituents of Morinda citrifolia. It has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer properties. Damnacanthal has low water solubility and low bioavailability. Formulating of damnacanthal into the biodegradable nanocapsule drug delivery system may increase its bioavailability. Various formulations of damnacanthal would be developed to enable the selection of a dosage form that could offer the provision of the anti-cancer bioactive substance with suitable sustained- or controlled release properties. The efficiency of extraction of damnacanthal will be compared using both conventional and traditional method. Both the damnacanthal and an anthraquinone active compounds extracted from noni roots, are currently being studied in the context of anti-cancer study. Soon, the medical values, bioactivities and nutritional of this fruit can be assessed, especially its anti-cancer activity, this fruit extract could play an outstanding economic role in Malaysia and other tropical countries.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Nanocápsulas/química , Antraquinonas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Frutas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Morinda/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3729051, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885784

RESUMO

Genipin, as the most effective ingredient of various traditional medications, encompasses antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial capacities. More recently, it is suggested that genipin protects against septic liver damage by restoring autophagy. The purpose of the current study was to explore the protective effect of genipin against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury (ALI) and its underlying molecular machinery. Our results indicated that treatment with genipin significantly reduced CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by ameliorating histological liver changes, decreasing the aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase levels, alleviating the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and promoting autophagic flux. Moreover, genipin effectively induced the conversion of LC3 and inhibition of p62 accumulation. The liver expressions of ATG5, ATG7, and ATG12 were significantly increased by genipin pretreatment in the ALI mice model. This protective effect may be mediated by the inhibition of mTOR and the activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Meanwhile, genipin attenuated CCl4-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathway. In addition, pretreatment with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 abolished the hepatoprotective effect of genipin. Taken together, our study implicates that genipin has a protective potential against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, which might be strongly associated with the induction of autophagy and the attenuation of inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Iridoides/uso terapêutico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Rubiaceae/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/patologia , Iridoides/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos
15.
Daru ; 27(2): 811-826, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This review aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of complementary and alternative medicine methods for constipation in the pediatric population. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medical literature search was performed in several databases for a variety of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine in childhood constipation. Databases included Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google scholar and a number of Persian databases including IranDoc, Magiran and SID. No time limitation was determined. Clinical trials or case series that had evaluated the effectiveness of CAM therapies in functional constipation of 1-18 year old children were included. Papers not in English or Persian language were excluded. Related articles were screened independently by two reviewers according to their titles and abstracts. A data extraction form was filled in for each eligible paper. Quality assessment of eligible documents was also performed. RESULTS: 30 studies were included, comprising 27 clinical trials and 3 case series. Ten documents were on herbal medicine, nine on traditional medicine, ten on manual therapies and one on homeopathy. Except for two herbal and one reflexology interventions, all studies reported positive effects on childhood constipation, with the majority being statistically significant. As the number of studies in each method was limited, we could not perform a meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of research on the efficacy and safety of different types of complementary and alternative medicine methods in children with constipation necessitates conducting more studies in each field. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Lactente , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752451

RESUMO

Background: Noma can be a lethal disease and causes disfigurement in young children in low-resource countries, particularly in Africa. In these settings, 80% of the population mainly consult traditional healers for healthcare problems. Our study aimed to describe the sociodemographic characteristics of traditional healers and to assess their knowledge of noma. Methods: We conducted a survey among traditional healers in three Malian regions from May 2015 to January 2016 and collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, professional activity, knowledge, and experience of noma and collaboration with modern medicine. Results: Among 770 traditional healers invited to participate, 732 responded (95%) (mean age, 54.5 years). Most were illiterate (66.3%), which was associated with older age (p < 0.001). Although they treated all types of disease, only 10.5% had some knowledge of noma, with regional differences (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Noma is poorly known among traditional healers, especially in remote areas. Our findings suggest a lack of interest among young people for traditional medicine, implying an imminent decrease of healers, and thus the need for national health systems to strengthen and promote access to modern health care. Training programmes to improve the early diagnosis referral of noma patients should include all types of primary health workers.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/estatística & dados numéricos , Noma/diagnóstico , Noma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Planta ; 251(1): 9, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776671

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The genus Rhynchosia is a rich source of natural compounds especially flavonoids and prenylated isoflavonoids. Further experimental studies on Rhynchosia members may be result new and novel secondary metabolites with potent biological activities. Traditionally, medicinal plants have played a significant role on human life since ancient days. At present, natural compounds are the major source for the modern drug discovery owing to their therapeutic selectivity, minutest of side effects, inexpensive source and serve as lead molecules for the discovery of new drugs. Rhynchosia species (Fabaceae) are extensively circulated throughout the tropical and subtropical areas around the world. A few plants of this genus were used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as antibacterial, antidiabetic, abortifacients, healing of wounds, hepatoprotective, remedial of boils, rheumatic pains and skin infections. The present review compiles traditional uses, isolated chemical compounds and pharmacological activities of Rhynchosia species. So far, in total, seventy-seven compounds were isolated from the genus Rhynchosia, including flavonoids, isoflavonoids, flavan-3-ols, xanthones, biphenyls, simple polyphenols and sterols. It is interesting to note that the genus Rhynchosia is a rich source of C-glycosylflavonoids and prenylated isoflavonoids. Further, phytochemical and pharmacological studies on this genus are required since only few species have been investigated so far.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(42): 21236-21245, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570602

RESUMO

Botanical folk medicines have been used throughout human history to treat common disorders such as hypertension, often with unknown underlying mechanisms. Here, we discovered that hypotensive folk medicines from a genetically diverse range of plant species each selectively activated the vascular-expressed KCNQ5 potassium channel, a feature lacking in the modern synthetic pharmacopeia, whereas nonhypotensive plant extracts did not. Analyzing constituents of the hypotensive Sophora flavescens root, we found that the quinolizidine alkaloid aloperine is a KCNQ-dependent vasorelaxant that potently and isoform-selectively activates KCNQ5 by binding near the foot of the channel voltage sensor. Our findings reveal that KCNQ5-selective activation is a defining molecular mechanistic signature of genetically diverse traditional botanical hypotensives, transcending plant genus and human cultural boundaries. Discovery of botanical KCNQ5-selective potassium channel openers may enable future targeted therapies for diseases including hypertension and KCNQ5 loss-of-function encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Canais de Potássio KCNQ/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223853, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing access to conventional cancer treatment (CT) in low-income countries (LICs) is an important public health initiative to address the global burden of cancer. However, LICs have a high prevalence of use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM). It is important to consider the factors that influence a patient's choice to use T&CM, CT, or both for their cancer treatment. METHODS: We conducted focus groups among adult cancer patients in Lilongwe, Malawi to identify facilitators and barriers of T&CM use. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, translated, and underwent thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Cultural norms, T&CM access, T&CM success, and CT failure were all identified as facilitators to T&CM use. CT success and T&CM failure were identified as barriers. Access and norms appear to determine initial treatment selection, while treatment outcomes dictate continued use of T&CM or CT. CONCLUSION: This study identified a pragmatic and experience-based treatment selection process that aligns with the social cognitive theory of behavior and assists in comprehending the factors that influence T&CM use among cancer patients in a low resource setting.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Medicina Tradicional/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17551, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593137

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Refractory edema is characterized by persistent swelling which does not react to diuretic use and sodium restriction. Traditional herbal medicine, Gwack Rhyung Tang and Chunggan extract effectively treated refractory lower limb edema caused by cirrhosis and improved liver function. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old male patient with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hepatic encephalopathy, and cellulitis presented lower limb edema which did not react to diuretics for more than 7 months. DIAGNOSES: Refractory edema caused by cirrhosis. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated for 25 days using Gwack Rhyung Tang and Chunggan extract. OUTCOMES: Loss of body weight, decrease in circumferences of both lower limb and improvement of liver function biochemistry results are checked. There was no recurrence or aggravation of the condition up to 3 weeks of follow-up periods. LESSONS: Traditional herbal medicine can be an effective alternative for refractory edema due to cirrhosis with improving liver function.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Fibrose/complicações , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
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