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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 485-488, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The parasite Cryptosporidium spp. is an intracellular protozoa which has a broad range of hosts and zoonotic potential. It presents a serious health risk for agricultural workers and veterinarians. The aim of the study was to identify the species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium occurring in a veterinary student who came into contact with calves on a farm. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was employed to confirm the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. ELISA test was applied to detect coproantigen in faecal specimens. Nested PCR was used to amplify a small ribosomal subunit (SSU rRNA) and sequencing of the GP60 gene served to identify the zoonotic subtypes. RESULTS: The nested PCR allowed to confirm the C. parvum species; subsequently, the IIdA15G1 zoonotic subtype was identified. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first confirmed case in Slovakia of human cryptosporidiosis caused by the unique subtype IIdA15G1.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/classificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Eslováquia , Estudantes de Medicina , Medicina Veterinária , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/parasitologia
2.
Vet Rec ; 187(6): 238, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948724
3.
Planta Med ; 86(15): 1058-1072, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777833

RESUMO

Viruses have a high mutation rate, and, thus, there is a continual emergence of new antiviral-resistant strains. Therefore, it becomes imperative to explore and develop new antiviral compounds continually. The search for pharmacological substances of plant origin that are effective against animal viruses, which have a high mortality rate or cause large economic losses, has garnered interest in the last few decades. This systematic review compiles 130 plant species that exhibit antiviral activity on 37 different virus species causing serious diseases in animals. The kind of extract, fraction, or compound exhibiting the antiviral activity and the design of the trial were particularly considered for review. The literature revealed details regarding plant species exhibiting antiviral activities against pathogenic animal virus species of the following families-Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Parvoviridae, Poxviridae, Nimaviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae-that cause infections, among others, in poultry, cattle, pigs, horses, shrimps, and fish. Overall, 30 plant species exhibited activity against various influenza viruses, most of them causing avian influenza. Furthermore, 30 plant species were noted to be active against Newcastle disease virus. In addition, regarding the pathogens most frequently investigated, this review provides a compilation of 20 plant species active against bovine herpesvirus, 16 against fowlpox virus, 12 against white spot syndrome virus in marine shrimps, and 10 against suide herpesvirus. Nevertheless, some plant extracts, particularly their compounds, are promising candidates for the development of new antiviral remedies, which are urgently required.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais , Antivirais , Orthomyxoviridae , Plantas Medicinais , Doenças dos Animais/terapia , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Bovinos , Cavalos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suínos , Medicina Veterinária
4.
Vet Rec ; 187(3): 118-119, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764006
5.
Vet Rec ; 187(3): 118, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764007
8.
Vet Rec ; 187(2): e10, 2020 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646868

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic has been a challenging time for farm vets and their practices across the world, but how has the pandemic been seen by younger vets? Annie Kerr discusses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Medicina Veterinária/organização & administração , Animais , Humanos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(7): E36-E161, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715504

RESUMO

Dental, oral, and maxillofacial diseases are some of the most common problems in small animal veterinary practice. These conditions create significant pain as well as localized and potentially systemic infection. As such, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) believes that un- and under treated oral and dental diseases pose a significant animal welfare concern. Dentistry is an area of veterinary medicine which is still widely ignored and is subject to many myths and misconceptions. Effective teaching of veterinary dentistry in the veterinary school is the key to progression in this field of veterinary medicine, and to the improvement of welfare for all our patients globally. These guidelines were developed to provide veterinarians with the information required to understand best practices for dental therapy and create realistic minimum standards of care. Using the three-tiered continuing education system of WSAVA, the guidelines make global equipment and therapeutic recommendations and highlight the anaesthetic and welfare requirements for small animal patients. This document contains information on common oral and dental pathologies, diagnostic procedures (an easily implementable and repeatable scoring system for dental health, dental radiography and radiology) and treatments (periodontal therapy, extractions). Further, there are sections on anaesthesia and pain management for dental procedures, home dental care, nutritional information, and recommendations on the role of the universities in improving veterinary dentistry. A discussion of the deleterious effects of anaesthesia free dentistry (AFD) is included, as this procedure is ineffective at best and damaging at worst. Throughout the document the negative effects of undiagnosed and/or treated dental disease on the health and well-being of our patients, and how this equates to an animal welfare issue, is discussed.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Humanos , Dor/veterinária , Universidades
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 263-271, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729561

RESUMO

International trade in animals and animal products results in economic, social and scientific benefits. The risk of the transmission of diseases that affect both animal and human health through the movement of animals and animal products can be controlled by import health requirements. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is recognised by the World Trade Organization as the standard-setting body for international animal health standards covering the safe trade of animals and animal products. To ensure the safe trade of animals and animal products, without unnecessary restrictions, countries should harmonise their import health requirements with OIE standards. Governments should refer to the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, Aquatic Animal Health Code, Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals, standards that have been robustly developed to account for countries' differences in animal health status. Nevertheless, any determination of equivalence or requirement to achieve a higher level of protection should be based on risk analysis. Even though the use of OIE standards in veterinary certificates has benefits, there are several challenges that countries may encounter, such as legislative processes or inter-agency controls slowing down the flexibility of adopting import standards. Some countries may also encounter difficulties in meeting the standards due to operational practicalities. Although private standards have not been significantly involved in regulating animal health, this may present challenges to the universality and fairness of international standards in the future. Lastly, it is important to stay up to date with technology, such as electronic certification, that enhances the certification system for international trade to ensure the authenticity and efficiency of certification.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Comércio , Saúde Global , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Internacionalidade
13.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 245-252, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729563

RESUMO

Establishing trust in national systems for assurance of animal health and food safety is a key step in any importing country's consideration of whether a potential trading partner can meet its appropriate level of protection. Private veterinarians, veterinary para-professionals (VPPs) and aquatic animal health professionals (AAHPs) play a crucial role in national Veterinary Services, formally or informally, and across the whole spectrum of national animal and public health activities. Private veterinarians, AAHPs or VPPs are engaged as part of the national Veterinary Services and in various forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in many countries worldwide. In many cases, authorised private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs enable the national Veterinary or Aquatic Animal Health Services as a whole to do more work over a wider geographical area and thus have a greater impact than publicly employed professionals working alone. The deployment of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs directly or in PPP arrangements strengthens national services and enhances their ability to deliver reliable animal health and food safety assurance. To ensure that private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs deliver to their full potential, effective and efficient systems for training, accreditation, monitoring and audit are essential. This article draws on data from published OIE Performance of Veterinary Services evaluations (from 2007 to the present) and unpublished responses to the OIE 2017 questionnaire on PPPs, to draw insights into the use and accreditation of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs globally.


Assuntos
Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Acreditação , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Setor Privado , Saúde Pública
14.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 193-200, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729568

RESUMO

With the expansion and intensification of international trade in animals and animal products in the last decades, the risk of the spread of transboundary animal diseases has increased. Veterinary Authorities may take legitimate measures at import to protect their territories' animal and human populations, and may require official assurances for imported animals or animal products. These measures have often led to overly stringent restrictions or even wide embargoes that may have a counterproductive effect. In order to avoid unjustified barriers to trade, the World Trade Organization's Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures recognises the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as the international references to be followed for animal health measures. The OIE standards provide for scientifically based recommendations for risk mitigation measures before and after international movements, depending on the disease and the commodity. They also provide for import risk analysis and bilateral equivalence methodologies, as well as certification rules and border inspection procedures. In order to provide confidence that trade requirements are met, exporting countries' Veterinary Authorities need to implement national assurance systems. For that reason, OIE Members should primarily follow the OIE standards for quality Veterinary Services. Veterinary Authorities are invited to use the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code), Aquatic Animal Health Code, Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals to build capable services and implement sound and effective measures. The User's Guide of the Terrestrial Code lists the elements that are essential to achieving this.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Comércio , Saúde Global , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Internacionalidade
15.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 143-153, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729572

RESUMO

For a country to have confidence in the health status of the animals or animal goods it is importing, it must also have confidence in the performance of the exporting country's Veterinary Service. An exporting country's Veterinary Service may be judged by its management of the health status of its animal population and by the governance of its export process. Effectiveness in both arenas provides prospective importing countries with confidence in the sanitary status of that nation's exports and facilitates international trade. Assessing the performance of Veterinary Services across borders, however, can be a complex process, which depends on building trust and exchanging information between independent jurisdictions and the relevant scientific and regulatory authorities. In this paper, the authors introduce some of the fundamental facts and concepts of regulatory cooperation at the multilateral and bilateral level. They also discuss why such initiatives matter when attempting to increase safe trade in animals and animal products. In addition, the authors address ways in which such cooperation could be undertaken more effectively; specifically, by supporting the implementation of the health standards set by the World Organisation for Animal Health while facilitating the seamless flow of animal goods. The authors conclude by presenting a case study of the trade in animals and animal products between Australia and New Zealand, as an example of best practice in international regulatory cooperation leading to more and safer trade.


Assuntos
Comércio , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Austrália , Internacionalidade , Nova Zelândia , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 119-130, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729573

RESUMO

According to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), zoning is a risk management strategy for achieving the progressive control and eradication of animal diseases, and for providing guarantees for international trade. The implementation and effectiveness of zoning relies on the quality of Veterinary Services. Eradicating a disease and securing trading partners' recognition of this disease-free status demands resources, and promotes economic and fruitful development. It also guarantees the sanitary safety of trade, provided that OIE standards are applied and the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) is complied with. The OIE international standards and the SPS Agreement lay down provisions for the effective implementation of zoning and the recognition of disease-free zones. Although animal-disease-free statuses place such zones in a favourable position with regard to exporting their products to the international market, they can create internal restrictions between regions of the same country with differing statuses. As a general rule, each importing country implements its own evaluation procedure, independent of OIE official recognition. While this usually provides for information evaluation and an on-site inspection mission, there is no harmonisation between countries regarding the methodology or the information required for risk assessment. Recognition of a disease-free zone does not imply automatic permission to export any product from that zone. Firstly, it is necessary to request that the market be opened for each product in question, guaranteeing the conditions demanded by the target market (risk analysis and animal health certification). To benefit from external markets, there are ways of speeding up bilateral recognition of disease-free zones, such as bilateral veterinary agreements or free trade agreements that establish clear areas and procedures to be implemented by trading partner countries. The ongoing exchange of information among countries builds trust among their Veterinary Services and authorities, which leads to expedited recognition procedures. The work of the OIE (Pathway for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services [PVS Pathway], OIE Observatory) and the WTO Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Committee) (enforcement mechanisms) should be strengthened to assist countries in implementing zoning.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Comércio , Cooperação Internacional , Internacionalidade , América do Sul
17.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 57-67, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729578

RESUMO

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is a major actor in international cooperation to improve animal health and welfare throughout the world. The OIE sets international standards to support Member Countries in their efforts to prevent and control animal diseases, strengthen Veterinary Services and Aquatic Animal Health Services, and facilitate safe international trade. Member Countries face many challenges in the implementation of OIE standards. Poor governance and a lack of resources and technical capacity are often major constraints. Trade concerns raised at the World Trade Organization (WTO) can also be a signal that countries are experiencing difficulties in implementing international standards. In May 2018, the World Assembly of OIE Delegates adopted a resolution recommending the establishment of an observatory to monitor the implementation of OIE standards. This monitoring mechanism will help the OIE to improve its international standard-setting process and identify the capacity-building needs of Member Countries. Monitoring implementation will be challenging as the OIE does not prescribe a specific procedure for implementing OIE standards. World Organisation for Animal Health Member Countries use a range of approaches to implement OIE standards, because of differences in animal health situations, legal frameworks and procedures, trade profiles, and acceptable levels of risk. Given this complexity, this article proposes a 'cross-over' approach to monitoring implementation that would require the collection of information from various trusted sources, such as the World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS), the OIE Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Pathway mission reports and the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary Information Management System database. This approach aims to document what is currently happening and to identify potential patterns in Member Country practices when implementing OIE standards.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Comércio , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Internacionalidade
20.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(3): 290-306, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486943

RESUMO

The 8-week dairy production medicine course at the National Center of Excellence in Dairy Production Medicine Education for Veterinarians is designed to equip senior veterinary students with the knowledge and skills needed to serve the dairy industry. Course developers identified 59 topics of importance for dairy production medicine veterinarians. Students (N = 50) were surveyed before and after the course to determine their perceptions of (a) the importance of the 59 topics for their intended positions and (b) their knowledge and skill in those areas. We expected the course to affirm or strengthen perceptions of importance and increase confidence. Students rated 57 of the topics as moderately or very important before the course. Ratings were unchanged (56 topics) or increased (3 topics) after the course. Before the course, students believed they had a lot of knowledge and skill in just one area: animal behavior and handling. At the end of the course, students believed they had a lot of knowledge and skill in 21 areas; confidence ratings were higher for 47 of the 59 topics. Alumni were surveyed 1-2 years after graduation to determine the importance of the 59 topics to their positions, their impressions about how well the course prepared them in those areas, and whether they referred back to course materials. Feedback was used to adjust the course. The topics alumni rated as most important were similar to those students predicted would be most important. Seventy-five percent of alumni used the course website as a resource in practice.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Atitude , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Estudantes
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