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1.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-ES-PROF | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46995

RESUMO

Incluye los resultados recuperados en la base de datos "Disaster Lit: Database for Disaster Medicine and Public Health" sobre el nuevo coronavirus 2019. Contiene enlaces a documentos gratuitos en Internet especializados en medicina de desastres y salud pública: guías, informes de investigación, actas de congresos, material de formación, folletos, sitios web, bases de datos y otro tipo de material dirigido a un público profesional. La NLM selecciona los materiales de entre más de 1.400 fuentes de publicación no comerciales y complementa los recursos con la base de datos PubMed y MedlinePlus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Medicina de Desastres
2.
FP Essent ; 487: 2, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799814
3.
FP Essent ; 487: 11-16, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799815

RESUMO

Understanding common public health threats is critical in preparing for disasters and improving community resilience. Disasters can be natural (eg, earthquakes, landslides, floods, hurricanes, wildfires) or technological (ie, man-made) (eg, mass shootings, bioterrorism). Disasters caused by climate change constitute a combination of these two types-cases in which man-made actions have long-term consequences through natural disasters. After a disaster, immediate public health concerns include access to water and sanitation. Other concerns include safety and security, possible infectious disease outbreaks, mental health issues, and increased risk of human trafficking. Disease outbreaks often occur due to lack of potable water and disruption of sewage disposal systems. Mental stress and mental disorders, such as acute stress disorders and anxiety disorders, should be recognized and addressed. Chaos after disasters can overwhelm law enforcement, increasing the risk of violence and human trafficking for vulnerable populations. Disasters can have a devastating effect on health care infrastructure, increase the need for mortuary and morgue services, and increase demands on the health care system.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Humanos , Saúde Pública
4.
FP Essent ; 487: 17-22, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799816

RESUMO

The phases of emergency management are mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Optimal disaster response requires knowledge and understanding of the US disaster response structure. In a disaster, the local government is the first to start a response. It initiates the incident command system, activates the local emergency management plan, sets up an emergency operations center (EOC), and activates mutual aid agreements as needed. Assistance from the state and federal governments may be requested. Hospitals respond using the hospital incident command system. The incident commander declares a hospital emergency, sets up an EOC, and uses the predisaster hazard vulnerability analysis tool to choose the incident action plan specific to the hazard. Principles of the crisis standard of care are used in disaster response when health care needs overwhelm available resources. Alert systems are critical to inform personnel and the public about weather conditions, evacuation orders, and closures of roads and health care facilities. Family physicians can play an important role during disaster response, including patient notification and immediate discharge or transfer of patients with less serious acute conditions from the hospital and emergency department to free beds.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Desastres Naturais , Saúde Pública
5.
FP Essent ; 487: 23-26, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799817

RESUMO

Family physicians are well positioned to educate patients about creating their own disaster plans. Disaster preparedness education for individuals and families should include information about creation of Go Bags and personal and family emergency kits. Patients should be advised to include an updated printed or electronic list of their drugs and dosages in case of emergencies. To ensure disaster preparedness education is provided, physicians can offer printed materials or provide information on the office website. Patients who are part of vulnerable populations (eg, elderly patients, pregnant women, children, patients with disabilities) and patients with significant health issues need individualized disaster preparedness plans. During a disaster, patients receiving chemotherapy or facility-based dialysis should be prioritized for transport to facilities that can provide these services. Family physician offices should have disaster plans that are scalable to meet needs during any type of disaster. Planning should include alert systems for patients and staff, access to electronic health records, simulations and drills, mutual aid agreements with local organizations, and personal physician and staff needs during a disaster.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
6.
FP Essent ; 487: 27-33, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799818

RESUMO

Volunteering during a disaster is helpful only if there is a need for assistance. Clinicians should not self-deploy to disaster areas. Disaster responders should understand the incident command system, know how to perform reverse triage, and be familiar with the three commonly used mass casualty triage algorithms. The medical supplies needed and types of injuries expected depend on the disaster type and severity. The safety of responders is a priority. As such, they may be required to receive appropriate vaccinations, take prophylactic antibiotics, use personal protective equipment, and take measures to minimize the risk of injury and manage stress. Law enforcement should ensure the safety of a disaster scene before responders enter the area. Patients with life-threatening injuries require immediate stabilization and evacuation to a health care facility. Trauma complications, vector-borne diseases, and mental disorders should be addressed the first day after a disaster and should be managed continuously.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Humanos , Triagem
7.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(8): 459-462, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479599

RESUMO

The use of point-of-care diagnostics can prevent a number of complications and leading to improved health outcomes for patients in critical condition. Research have shown that elongation of the preanalytic stage leading of errors of studies and changes the results of a number of laboratory parameters. The article presents the key problems associated with the elongation of the preanalytic stage and possible solutions to address the shortcomings of existing diagnostics.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Medicina de Desastres , Testes Imediatos , Fase Pré-Analítica , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Laboratórios
8.
Crit Care Clin ; 35(4): 717-725, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445616

RESUMO

Emergency and critical care medicine are fraught with ethically challenging decision making for clinicians, patients, and families. Time and resource constraints, decisional-impaired patients, and emotionally overwhelmed family members make obtaining informed consent, discussing withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining treatments, and respecting patient values and preferences difficult. When illness or trauma is secondary to disaster, ethical considerations increase and change based on number of casualties, type of disaster, and anticipated life cycle of the crisis. This article considers the ethical issues that arise when health providers are confronted with the challenges of caring for victims of disaster.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/ética , Desastres , Prioridades em Saúde/ética , Cuidados Críticos/ética , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Triagem/ética
9.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(3): 181-198, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245829

RESUMO

The objective of this article is to address the glaring deficiency in educating emergency managers with regard to the financial aspects of Emergency Management (EM) and suggest curriculum changes. This article reviews 313 Higher Education Programs in EM located in 189 institutions of higher education in the United States to determine which include courses in the financial aspects of EM. The programs reviewed range from undergraduate certificates to PhD Degrees in EM. Of the 313 EM programs, only 78 [24.8 percent] have any courses discussing accounting, budgeting, economics, or finance either as a required or restricted elective course. Only nine [2.9 percent] courses focus on the financial issues of EM. Based upon the data reported, the author suggests changes in EM education as a starting point in the necessary discussion of what an EM educational program should cover.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/educação , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Administração Financeira , Estudantes/psicologia , Currículo , Coleta de Dados , Medicina de Desastres/economia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(3): 217-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245833

RESUMO

Disaster mental health (DMH), also referred to as disaster behavioral health, and crisis intervention more broadly, is a significant, yet relatively nonstandardized response system in the United States. Higher education can play a critical role in shifting understanding of DMH, its place within emergency management, and skills building among students. With the increased need for qualified DMH practitioners growing, the academy is uniquely positioned to train students as they become our future responders. Movement toward standardized curriculum and certification programs within schools of social work and emergency management can alleviate lack of knowledge and training as well as better prepare emergency managers and behavioral health professionals to respond to the emotional and mental wellbeing of those impacted by disasters (natural or human-caused).


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/educação , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Emergências , Saúde Mental/educação , Currículo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
11.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(3): 225-238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals leading nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) often lack adequate training to best serve their communities' needs during disaster recovery even as they are often tasked with filling in gaps left by governmental and private resources. Thus, it is essential that education and training initiatives address NGO efforts specifically. This paper identifies training and education needs as proffered by organizational representatives that have themselves been involved in long-term recovery efforts following disasters in the past 10 years across Texas. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS: Qualitative interviews with nearly 100 local NGO representatives, government officials, and regional and state-level NGO representatives were conducted using purposive and snowball sampling. The participants conducted recovery activities in six different locations in Texas since 2008. RESULTS: Many respondents noted that they had little experience in disaster recovery and a lack of understanding of what recovery involved. Interviewees identified needs for training including how to coordinate recovery tasks among multiple organizations and agencies (eg, who to involve, what skillsets are needed, what group structure should be formed), how to distribute financial and nonfinancial resources (eg, how to prioritize needs, how to distribute funds, who should receive funding), and how to manage media and external organizational attention. CONCLUSION: This paper provides recommendations for augmenting existing NGO training and educational activities and developing new training schemes offering practical advice from recovery leaders who have been on the frontline of recent disasters.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Organizações , Humanos , Texas
12.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(3): 230-240, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies, developed in 2017 (CFDET 2017), aims to unify and facilitate agreement regarding the identification, structure, and relationships between various evaluation typologies found in the disaster setting. A peer-reviewed validation process sought input from international experts in the fields of disaster medicine, disaster/emergency management, humanitarian/development, and evaluation. This paper discusses the validation process, its results, and outcomes.Research Problem:Previous frameworks, identified in the literature, lack validation and consistent terminology. To gain credibility and utility, this unique framework needed to be validated by international experts in the disaster setting. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was designed to validate the framework. An initial iterative process informed an online survey which used a combination of a five-point Likert scale and open-ended questions. Pre-determined consensus thresholds, informed by a targeted literature review, provided the validation criteria. RESULTS: A sample of 33 experts from 11 countries responded to the validation process. Quantitative measures largely supported the elements and relationships of the framework, and strongly supported its value and usefulness for supporting, promoting, and undertaking evaluations, as well as its usefulness for teaching evaluation in the disaster setting. Qualitative input suggested opportunities to strengthen and enhance the framework. There were limited responses to better understand the barriers and enablers of undertaking disaster evaluations. A potential for self-selection bias of respondents may be a limitation of this study. The attainment of high consensus thresholds, however, provides confidence in the validity of the results. CONCLUSION: For the first time, a framework of this nature has undergone a rigorous validation process by experts in three related disciplines at an international level. The modified framework, CFDET 2018, provides a unifying framework within which existing evaluation typologies can be structured. It gives evaluators confidence to choose an appropriate strategy for their particular evaluation in the disaster setting and facilitates consistency in reporting across the different phases of a disaster to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Future research could create a series of toolkits to support improved disaster evaluation processes and to evaluate the utility of the framework in the real-world setting.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres/prevenção & controle , Agências Internacionais/organização & administração , Revisão por Pares , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Inovação Organizacional , Controle de Qualidade , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
13.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(5): 817-826, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061350

RESUMO

The use of medical supply vehicles (mobile pharmacies) as a disaster measure developed after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 when a massive tsunami destroyed the medicine supply system. In the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, mobile pharmacies were dispatched from Oita, Wakayama, and Hiroshima and contributed to medical treatment in the disaster area. In this study, we conducted an interview to structure the mental conflicts of the pharmacists supporting the disaster victims by means of the mobile pharmacies, a novel medical support tool. We conducted a semi-structured interview of 21 pharmacists. The modified grounded theory approach was used for data collection and analysis. As a result, 36 concepts and 13 categories were generated. The support pharmacists maintained mobile pharmacies as a method for cooperation among multiple occupations, and talked about further collaboration in the operation of mobile pharmacies.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Terremotos , Saúde Mental , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Farmácias , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Vítimas de Desastres , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Entrevistas como Assunto , Japão
14.
Transfusion ; 59(S2): 1587-1592, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980738

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that early transfusion of plasma or RBCs improves survival in patients with severe trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Time to initiate transfusion is the critical factor. It is essential that transfusion begin in the prehospital environment when transport times are longer than approximately 15 to 20 minutes. Unfortunately, logistic constraints severely limit the use of blood products in the prehospital setting, especially in military, remote civilian, and mass disaster circumstances, where the need can be most acute. US military requirements for logistically supportable blood products are projected to increase dramatically in future conflicts. Although dried plasma products have been available and safely used in a number of countries for over 20 years, there is no dried plasma product commercially available in the United States. A US Food and Drug Administration-approved dried plasma is urgently needed. Considering the US military, disaster preparedness, and remote civilian trauma perspectives, this is an urgent national health care issue.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Medicina de Desastres/métodos , Medicina Militar/métodos , Plasma , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Aprovação de Drogas , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
15.
Transfusion ; 59(S2): 1608-1611, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980745

RESUMO

Aerial drone technology is now in use to improve medical care, especially blood delivery. The use of aerial drones is broader than just this and includes aerial photography, express shipping and delivery, disaster management, search and rescue operations, crop monitoring, weather tracking, law enforcement, and structural assessment. This wide use promises to accelerate and, ideally, reduce the cost of technological advances of drones. By doing so, drone use offers the opportunity of improving health care, particularly in remote and/or underserved environments by decreasing lab testing turnaround times, enabling just-in-time lifesaving medical supply/device delivery, and reducing costs of routine prescription care in rural areas.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Transfusão de Sangue , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Medicina de Desastres , Medicina Militar , Transfusão de Sangue/instrumentação , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Medicina de Desastres/instrumentação , Medicina de Desastres/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Militar/instrumentação , Medicina Militar/métodos
16.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(1): 17-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933301

RESUMO

The Next Generation Core Competencies (NGCC) guide the professional development of future emergency managers. Once familiar roles are evolving as the world grows more interdependent; at the same time, disaster risk factors are intensified by the changing interactions between the social, built, and physical environments. The updated edition of emergency management core competencies is particularly important for refining the trajectory of the emergency management discipline and developing capacities requisite to reducing disaster risk and building resilient communities in the midst of a turbulent, complex, and uncertain future. The NGCC project was a multiphase study conducted by a FEMA-sponsored focus group. Oriented toward future needs, the competencies have been built on the current emergency management competencies, a review of related competencies and global risk trends, a multiphase Delphi study, and wider emergency management community listening sessions. Behavioral anchors and key actions for measurement accompany the new core competencies. The overarching goal of the work is to establish the next generation emergency management core competencies, which are likely to underpin the emergency management workforce of 2030 and beyond. The 13 core competencies fall into three nested categories that are interrelated, but have attributes that build the individual, the practitioner, or relationships.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Competência Clínica/normas , Medicina de Desastres/normas , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Medicina de Desastres/organização & administração , Grupos Focais , Humanos
17.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(1): 61-66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933306

RESUMO

This article examines the characteristics of a profession, the role of the higher education community and emerging discipline in the emergency management professionalization process, and analysis of the FEMA Higher Education Program's focus group efforts in support of the argument that successful professionalization efforts are necessarily dependent on emergency management higher education, an established emergency management academic discipline, and a robust body of knowledge.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/educação , Planejamento em Desastres , Competência Profissional , Desastres , Humanos
18.
IEEE Pulse ; 10(2): 24-27, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021754

RESUMO

2018 brought multiple, unprecedented natural disasters, including hurricanes, floods, and in the United States, the deadliest wildfire in California's history. After the immediate emergency is over and the media attention wanes, communities must deal with the long process of recovering and rebuilding. Yet, some of the greatest challenges that disaster victims face come not only from the disaster itself but also from the long-term health problems stemming from the event. In the immediate aftermath, physical injuries and infections must be treated and controlled. Long-term needs include mental and psychological assistance and reinstatement of the infrastructure of the health services system. While immediate casualty numbers are often cited following a natural disaster, it's the insidious and long-lasting health effects that can hurt communities for years.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Saúde Pública , California , Humanos
19.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(2): 87-99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As a distributed function, emergency management in higher education must involve students from outside the field. An introductory emergency management course was redesigned to be attractive and visible to nonmajors via approval for inclusion in the university's core general education curriculum. DESIGN: Pre-/post comparisons were made of enrollment data for two interventions intended to broaden the course's audience. Later, a survey assessed why students took the course. SETTING: A land grant research university serving over 14,000 undergraduate and graduate students. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were students taking the Department's introductory course. INTERVENTIONS: Two interventions involved the Department's entry level course originally titled, "Introduction to Emergency Management" and numbered at the sophomore level. First, the Department retitled the course, "Emergencies, Disasters, and Catastrophes," and renumbered the course at the freshman level. Second, the Department later requested and received approval to have the course accepted in the University's general education curriculum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Interventions were assessed by examining the average, annual number of nonmajors in the course, as well as, the academic diversity present among nonmajors. RESULTS: Both interventions, and especially the general education intervention, increased both enrollment measures. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid approval for the course's inclusion in general education validated faculty's acceptance of emergency management as an academic discipline while each intervention increased both the number and academic diversity of nonmajors. Long-term, the result should prepare nonemergency management leaders for emergency management as a distributed function.


Assuntos
Currículo , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Planejamento em Desastres , Emergências , Humanos , Universidades
20.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(2): 148-154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026052

RESUMO

Women and racial/ethnic minorities have long been underrepresented in the field of emergency management. This is true for both practice and research. The lack of women and racial/ethnic minorities in the profession and their perceived absence in research or scholarly study may have impacts on the effectiveness of response and recovery efforts as well as the broader scientific knowledge within the field. Historically, women and racial/ethnic minority communities have disproportionately experienced negative impacts following disasters. Earlier related studies have pointed to the underrepresentation as a contributing factor in community vulnerability. The scarcity of women in practice and as students in this field has been particularly evident in the United States. Using data from a recent survey of emergency management programs nationwide, this article reviews the concerns in research with regards to women and ethnic minority communities during disasters, efforts to increase representation of these groups in the field, and discusses the implications for practice, policy, and future research. The findings show that women have a strong presence in emergency management programs nationwide, and while specific data on racial and ethnic minorities are lacking, the observed increases reported in this article encourages further study.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/educação , Medicina de Emergência , Grupos Étnicos/educação , Bolsas de Estudo , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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