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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 291: 105-117, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593760

RESUMO

Social Media and the Internet of Things are nowadays full and strong components of day-to-day life worldwide. Both allow communicating with others 24 hours a day, 7 days a week without distance limitations. During the last decade, on-site citizens have shared disaster-related first reports on social media. Official institutions are using the same framework for delivering up-to-date and follow-up directives. Moreover, monitoring health risks, patients, and systems behavior in real-time over the Internet-of-Things allows detecting different levels of anomalies that might lead to critical events that need to be managed as an emergency. Emergency and disaster medicines deal with broad and complex medical, surgical, mental health, epidemiological, managerial, and communicational issues. Social Media platforms and the Internet of Things are technologies that increase cyber-physical interactions between individuals, machines, and their environment. The generated data over time are massive and are supporting the emergency or disaster mitigation process. This chapter deals with, in the first section, the social media platforms, and the Internet of Things. Then, at a second one, the concepts of emergency, disaster medicine and management are discussed. In the following two sections, we discuss applications and usages of social media and IoT technologies for improving the management (preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation) of emergencies and disasters as fundamental keys and pillars for efficiently handling the managerial information flow in emergency and disaster contexts.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Internet das Coisas , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Internet
2.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 37(3): 401-408, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disaster management (DM) is becoming increasingly complex because of technological advancement and the multi-organization and international contexts. Effective interoperability and adequate collaboration in DM have the potential to spare the human life and to control the economic burden. For those reasons, it's becoming important to find a way for systems and organizations that exploit, at the same time, the technological interoperability and team's interoperability.This study aims to provide an overview of the multi-organizational problems and solutions reflecting on achieving interoperability in multi-organizational DM. METHODS: The article is structured as a scoping review based on the Joanna Briggs Institute's (JBI) methodology for scoping reviews. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist was used to report the results. The selected papers were assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) checklists to screen their methodological quality.The scoping review was conducted systematically searching the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. The search algorithm was developed using the three key concepts "interoperability; multi-organizational; disaster medicine" translated into different possible search and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Studies of all research design types were considered. DISCUSSION: The included literature is reporting experiences on interoperability and how it has been applied to health care systems and organizations interacting during a disaster event. Twelve articles were included. Specific problems and solutions were identified regarding the technological and personnel interoperability, such as ineffective integration, technical problems, lack of an interoperability language, and data filtering network. The suggested approach might involve a focus on both the technological as well the human and personnel interoperability with the aim to create a culture of interoperability through compatible technological solutions and joint trainings. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified two main approaches during disasters: technology versus personnel interoperability. The suggested approach is to develop a hybrid culture of interoperability through compatible technological solutions combined to joint and multi-disciplinary trainings to achieve the development of a common language.Further research will need a solution-focused approach on the culture and language of interoperability as thematic gathering training, socio-technical networks, and policies/procedural guidelines.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Desastres , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Organizações
3.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 37(S1): s44-s50, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This report tries to capture the impact of the Project for Strengthening the ASEAN Regional Capacity on Disaster Health Management (ARCH Project) in each ASEAN Member State (AMS) and Japan as a result of the ARCH Project implementation since July 2016. METHODS: Impact on AMS: The analysis of the impact on AMS was based on a comparison of the impact of the project on management and coordination of Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs), and application of the project outcome in actual emergency operations compared to the previous status in each AMS.Impact on Japan: The history of the development of disaster medicine in Japan was reviewed, with an aim to analyze the impact of supporting AMS through the ARCH Project on Japan, and the possibility of bi-directional cooperation in the future. RESULTS: Impact on AMS: Since the initiation of the ARCH Project, AMS has made significant progress in WHO EMT accreditation, strengthening EMTCC capacity for receiving international assistance, as well as the development of legislation or strategic plans related to DHM, and application of the Project products such as standard operating procedures or regional tools in actual disasters/emergencies.Impact on Japan: Disaster medicine in Japan originated from the Cambodian refugees' relief mission in 1979. Since then, the management system has been strengthened including the foundation of the Japan Disaster Relief (JDR) Team, a structure with a legal foundation. The experience gained through international operations has contributed to the development of Japan's domestic disaster response system. Japan learned the operational effectiveness of the post-disaster health surveillance system through the disaster response operation in 2013 Typhoon Yolanda Disaster in Philippines and introduced a modified system in Japan for domestic disaster response, which was later refined and proposed for an international standard. CONCLUSION: ARCH Project is highly appreciated by AMS as the opportunity to share knowledge and experience among countries and thereby contributing to achieving the "One ASEAN, One Response" concept, as well as the driving force for each AMS to develop its capacity in DHM. While the ARCH Project started to support AMS to strengthen its regional capacity in disaster health management, it is important to build a bi-directional relationship between ASEAN and Japan in terms of mutual learning and support to tackle future disasters.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Humanos , Japão
4.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 256(3): 187-195, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314526

RESUMO

In situations of a disaster, it has been observed that the damage suffered by women and men is not equal. The vulnerability of women during disasters has been the focus of several studies and disaster management guidelines. Records show that there were more women victims than men victims in both the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995 and the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) in 2011. Biologically speaking, women are physically less fit than men are; hence, they are more susceptible to physical disabilities induced by disasters and may be disadvantaged in evacuation situations. However, vulnerability of women during disasters is a complex problem that involves physical fitness, as well as other various factors. In the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR) adopted in 2015, prioritized actions such as "Build Back Better" were defined based on the GEJE experiences. In the SFDRR, in addition to vulnerability of women during disasters, medical services including maternal, newborn, and child health and sexual and reproductive health are considered the key factors for disaster risk reduction. This has been discussed in all phases of disaster risk reduction planning and post-disaster response. These findings suggest that the role of obstetrics and gynecology is comprehensive and important as a part of disaster medicine at the local and national levels, as recommended in the SFDRR. In this review, we summarized the management of women's health and gynecological responses during disasters and considered the importance of women as stakeholders in disaster risk reduction.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Terremotos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
5.
Am J Nurs ; 122(2): 62-63, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085157
6.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(2): e635-e638, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Because training in pediatric disaster medicine (PDM) is neither required nor standardized for pediatric residents, we designed and integrated a PDM course into the curriculum of a pediatric residency program and assessed if participation increased participants' knowledge of managing disaster victims. METHODS: We adapted and incorporated a previously studied PDM course into a small-sized pediatric residency program. The curriculum consisted of didactic lectures and experiential learning via simulation with structured debriefing. With IRB approval, the authors conducted a longitudinal series of pretests and posttests to assess knowledge and perceptions. RESULTS: Sixteen eligible residents completed the intervention. Before the course, none of the residents reported experience treating disaster victims. Pairwise comparison of scores revealed a 35% improvement in scores immediately after completing the course (95% confidence interval, 22.73%-47.26%; P < 0.001) and a 23.73% improvement 2 months later (95% confidence interval, 7.12%-40.34%; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Residents who completed this course increased their knowledge of PDM with moderate retention of knowledge gained. There was a significant increase in perceived ability to manage patients in a disaster situation after this educational intervention and the residents' confidence was preserved 2 months later. This PDM course may be used in future formulation of a standardized curriculum.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Desastres , Internato e Residência , Criança , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 610, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disaster medicine is a component of the German medical education since 2003. Nevertheless, studies have shown some inconsistencies within the implementation of the national curriculum, and limits in the number of students trained over the years. Recently, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and other disasters have called attention to the importance of training medical students in disaster medicine on a coordinated basis. The aim of this study is to present and evaluate the disaster medicine and humanitarian assistance course, which was developed in the University of Tübingen, Germany. METHODS: The University Clinic for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine in Tübingen expanded the existing curriculum of undergraduate disaster medicine training with fundamentals of humanitarian medicine, integrating distance learning, interactive teaching and simulation sessions in a 40 h course for third-, fourth- and fifth- year medical students. This prospective and cross-sectional study evaluates the Disaster Medicine and Humanitarian Assistance course carried out over five semesters during the period between 2018 and 2020. Three survey tools were used to assess participants' previous experiences and interest in the field of disaster medicine, to compare the subjective and objective level of knowledge before and after training, and to evaluate the course quality. RESULTS: The total number of medical students attending the five courses was n = 102 of which n = 60 females (59%) and n = 42 males (41%). One hundred two students entered the mandatory knowledge assessment, with the rate of correct answers passing from 73.27% in the pre-test to 95.23% in the post-test (t [101] = 18.939, p < .001, d = 1.88). To determine the subjective perception of knowledge data were collected from 107 observations. Twenty-five did not complete the both questionnaires. Out of a remaining sample of 82 observations, the subjective perception of knowledge increased after the course (t [81] = 24.426, p < .001, d = 2.69), alongside with the interest in engaging in the field of disaster medicine (t [81] = 7.031, p < .001, d = .78). The 93.46% of the medical students (n = 100) graded the training received with an excellent overall score (1.01 out of 6). CONCLUSION: The study indicates a significant increase in students' understanding of disaster medicine using both subjective and objective measurements, as well as an increase interest in the field of disaster medicine and humanitarian assistance. Whereas former studies showed insufficient objective knowledge regarding disaster medical practices as well as subjective insecurities about their skills and knowledge to deal with disaster scenarios, the presented course seems to overcome these deficiencies preparing future physicians with the fundamentals of analysis and response to disasters. The development and successful implementation of this course is a first step towards fulfilling disaster medicine education requirements, appearing to address the deficiencies documented in previous studies. A possible adaptation with virtual reality approaches could expand access to a larger audience. Further effort must be made to develop also international training programs, which should be a mandatory component of medical schools' curricula.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina de Desastres , Socorro em Desastres , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(5): 536-542, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486507

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Scientific reporting on major incidents, mass-casualty incidents (MCIs), and disasters is challenging and made difficult by the nature of the medical response. Many obstacles might explain why there are few and primarily non-heterogenous published articles available. This study examines the process of scientific reporting through first-hand experiences from authors of published reports. It aims to identify learning points and challenges that are important to address to mitigate and improve scientific reporting after major incidents. METHODS: This was a qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Participants were selected based on a comprehensive literature search. Ten researchers, who had published reports on major incidents, MCIs, or disasters from 2013-2018 were included, of both genders, from eight countries on three continents. The researchers reported on large fires, terrorist attacks, shootings, complex road accidents, transportation accidents, and earthquakes. RESULTS: The interview was themed around initiation, workload, data collection, guidelines/templates, and motivation factors for reporting. The most challenging aspects of the reporting process proved to be a lack of dedicated time, difficulties concerning data collection, and structuring the report. Most researchers had no prior experience in reporting on major incidents. Guidelines and templates were often chosen based on how easily accessible and user-friendly they were. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: There are few articles presenting first-hand experience from the process of scientific reporting on major incidents, MCIs, and disasters. This study presents motivation factors, challenges during reporting, and factors that affected the researchers' choice of reporting tools such as guidelines and templates. This study shows that the structural tools available for gathering data and writing scientific reports need to be more widely promoted to improve systematic reporting in Emergency and Disaster Medicine. Through gathering, comparing, and analyzing data, knowledge can be acquired to strengthen and improve responses to future major incidents. This study indicates that transparency and willingness to share information are requisite for forming a successful scientific report.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Terrorismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Editoração , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(4): Doc79, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056068

RESUMO

Objectives: Floods, earthquakes and terror attacks in recent years emphasize the importance of disaster preparedness for the medical community. To best prepare doctors for providing optimal care in disaster situations, specific education and training should start at the medical school level. This study containes an online survey among German medical schools to evaluate the status quo of teaching disaster medicine and to reveal potential obstacles. Methods: The dean's offices of 36 German medical schools were contacted from April 2016 to May 2017. Via an e-mail link, recipients could anonymously and voluntarily access an online questionnaire (74 items, 42 with a four-point "Likert-like" scale, 12 yes/no questions and 20 with listed items to choose from). The answers were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 25 medical schools participated in the survey. Twenty respondents were in favor of expanding disaster medicine teaching at their institutions. Incorporating single topics ranging from triage (n=21) to accidents involving radioactive materials (n=4) into the curriculum varied widely. Only two schools had established a teaching coordinator for disaster medicine and only one e-learning course had been established. Twenty-one respondents regarded funding issues and 18 regarded organizational matters to be major hurdles in the future. Conclusion: Though most faculty representatives indicated that they favor expanding and implementing disaster medicine education, German medical schools still have a lot of room for enhancement in this field. The incorporation of e-learning tools could facilitate the expansion of disaster medicine teaching while simultaneously addressing the expressed concerns of the survey's participants and guarantee nationwide standardization.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Educação Médica , Currículo/tendências , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805225

RESUMO

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 placed human health at the centre of disaster risk reduction, calling for the global community to enhance local and national health emergency and disaster risk management (Health EDRM). The Health EDRM Framework, published in 2019, describes the functions required for comprehensive disaster risk management across prevention, preparedness, readiness, response, and recovery to improve the resilience and health security of communities, countries, and health systems. Evidence-based Health EDRM workforce development is vital. However, there are still significant gaps in the evidence identifying common competencies for training and education programmes, and the clarification of strategies for workforce retention, motivation, deployment, and coordination. Initiated in June 2020, this project includes literature reviews, case studies, and an expert consensus (modified Delphi) study. Literature reviews in English, Japanese, and Chinese aim to identify research gaps and explore core competencies for Health EDRM workforce training. Thirteen Health EDRM related case studies from six WHO regions will illustrate best practices (and pitfalls) and inform the consensus study. Consensus will be sought from global experts in emergency and disaster medicine, nursing, public health and related disciplines. Recommendations for developing effective health workforce strategies for low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries will then be disseminated.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Emergências , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos
13.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(11): 1021-1026, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901040

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Disasters (both natural and man-made) are escalating worldwide, resulting in a significant increase in survivors with complex and long-term disabling injuries. Physical and rehabilitation medicine is integral in disaster management and should be included in all phases of the disaster management continuum, which comprise mitigation/prevention, preparation, response, and recovery phases. This Joel A. DeLisa Lecture was presented on February 11, 2021, at the Association of Academic Physiatrists Annual Scientific Meeting-"Physiatry 21." The lecture highlights the synergistic position of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine and the Disaster Rehabilitation Committee, to provide crucial leadership and governance role in liaison and coordination with the World Health Organization (and other stakeholders), to provide rehabilitation input during future disasters.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/tendências , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/tendências , Medicina de Desastres/métodos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/métodos , Sociedades Médicas
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 148-155, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Communication failures secondary to damaged infrastructure have caused difficulties in coordinating disaster responses. Two-way radios commonly serve as backup communication for hospitals. However, text messaging has become widely adopted in daily life and new technologies such as wireless mesh network (WMN) devices allow for text messaging independent of cellular towers, Wi-Fi networks, and electrical grids. OBJECTIVE: To examine the accuracy of communication using text-based messaging transmitted over WMN devices (TEXT-WMN) compared to voice transmitted over two-way radios (VOICE-TWR) in disaster simulations. Secondary outcomes were patient triage accuracy, perceived workload, and device preference. METHODS: 2 × 2 Latin square crossover design: 2 simulations (each involving 15 min of simulated hospital-wide disaster communication) by 2 modalities (TEXT-WMN and VOICE-TWR). Physicians were randomized to one of two sequences: VOICE-TWR first and TEXT-WMN second; or TEXT-WMN first and VOICE-TWR second. Analyses were conducted using linear mixed effects modeling. RESULTS: On average, communication accuracy significantly improved with TEXT-WMN compared to VOICE-TWR. Communication accuracy also significantly improved, on average, during the second simulation compared to the first. There was no significant change in triage accuracy with either TEXT-WMN or VOICE-TWR; however, triage accuracy significantly improved, on average, during the second simulation compared to the first. On average, perceived workload was significantly lower with TEXT-WMN compared to VOICE-TWR, and was also significantly lower during the second simulation compared to the first. Most participants preferred TEXT-WMN to VOICE-TWR. CONCLUSION: TEXT-WMN technology may be more effective and less burdensome than VOICE-TWR in facilitating accurate communication during disasters.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Sistemas de Comunicação entre Serviços de Emergência , Medicina de Emergência Pediátrica , Rádio , Treinamento por Simulação , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Comunicação , Estudos Cross-Over , Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Triagem , Tecnologia sem Fio , Carga de Trabalho
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922145

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners established the WHO Thematic Platform for Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management Research Network (HEALTH EDRM RN) in 2016 to respond to the increasing burden of recent health emergencies and disasters. The mission of the HEALTH EDRM RN, whose secretariat is located at the WHO Kobe Centre (WKC), is to promote global research collaboration and strengthen research activities to inform policies and programs by generating new evidence to manage health risks associated with all types of emergencies and disasters. With the strong support and involvement of all WHO regional offices, the HEALTH EDRM RN now works with more than 200 global experts and partners to pursue its mission. The first Core Group Meetings of the HEALTH EDRM RN were held on 17-18 October 2019, and concluded with the HEALTH EDRM RN-activity priorities to (1) promote operational research to better meet the needs of emergency- and disaster-exposed individuals and communities and efforts to translate science to policies and programs and (2) strengthen the research capacity of the Health EDRM community. In collaboration with the Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine, the WKC held a workshop on 21 February 2020, in which 20 Japanese experts from different research fields participated to further discuss these two points. This paper summarizes the discussion at the workshop.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Emergências , Humanos , Japão , Gestão de Riscos
16.
MedEdPORTAL ; 17: 11119, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768151

RESUMO

Introduction: Emergency medicine (EM) physicians serve at the frontline of disasters in our communities. The 2016 Model of Clinical Practice according to the American Board of EM identifies disaster management as an integral task of EM physicians. We described a low-cost and feasible tabletop exercise to implement such training for EM residents. Methods: The exercise took place during 2 hours of resident didactic time. A lecture introduced the incident command system (ICS) and triage concepts, followed by a tabletop scenario with a map of a disaster scene or emergency department. Facilitators presented situational prompts of tasks for residents to address during the exercise. These exposed residents to challenges in disaster scenarios, such as surge and limited resources. The exercise concluded with a debrief and short lecture reviewing scenario-specific topics and challenges. Residents completed an online pre- and postexercise assessment, evaluating knowledge and perceptions of disaster scenario management. Results: Eighteen residents participated in this exercise. The response rates to the pre- and postsurvey were 76% and 72% respectively. Using a Mann Whitney U test, no statistically significant difference was demonstrated on the medical knowledge component of the survey. There was, however, a statistically significant increase in perceived confidence of the residents' ability to manage disaster incidents. Discussion: We developed a simple exercise that is an easily adaptable and practical option for introduction to disaster preparedness training. These concepts are difficult to teach and assess among learners, however it remains an important component of education for EM physicians-in-training.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Desastres , Medicina de Emergência , Internato e Residência , Currículo , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 253(3): 159-170, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762509

RESUMO

The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) has renewed the paradigm of disaster medicine. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (TJEM) widened its scope to include the disaster science from the health perspectives. TJEM has been accumulating 76 articles related with "disaster" or "pandemic" out of which 69 were published after 2011. Tohoku University established the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) that took initiative to impact the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework) to include health aspect. Sendai Framework provided the platform for collaboration of different sectors, including the terminology that defines the concept of disaster, risk, hazard & exposure, vulnerability and coping capacity. Disaster medicine covers the diverse causes and damages of disasters by various hazards in this globalized and rapidly changing world. TJEM articles range the physical and mental health damage after the GEJE and other disasters with approved ethical consideration of investigations from the view point of affected area, mechanisms of hazard to affect human health including the radiation, virus or hazardous materials, proposal of refinement of health system to cope with disasters such as mental health support, risk communication, disaster medical coordination and hospital business continuity plan and future perspectives with reconstruction including Tohoku Medical Megabank Project. TJEM scope on disaster medicine had been widened during the 10 years after GEJE and IRIDeS can be the bridging hub not only between the health sector and other sectors, but also between disaster medicine and other medical disciplines.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres/tendências , Terremotos , Planejamento em Desastres , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Japão , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Terminologia como Assunto , Tsunamis
18.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607672

RESUMO

Disaster medicine faces complex challenges and will play an increasing role in the future. Disaster medicine is dominated by a phased imbalance of available and required resources. Various factors, such as a possible hazard for the rescue forces, inaccessible terrain or even destroyed infrastructure increase the complexity enormously. For casualties, this can mean a concentration of medical care on life-threatening conditions. The primary goal of emergency planning is to ensure standard or contingency care and to avoid crisis care.Hospitals and the preclinical emergency organizations must prepare for possible major emergencies or disasters. Easy-to-understand and just as easy to apply emergency plans are an important prerequisite for successful emergency management. These plans can only be guiding structures; the adaptation to the actual circumstances of the incident and the situation-adapted interpretation of the plans is the responsibility of the operational commanders. A clear leadership structure is essential for both preclinical and clinical operations. In this article, we describe important basic principles of disaster medicine mission planning and management.


Assuntos
Medicina de Desastres , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais
19.
Nurs Adm Q ; 45(2): 142-151, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587412

RESUMO

Whether natural or human-induced, disasters are a global issue that impact health care systems' operations, especially in the acute care setting. The current COVID-19 pandemic is a recent illustration of how health care systems and providers, especially nurses, respond to a rapidly evolving crisis. Nurse leaders in the acute care setting are pivotal in responding to the multifactorial challenges caused by a disaster. A quality improvement project was developed to increase nurse leaders' knowledge and confidence in disaster management during the COVID-19 pandemic at 2 Magnet-designated acute care hospitals within the John Muir Health system in Northern California. A total of 50 nurse leaders initially participated in this project, with 33 participants completing the postintervention survey. Results indicated significant improvement in perceived knowledge and confidence in disaster management after the intervention. Qualitative responses from project participants highlighted the need to annualize educational opportunities to sustain knowledge and consistently review emergency management operations plans. This quality improvement project provided an approach to educating nurse leaders in disaster management to promote resilience, support of employees, and optimal patient outcomes during disasters.


Assuntos
COVID-19/enfermagem , Medicina de Desastres/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Liderança , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Medicina de Desastres/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Pandemias , Melhoria de Qualidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
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