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Eur J Gen Pract ; 26(1): 182-188, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337939


COVID-19 outbreak has significantly changed all aspects of general practice in Europe. This article focuses on the academic challenges for the discipline, mainly in the field of education, research, and quality assurance. The efforts of the European Region of the World Organisation of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians (WONCA Europe) to support academic sustainability of the discipline in the time of pandemic are presented. Medical education was affected by the pandemic, threatening both its productivity and quality. Emerging new educational methods might be promising, but the results of their rapid implementation remain uncertain. A relatively small number of publications related to COVID-19 and general practice is available in the medical literature. There is a shortage of original data from general practice settings. This contrasts with the crucial role of GPs in fighting a pandemic. COVID-19 outbreak has opened widely new research areas, which should be explored by GPs. Maintaining the quality of care and safety of all patients during the COVID-19 pandemic is the utmost priority. Many of them suffer from poor access or inadequate management of their problems. Rapid implementation of telemedicine brought both threats and opportunities. The COVID-19 pandemic also challenged doctors' safety and well-being. These aspects will require discussion and remedy to prevent deterioration of the quality of primary care. WONCA Europe is making a multi-faceted effort to support GPs in difficult times of the pandemic. It is ready to support future efforts to uphold the integrity of family medicine as an academic discipline.

Pesquisa Biomédica , Educação Médica , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/métodos , Educação a Distância , Europa (Continente) , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/normas , Medicina Geral/educação , Medicina Geral/métodos , Medicina Geral/normas , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Telemedicina
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 62(1): e1-e3, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314949


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the world as we knew it, and medical education is not an exception. Walter Sisulu University (WSU) has a distributed model of clinical training for the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB) programme. To address the challenges occasioned by the pandemic, the Department of Family Medicine and Rural Health undertook a modification of its MBChB VI programme. The changes aim to ensure the protection of all stakeholders and maintain the integrity of the programme, including the assessment. Changes were made in the delivery of the programme and in the way people interact with one another. Continuous assessment was modified, and the oral portfolio examination was introduced as the summative assessment tool. Although COVID-19 threatened the traditional way of teaching and learning, it however provided us with the opportunity to refocus and reposition our undergraduate medical programme.

Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , /epidemiologia , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Pandemias , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , África do Sul/epidemiologia
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181875


The health-service redesign that came with the preparation for the surge of COVID-19 had a potential of disrupting the Family Medicine internship programme like it did to many other health and academic programmes. A team of Cape-Town based Community Health Centre (CHC) doctors mitigated this challenge by designing an innovative tool that facilitated ongoing supervision of the interns in order to achieve the outcomes of the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA).

Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Aconselhamento , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Internato e Residência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Preceptoria , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , África do Sul
J Am Board Fam Med ; 33(Supplement): S1-S9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928942


Family Medicine was a child of the 1960s. Triggered by compelling social need for care outside of large hospitals, Family Medicine emphasized access to personal physicians based in the community. As a protest movement, the ABFP required ongoing recertification for all Diplomates, with both independent examination and chart audit. Fifty years later, society and health care have changed dramatically, and it is time again to consider how Board Certification must respond to those change. We propose three interlocking arguments. First, even before COVID-19, health and health care have been in a time of fundamental transformation. Second, given the role Board Certification plays in supporting improvement of healthcare, Board Certification itself must respond to these changes. Third, to move forward, ABFM and the wider Board community must address a series of wicked problems - i.e., problems which are both complex-with many root causes-and complicated- in which interventions create new problems. The wicked problems confronting board certification include: 1) combining summative and formative assessment, 2) improving quality improvement and 3) reaffirming the social contract and professionalism and its assessment.

Certificação/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Certificação/métodos , Certificação/tendências , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/tendências , Humanos , Estados Unidos
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e4, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634002


Ten family physicians and family medicine registrars in a South African semi-rural training complex reflected on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis during their quarterly training complex meeting. The crisis has become the disruptor that is placing pressure on the traditional roles of the family physician. The importance of preventative and promotive care in a community-oriented approach, being a capacity builder and leading the health team as a consultant have assumed new meanings.

Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Competência Clínica , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Humanos , Pandemias , Médicos de Família/organização & administração , África do Sul
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501020


The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted many lives worldwide. Training programmes in academic institutions have also been affected by the pandemic. Teaching and learning family medicine and public health medicine in the COVID-19 era require adjustments to training activities. At the University of Botswana, the pandemic presented an opportunity to steer training programmes in the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Medicine more towards service-learning. The department collaborated with the Ministry of Health and Wellness as well as the District Health Management teams in the national response to the pandemic as essential service providers. The increased demands for service provision were balanced with educational opportunities for trainees during the COVID-19 public health emergency. Including structured ongoing reflections for trainees involved in the COVID-19 response helps to connect service and the academic curriculum.

Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/educação , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Currículo , Humanos , Universidades/organização & administração
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(3): 121-127, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193878


INTRODUCCIÓN: En el marco de una estrategia para implementar un nuevo programa clínico para la depresión en atención primaria, desarrollamos un curso online con clases videograbadas dirigido a los médicos y enfermeras que van a introducir el programa en su práctica clínica. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: La evaluación del curso se realizó mediante un cuestionario estandarizado a los alumnos y un análisis temático de los contenidos de un foro de discusión. RESULTADOS: En la encuesta, los alumnos mostraron satisfacción respecto a sus expectativas, valorando positivamente el formato y el diseño general, los contenidos y su utilidad práctica, sin diferencias significativas según el perfil profesional. En el análisis cualitativo del foro se detectaron potencialidades del programa y del curso, destacando la percepción de que se abordaba una necesidad asistencial relevante. También se señalaron insuficiencias del curso y del programa, y obstáculos externos que pueden dificultar o impedir la implementación: falta de tiempo, inestabilidad en los equipos o exceso de trabajo y requerimientos en el día a día. CONCLUSIONES: Hemos ensayado un eficaz formato online para la formación de profesionales. La evaluación del curso ha sido satisfactoria. El feedback de los alumnos permitirá modelar y perfeccionar futuras ediciones del curso y el propio programa

INTRODUCTION: Within the framework of a strategy to implement a new clinical program for depression in primary care, we developed an online course with videotaped lectures targeted at doctors and nurses who will introduce the program into their clinical practice. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The evaluation of the course was carried out by a standardized questionnaire for students and a thematic analysis of the contents of a discussion forum. RESULTS: In the survey, the students showed satisfaction regarding their expectations, positively valuing the format and the general design, the contents and their practical utility, without significant differences according to professional profile. In the qualitative analysis of the forum potentialities of the program and the course were detected, highlighting the perception that a relevant care need was addressed. There were also shortcomings of the course and the program, and external obstacles that may hinder or impede implementation: lack of time, instability in the staff, or excessive work and requirements on a day-to-day basis. CONCLUSIONS: We have tested an effective online format for the training of professionals. The evaluation of the course has been satisfactory. The feedback of the students will allow us to model and improve future editions of the course and the program itself

Humanos , Educação a Distância/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Depressão/epidemiologia , Educação Médica/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Educação em Enfermagem
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(3): 151-154, mayo-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193882


OBJETIVO: Conocer la opinión de los estudiantes de medicina que han realizado su rotación por el centro de salud en los últimos años, mediante el análisis de su opinión reflejada en la memoria de la estancia práctica que elaboran al final de su rotación en tercer y sexto curso. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis documental de la opinión expresada por los estudiantes de medicina en la memoria de estancia práctica. Se analizaron un total de 15 memorias de estudiantes del Grado de Medicina de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid que han rotado por dos consultas de un centro de salud desde el año 2011 hasta 2019. RESULTADOS: Se han identificado seis categorías en las que se pueden agrupar las opiniones de los estudiantes de medicina sobre su rotación práctica en atención primaria: utilidad de la rotación para su formación, existencia de ideas preconcebidas sobre medicina de familia, grado de satisfacción de la rotación, duración de la rotación, aspectos positivos y negativos de la atención primaria y la medicina de familia, y relación con el tutor. CONCLUSIONES: La opinión del estudiante del grado de medicina sobre sus rotaciones en atención primaria es muy positiva sobre la utilidad y satisfacción con las rotaciones a pesar de su corta duración y la existencia de ideas preconcebidas negativas sobre la medicina de familia y la atención primaria. La rotación ha servido para conocer los aspectos conceptuales de la atención primaria y los valores de la medicina de familia

AIM: To know the opinion of medical students who have performed their rotation by the health center in recent years by analyzing their opinion reflected in the report of the practical stay they perform at the end of their rotation in third and sixth grades. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A documentary analysis of the opinion expressed by medical students in the practical stay report was carried out. A total of 15 reports of Universidad Complutense de Madrid Medical Degree students who have rotated by two health primary care centers from 2011 to 2019. RESULTS: Six categories have been identified in which medical students' opinions on their practical rotation in primary care can be grouped: usefulness of rotation for their training; the existence of preconceived ideas on family medicine; the degree of rotation satisfaction; duration of rotation; positive and negative aspects of primary care and family medicine; and relationship with the tutor. CONCLUSION: The medical grade student's opinion of his or her rotations in primary care is very positive about the usefulness and satisfaction with rotations despite their short duration and the existence of negative preconceived ideas about the medicine of family and primary care. Rotation has served to understand the conceptual aspects of primary care and the values of family medicine

Humanos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Estágio Clínico/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estágio Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação
Aust J Gen Pract ; 49(6): 364-368, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464736


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As a result of the pandemic, family physicians face the additional challenge of navigating COVID-19. The aim of this study was to provide simulated training for best-practice management of COVID-19 presentations for residency program trainees in Shanghai, China. METHOD: A simulated suspected COVID-19 case was designed on the basis of a real patient. The simulation included: pre­ and post-simulation surveys, a PowerPoint presentation, simulation practice, debriefing and reflection. Improvement in survey outcomes was assessed using a paired t-test. RESULTS: A total of 25 trainees participated in the simulation, consisting of first-, second- and third-year family medicine residents. Significant improvement was observed in their knowledge of COVID-19, and sub-analysis showed that all three grades of residents improved their knowledge significantly. Ninety-six per cent of participants believed the simulation was very helpful. DISCUSSION: The simulation scenario improves crisis management skills for family physicians managing the high risk of transmission of respiratory infectious diseases. Higher-order learning outcomes will be explored in future training programs.

Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Adulto , China , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233748, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470972


BACKGROUND: Basic medical skills such as history taking and physical examination are essential components of clinical work profiles, but nevertheless have been neglected by conventional preclinical curricula. The near-peer-teaching program AaLplus [living anatomy plus] teaches basic medical skills, especially history taking, physical examination, and venepuncture, to preclinical students. It is a highly popular compulsory course in the first four semesters (320 students/year, 9h/semester) at Heidelberg University and ends with a formative Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) during which students receive structured in-depth feedback on their performance. AaLplus is part of the Department of General Practice's longitudinal curriculum for Family Medicine. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess whether the AaLplus program has positive effects on students' clinical skill development and subjective confidence in history taking, physical examination and venepuncture. METHODS: From 2015 to 2019, we asked all AaLplus participants to rate the program and self-assess their medical skills on 5-point Likert scales (min 1, max 5). In 4-station OSCEs, trained tutors rated the students' performance in all taught skills using standardized checklists. RESULTS: From 2015 to 2019 n = 1534 questionnaires returned (response rate = 98.6%, 52.7% females). After course completion, students felt able to take a patient's history (mean 3.97, SD = 0.75) and perform physical examinations (means range 3.82-4.36, SDs range 0.74-0.89) as well as venepuncture (mean 4.12, SD = 0.88). A large majority of students claimed they acquired these skills in the AaLplus program. During OSCE, 81.9% passed anamnesis, 93.1% passed physical examination, and 95.4% passed venepuncture (of n = 1556). Students mostly rated the feedback they received during the OSCE as "helpful" or "very helpful" (means for different stations 4.69-4.76, SDs 0.50-0.70). CONCLUSIONS: AaLplus is a positive example of a peer teaching program in the preclinical stage of medical studies. It successfully trains junior students in essential medical abilities and increases their confidence in their skills. A high percentage of students pass the formative OSCE and evaluate it positively. Consistently high ratings indicate the program's routine viability. Further studies are needed to analyze if programs like AaLplus could have an impact on the number of graduates choosing career in Family Medicine.

Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Adulto , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Exame Físico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autoavaliação , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto Jovem
Acad Med ; 95(9): 1396-1403, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271228


PURPOSE: Family medicine residency programs can be cited for low pass or take rates on the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) certification examination, and the relationships among standardized medical education assessments and performance on board certification examinations and eventual board certification have not been comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of all required standardized examinations in medical education with ABFM certification examination scores and eventual ABFM certification. METHOD: All graduates of U.S. MD-granting family medicine residency programs from 2008 to 2012 were included. Data on ABFM certification examination score, ABFM certification status (as of December 31, 2014), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) section scores, undergraduate grade point average, all United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step scores, and all ABFM in-training examination scores were linked. Nested logistic and linear regression models, controlling for clustering by residency program, determined associations between assessments and both certification examination scores and board certification status. As many international medical graduates (IMGs) do not take the MCAT, separate models for U.S. medical graduates (USMG) and IMGs were run. RESULTS: The study sample was 15,902 family medicine graduates, of whom 92.1% (14,648/15,902) obtained board certification. In models for both IMGs and USMGs, the addition of more recent assessments weakened the associations of earlier assessments. USMLE Step 2 Clinical Knowledge was predictive of certification examination scores and certification status in all models in which it was included. CONCLUSIONS: For family medicine residents, more recent assessments generally have stronger associations with board certification score and status than earlier assessments. Solely using medical school admissions (grade point average and MCAT) and licensure (USMLE) scores for resident selection may not adequately predict ultimate board certification.

Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Internato e Residência , Licenciamento em Medicina , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Acreditação , Competência Clínica , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estados Unidos
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1281-1292, abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089533


Resumo Embora a atenção primária à saúde (APS) e a medicina de família e comunidade (MFC) tenham aumentado seu espaço e relevância no cenário assistencial e nos cursos de graduação médica, não há cursos de pós-graduação "stricto sensu" em MFC no Brasil. Neste artigo, analisamos alguns aspectos do campo da saúde pública brasileira e da própria estruturação da pós-graduação "stricto sensu" nacional que podem ajudar a explicar este panorama. Como uma contribuição para o debate neste tema, também reunimos informações de experiências internacionais em pós-graduação e pesquisa em MFC e elaboramos uma proposta de currículo para futuros cursos nacionais de mestrado em MFC. Ao final discutimos algumas estratégias fundamentais para o surgimento de cursos de pós-graduação "stricto sensu" nesta área no Brasil, destacando o potencial desses cursos para a avaliação e a qualificação dos serviços de atenção primária, em especial a Estratégia Saúde da Família, e para a formação de profissionais especializados em APS necessários para a consolidação do Sistema Único de Saúde como sistema acessível, abrangente e equitativo para a população brasileira.

Abstract While Primary Health Care (PHC) and Family and Community Medicine (FCM) have expanded their space and relevance in health care and undergraduate medical courses, Brazil has no stricto sensu FCM postgraduate programs. In this paper, we analyze some aspects of the Brazilian public health field and the national stricto sensu postgraduate system that can help to explain this scenario. As a contribution to the debate on this topic, we also gathered information from international postgraduate and research experiences in FCM and devised a curriculum proposal for future national FCM master's courses. In the end, we discussed some key strategies for the emergence of stricto sensu postgraduate courses in this discipline in Brazil, highlighting the potential of these programs for evaluation and qualification of primary care services, especially the Family Health Strategy, and the training of PHC specialists required for the consolidation of the Unified Health System (SUS) as an accessible, comprehensive and equitable health system for the Brazilian population.

Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Medicina Comunitária/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil , Currículo
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1205-1214, abr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089530


Resumen La residencia de medicina familiar y comunitaria comenzó en Uruguay en el año 1997. A través de un proceso autogestionado, las primeras generaciones se moldearon en una formación que integraba en ellos el conocimiento y la experiencia hospitalarios junto con la praxis territorial en un servicio de salud de base comunitaria con población de referencia. El reconocimiento académico de la especialidad y la instalación de los ámbitos institucionales para su gestión fueron conquistas paralelas a ese proceso en la primera década. La segunda década estuvo marcada por la expansión territorial de la estructura docente-asistencial, la descentralización de la universidad y la participación activa de la medicina familiar y comunitaria en la reforma de la salud y la agenda de derechos. La tercera década de la especialidad se presenta en su inicio como crisis dada por la caída sostenida en la aspiración a la residencia. Desde una aproximación inicial a las explicaciones, se reflexiona sobre la posibilidad de estar frente a una crisis más profunda y la necesidad de encontrar las claves de una medicina del siglo XXI que permita alcanzar los principios de Alma Ata, siempre vigentes.

Abstract The Family and Community Medicine Residency started in Uruguay in 1997. Through a self-managed process, the first generations were molded into training that integrated hospital knowledge and experience with territorial praxis in a community-based health service with a population of reference. The academic recognition of the specialty and the installation of the institutional areas for its management were achievements parallel to that process in the first decade. The second decade was marked by the territorial teaching-assistance expansion in the country, university decentralization and the active participation of Family and Community Medicine in the Health Reform, and the country's rights agenda. The third decade of the specialty begins with a crisis triggered by the sustained decline in the aspiration for residency. An initial approach to explanations reflects on the possibility of facing a more profound crisis and the need to find the keys to a 21st century Medicine that allows us to achieve the principles of Alma-Ata that are still current.

Humanos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/história , Internato e Residência/história , Uruguai , Cazaquistão , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/história , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Medicina Comunitária/educação , Medicina Comunitária/história , Medicina Comunitária/tendências , Congressos como Assunto/normas , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/história , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/tendências , Internato e Residência/tendências
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1261-1268, abr. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089513


Resumo Este artigo discute e promove inquietações à luz da repercussão dos 40 anos da Declaração de Alma-Ata e também da Declaração de Astana, discutindo os possíveis impactos na formação em Medicina de Família e Comunidade, segundo o olhar de 2 Programas de Residência de 3 instituições públicas: a Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, a Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro e a Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Estes estão inseridos em um contexto histórico e social, entre o mundo do trabalho, as políticas públicas, os organismos internacionais, a população e os sujeitos envolvidos na construção, manutenção e consolidação da Atenção Primária no Brasil. Assim, em um breve resgate histórico, contextualizamos qual Atenção Primária era cenário de prática e para onde, possivelmente, estaríamos nos deslocando. Conclui que a garantia do Direito à Saúde, estaria ameaçada pelo conceito de Cobertura Universal, preconizado pela Declaração de Astana; o que provoca importantes discussões: garantia de ofertas de serviços providos pelo estado, defesa da equidade e integralidade das ações. Reafirmação sobre o risco de gerar desigualdade ao se criar múltiplas ofertas de serviços para diferentes segmentos da população, reiteração sobre a importância do acesso às Unidades de Saúde, valorização da territorialização.

Abstract This paper discusses and fosters concerns in light of the repercussions of both the 40th anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration and the Astana Declaration, discussing the possible influence on Family and Community Medicine training, as per the lenses of two Residency Programs of three public institutions, namely, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. These are inserted in a historical and social context, between the world of work, public policies, international organizations, the population and subjects involved in the construction, maintenance, and consolidation of the Brazilian PHC. Thus, in a brief historical revival, we contextualized which Primary Care was a practice setting and where we might be headed. We concluded that the willingness to ensure the Right to Health would be threatened by the concept of Universal Coverage, advocated by the Astana Declaration, which leads to essential discussions: ensuring state-provided services, advocating for equity and integrality of actions, reaffirming the risk of generating inequality by creating multiple service offerings for different segments of the population, reiterating the relevance of access to health, and valuation of territorialization.

Humanos , Medicina Comunitária/educação , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Direito à Saúde , Internato e Residência , Brasil , Cazaquistão , Congressos como Assunto , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde