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1.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 179-182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604986

RESUMO

The increasing availability of safe and authorised coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines for the first time provides the opportunity to vaccinate seafarers on board their ships while in port. Speedy vaccination of seafarers secures their health and serves to avoid the international propagation of COVID-19 virus variants via maritime traffic. As a port medical clinic, we will share our practical vaccination experience on board of merchant vessels in German/European ports with our esteemed coastal colleagues to stimulate their participation in this endeavour. You will have to adapt the procedure to your national particularities, otherwise please freely share the information with interested parties. Detailed guidance on COVID-19 vaccination in shipping and accompanying legal issues was published by the International Chamber of Shipping (www.ics-shipping.org).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Medicina Naval/métodos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina do Trabalho/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Navios , Vacinação/normas
2.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(10): e737-e744, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597285

RESUMO

High ambient temperatures and strenuous physical activity put workers at risk for a variety of heat-related illnesses and injuries. Through primary prevention, secondary prevention, and treatment, OEM health providers can protect workers from the adverse effects of heat. This statement by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine provides guidance for OEM providers who serve workers and employers in industries where heat exposure occurs.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Medicina do Trabalho , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
3.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(9): e650-e656, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491973

RESUMO

Climate change is an urgent challenge amplified by socioeconomic factors that demands thoughtful public health responses from OEM professionals. This guidance statement from the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine focuses on the different strategies that these health professionals can implement to protect workers from health impacts associated with climate change hazards, foster workplace resilience in the face of rapidly changing environments, and take the necessary steps to mitigate the effects of global climate change.


Assuntos
Medicina Ambiental , Medicina do Trabalho , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
J UOEH ; 43(3): 341-348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483193

RESUMO

This paper provides a picture of the observations made over three hundred years ago by Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) in light of current topical issues ranging from health problems related to work and lifestyle habits to the current burdensome COVID-19 pandemic. The main aspects of his work consist of descriptions of disorders linked to environmental risks, suggestions for measures for risk protection, and recommendations for healthy living. This paper focuses on Ramazzini's most relevant achievements by (1) analyzing the episodes that stimulated the composition of his main work and highlighting some observations on which current epidemiological and toxicological studies are based; (2) reviewing his work showing not only the systematic descriptions of work-related illnesses caused by occupational factors but also his sound etiological and physiopathological contributions to the field of occupational lung diseases, breast cancer, and environmental disorders; and (3) remarking on his main observations in the fields of risk prevention and health promotion, also in the light of some highly topical issues related to unhealthy lifestyle habits and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Promoção da Saúde/história , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/história , Saúde do Trabalhador/história , Medicina do Trabalho/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Risco
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360516

RESUMO

Occupational-specific classifications of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are scarce and do not answer specific clinical questions. Thus, a specific classification was developed and proposed, covering criteria applicable to daily clinical activity. It was considered that the disorder development process is the same across all work-related MSDs (WRMSDs). Concepts of clinical pathology were applied to the characteristics of WRMSDs pathophysiology, cellular and tissue alterations. Then, the correlation of the inflammatory mechanisms with the injury onset mode was graded into four levels (MSDs 0-3). Criteria of legal, occupational and internal medicine, semiology, physiology and orthopaedics, image medicine and diagnostics were applied. Next, the classification was analysed by experts, two occupational physicians, two physiatrists and occupational physicians and one orthopaedist. This approach will allow WRMSD prevention and improve therapeutic management, preventing injuries from becoming chronic and facilitating communication between occupational health physicians and the other specialities. The four levels tool relate aetiopathogenic, clinical, occupational and radiological concepts into a single classification. This allows for improving the ability to determine a WRMSD and understanding what preventive and therapeutic measures should be taken, avoiding chronicity. The developed tool is straightforward, easy to understand and suitable for WRMSDs, facilitating communication between occupational physicians and physicians from other specialities.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Saúde do Trabalhador , Medicina do Trabalho , Médicos , Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281048

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Given the extent of workaholism identified in the literature, it seems essential to consider effective preventive measures. The purpose of this article is to summarize literature data on possible collective and individual preventive measures against workaholism, especially in occupational medicine. METHOD: We conducted a systematic literature review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: 155 articles were retrieved in March 2019, but only 15 well-designed studies providing concrete measures to prevent workaholism were included. The various measures were classified using the traditional distinction between three levels of prevention. At the first level of prevention, workaholism can be avoided by implementing a protective organizational culture. The second level of prevention rather focuses on individual training and counselling to address the negative consequences of workaholism. Finally, the third level of prevention combines cognitive and behavioral interventions that enable professional and social reintegration of workaholics. DISCUSSION: This literature review confirms the multifactorial origin of workaholism and the involvement of organizational factors, supporting the necessary contribution of companies in its prevention. This review also reinforces the growing perception of workaholism as a behavioral addiction. Occupational physicians play a key role in this preventive approach as they can influence both working conditions and individual care. The highlighted preventive measures seem to be not only favorable to workaholics, but also to companies. CONCLUSION: This review provides field tools that can be used at the various levels of workaholism prevention. Nevertheless, intervention studies are required to confirm the effectiveness of the measures presented.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Medicina do Trabalho , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Ocupações
7.
Med Leg J ; 89(3): 178-179, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279142

RESUMO

An occupational physician is employed to be responsible for the overall assessment of workers' health risks and all work-related pathological situations which creates an unusual doctor-patient relationship. The duties of the occupational physician are also very limited as is their professional responsibility. However, the boundaries of the occupational physician's duties and responsibilities are not always clear. The purpose of this article is to answer the following question: Does the occupational doctor have a duty to carry out general clinical evaluations (not work-related) of the patient?


Assuntos
Médicos do Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Médicos do Trabalho/normas , Papel Profissional , Padrão de Cuidado/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Medicina do Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina do Trabalho/normas
8.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(1): E148-E151, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322630

RESUMO

Introduction: Malignant pleural mesothelioma onset in workers exposed to asbestos is well known with reference to multiple working sectors. In some cases, occurring among workers of sectors characterized by a presumed lower relevance of asbestos exposure, the absence of a well-defined correlation can prevent their emergence and compensation. To improve definition of these cases, this article underlines the importance of a standardized approach to occupational anamnesis. Methods: Thorough standardized occupational health assessment method application in a case of pleural malignant neoplasm occurred in a hauler, a job generally not associated with high levels of exposure to asbestos fibres. Results: Assessment of malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis and dual mode relevant occupational exposure to asbestos during both truck driving and loading and unloading operations of asbestos-containing goods. Conclusions: Systematic occupational medicine assessment with accurate standardized approach is essential for reconstruction of asbestos exposure, in order to highlight every aspect useful to establish causal link between cases of pleural mesothelioma and possible occupational and non-occupational exposure to the mineral, even in cases where the first-level occupational history does not appear to be suggestive.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Medicina do Trabalho , Neoplasias Pleurais , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(2): 314-318, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many people have CVD risk factors without realising it and it is important to recognise the risk factors as soon as possible. Periodic examinations are a mandatory form of control for all employes in Poland. They provide an excellent opportunity to screen for the most common civilization diseases in the population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension among academics in a Polish university, and to compare the results between postdoctoral fellows and other academics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group were postdoctoral fellows (HAB; N=135, 53 females) and other academics (NHAB; N=286, 179 females) over the age of 40 who reported for a periodic occupational medical check-up. Fasting blood samples were drawn, serum glucose, lipids and blood pressure (BP) were measured. RESULTS: The mean age was 56.7 (SD 9.8) in HAB and 49.8 (SD 8.1) in NHAB. Mean systolic BP and glycaemia were significantly higher in male HAB group than male NHAB (135.8 vs 130.9 mmHg and 6.0 vs 5.6 mmol/l, respectively). The relationship in females was non-significant. The age-adjusted odds ratios (OR [95% CI]) of having elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure in male HAB vs male NHAB were 0.61 [0.32. 1.16], 0.64 [0.33, 1.23], 1.52 [0.80, 2.88] and 2.11 [0.88, 5.23], and in female HAB vs female NHAB - 0.59 [0.31, 1.12], 0.64 [0.32, 1.26], 0.87 [0.40, 1.79] and 1.86 [0.70, 4.68], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adequately planned occupational medicine examinations provide an opportunity to diagnose dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, or high BP in all groups of employees, including highly educated academics.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/sangue , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/fisiopatologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina do Trabalho , Exame Físico , Polônia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072892

RESUMO

This article not only offers a chronological overview of the development of occupational medicine, but also offers a summary of occupational diseases recommended by the ILO and legislative decisions that have influenced how we approach assessment today. We consider that these areas form a whole in which they cannot function without each other and they would lose their relevance if the system was collapsed. By excluding even one part of it, we would find ourselves at the beginning of the era of occupational medicine, and a large number of employees would once again be exposed to conditions that previously led to considerable illness and mortality of employees. The article also examines legislation and the development of occupational diseases in Slovakia in the period 1997-2019. Using basic statistical methods and time series, a trend model for the time series of the development of the number of occupational diseases over the last 20 years is created. The modeling also includes a forecast for the development of the number of occupational diseases for the next 5 years. The model created shows a favorable, decreasing trend in the number of occupational diseases in Slovakia.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Medicina do Trabalho , Previsões , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Eslováquia/epidemiologia
12.
13.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(7): e445-e461, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184662

RESUMO

Competency is defined as possession of sufficient physical, intellectual, and behavioral qualifications to perform a task or serve in a role which adequately accomplishes a desired outcome. Recognizing the need for defining competencies essential to occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) physicians, the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine developed its first set of OEM Competencies in 1998. Later updated in 2008, and again in 2014, the increasing globalization and modernization of the workplace, along with published research on OEM practice, required an update to ensure OEM physicians stay current with the field and practice of OEM. Delineation of core competencies for the profession provides employers, government agencies, health care organizations, and other health practitioners a solid context of the role and expertise of OEM physicians.


Assuntos
Medicina Ambiental , Medicina do Trabalho , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho
15.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 141(5): 761-769, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952760

RESUMO

The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of fenofibrate and bezafibrate on the risk of development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Japanese working age patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia were extracted from the Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse. These patients were divided into three groups: control group (n=2549), fenofibrate group (n=40), and bezafibrate group (n=135). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between fibrates and the development of DR. After adjustment for covariates, fenofibrate showed no association with the risk of DR [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.160; 95% CI, 0.021-1.209; p=0.0758]. Bezafibrate also showed no association with the risk of DR (adjusted OR, 0.731; 95% CI, 0.411-1.299; p=0.2855). However, poor control of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ≥8.0%; adjusted OR, 3.623; 95% CI, 2.649-4.956; p<0.0001) and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C ≥140 mg/dL; adjusted OR, 1.399; 95% CI, 1.013-1.932; p=0.0415) within the follow-up period of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia increased the risk of DR. Our results suggested that to prevent development of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, controlling LDL-C levels as well as HbA1c levels under coexistence type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia is more important than the selection of fibrate.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/complicações , Ácidos Fíbricos/administração & dosagem , Controle Glicêmico , Medicina do Trabalho , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ácidos Fíbricos/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(5): e298-e300, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928940

RESUMO

Industrial workers can come into contact with harmful agents that are transmitted via the eye in the form of an aerosol droplet or splash. Contact lenses do not provide ocular protection from hazards. This guidance from the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine addresses the use of contact lenses and personal protective equipment by the industrial worker and provides recommendations for contact lens use in an eye-hazardous environment.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Medicina do Trabalho , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Estados Unidos
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 651144, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928064

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Healthcare workers (HCWs) constitute a population which is significantly affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection worldwide. In Mexico, the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (INER) is the principal national reference of respiratory diseases. Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of the INER-POL-TRAB-COVID19 program to mitigate the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk among the INER-healthcare workers (INER-HCW). Methods: Currently, the INER has 250 beds and 200 respiratory ventilators to support COVID-19 patients in critical condition. On March 1st, 2020, the INER-POL-TRAB-COVID19 program was launched to mitigate the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk among the INER-HCW. Findings: From March 1st to October 1st, 2020, 71.5% of INER-HCWs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 77% of them were frontline workers. Among the tested INER-HCWs, 10.4% were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nonetheless, nosocomial infection represented only 3.8% of the cases and the mortality was null. Fifty-three of INER-HCWs positive to SARS-CoV-2 had a negative test 42-56 days post-diagnosis and were returned to service. Finally, although a change in the PPE implemented on May 11th, 2020, the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was not affected. Conclusion: INER has a lower incidence of HCWs infected with SARS-CoV-2 as compared to the mean of the national report. The implementation of the INER-POL-TRAB-COVID19 program is efficient to decrease the risk of infection among the HCWs. Our findings suggest that the implementation of a similar program at a national level can be helpful to provide a safe environment to HCWs and to prevent the collapse of health institutions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina do Trabalho , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , México/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901364

RESUMO

The article considers "the effect of healthy worker" as a source of systematic errors that makes epidemiological studies in occupational medicine less reliable and this is a significant problem. It is very important to analyze the professions and work conditions under which the phenomenon of self-selection and artificial «health improvement¼ of working population is to be expected. The scientific publications from open databases and other sources, discussing effect of self-selection under various work conditions and in various professions were analyzed. The data related to effect of healthy worker during labor activity in conditions of contact with industrial dust, allergens, radiation, physical load is discussed. In development of self-selection, psycho-emotional intense work is of greatest importance. In many specialties, this effect plays an essential role in the formation of rate of arterial hypertension. The substantial staff turnover and self-selection are associated with shift and night work, disorders of sleep-wake rhythm in various specialties. The underestimation of the effect of healthy worker may result in underestimation of the degree of harmfulness of work. On the contrary, its analysis will permit to obtain more accurate data on the impact of occupational work conditions on human organism and to develop methods of professional selection and recommendations on diseases prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Saúde do Trabalhador , Medicina do Trabalho , Humanos , Indústrias , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Ocupações
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