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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2390: 461-482, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731483

RESUMO

The improvement in the ability of the pharmaceutical industry to predict human pharmacokinetic behavior are attributable to major technological shifts from 1990 to the present day. The opportunity for the application of AI/ML based approaches in the pharmaceutical industry is driven by the abundance of data sets that exist within individual pharmaceutical and biotech companies and the availability, within these environments, of abundant computing power. This chapter seeks to describe opportunities for artificial intelligence to contribute to the assessment and evaluation of the dug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) properties of novel compounds across the drug discovery and development continuum. Many initiatives are already underway with respect to the application of AI/ML in predicting pharmacokinetic profiles so the question is not whether AI will influence pharmacokinetic prediction but rather how to best utilize and incorporate this and how to evaluate the value added from these applications. Since our understanding of the underlying biology of the in vitro and in vivo systems with respect to ADME, one of the key challenges to AI-based methods will be the ability to adapt to data sets that change in quality over time.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Medicina
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 576, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition that wellness interventions should occur in context and acknowledge complex contributors to wellbeing, including individual needs, institutional and cultural barriers to wellbeing, as well as systems issues which propagate distress. The authors conducted a multiple-methods study exploring contributors to wellbeing for junior residents in diverse medical environments who participated in a brief resilience and stress-reduction curriculum, the Stress Management and Resiliency Training Program for Residents (SMART-R). METHODS: Using a waitlist-controlled design, the curriculum was implemented for post-graduate year (PGY)-1 or PGY-2 residents in seven residency programs across three sites. Every three months, residents completed surveys, including the Perceived Stress Scale-10, General Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, a mindfulness scale (CAMSR), and a depression screen (PHQ-2). Residents also answered free-text reflection questions about psychological wellbeing and health behaviors. RESULTS: The SMART-R intervention was not significantly associated with decreased perceived stress. Linear regression modeling showed that depression was positively correlated with reported stress levels, while male sex and self-efficacy were negatively correlated with stress. Qualitative analysis elucidated differences in these groups: Residents with lower self-efficacy, those with a positive depression screen, and/or female residents were more likely to describe experiencing lack of control over work. Residents with higher self-efficacy described more positive health behaviors. Residents with a positive depression screen were more self-critical, and more likely to describe negative personal life events. CONCLUSIONS: This curriculum did not significantly modify junior residents' stress. Certain subpopulations experienced greater stress than others (female residents, those with lower self-efficacy, and those with a positive depression screen). Qualitative findings from this study highlight universal stressful experiences early in residency, as well as important differences in experience of the learning environment among subgroups. Tailored wellness interventions that aim to support diverse resident sub-groups may be higher yield than a "one size fits all" approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02621801 , Registration date: December 4, 2015 - Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Medicina , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(5): 27-29, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784268

RESUMO

One of the core missions of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) is to be a platform for enhancing the personal and professional development of its members. This month we focus on two related priority areas of the IEEE EMBS Student Activities Committee (SAC) [1], namely Leadership Development and Professional Development Portfolios, and bring you up close to the student and professional leaders actively building these programs. The Leadership Development Portfolio, currently led by Agnieszka Lach from Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland, focuses on nurturing and supporting student leaders of the EMBS globally. The Professional Development Portfolio, currently led by Josée Rosset from the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, aims to help EMBS student members develop their skills and experiences in the practice of biomedical engineering.


Assuntos
Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Bioengenharia , Engenharia Biomédica , Engenharia , Humanos , Liderança
4.
Wiad Lek ; 74(9 cz 1): 2228-2231, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725306

RESUMO

This article presents the life and work of Professor Mieczyslaw Konopacki, a Polish physician, freemason, social and political activist. Mieczyslaw Konopacki was born in 1880 in Wielun, a town with almost 800 years of history. After passing his secondary school-leaving examinations in 1899, he began his studies at the University of Warsaw. Thanks to his diligence and commitment to research, in 1903, he received the degree of candidate of all-natural sciences at the Imperial Warsaw University. In the same year, he was arrested by the Russian authorities for his involvement in developing education in the Polish countryside and forced to move to Cracow, where he began his studies at the Faculty of Medicine of the Jagiellonian University. In 1907, he married and moved to Lviv with his wife, who was also an embryologist. There, the couple began working at the Histology Department. Also, there, in 1911, Mieczyslaw Konopacki obtained his doctor's degree in medicine. He was an extremely hard-working and broad-minded man. He was a member of many associations and international scholar organizations. He took an active part in many congresses and symposia. In independent Poland, Professor Konopacki was involved in the organization of science. He tried to compensate for the many years of neglect caused by the policy of the partitioners. In 1933 Professor Konopacki was elected Vice President of the Warsaw Branch of the Young Men's Christian Association. Complementing the social activity of Professor Konopacki was his activity in the Grand National Lodge of Poland. He died in Warsaw on September 25, 1939, fatally struck by shrapnel from a German bullet.


Assuntos
Anatomistas , Medicina , Médicos , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Universidades
5.
J Grad Med Educ ; 13(5): 654-665, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721794

RESUMO

Background: Physicians require the expertise to care for an increasingly aging population. A robust understanding of geriatric educational interventions is needed to improve geriatric training for physicians. Objective: To map the breadth of geriatric educational interventions for residents (in non-geriatric specialties). Methods: We used a scoping review methodology. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, EMCare, CENTRAL, ERIC, and Scopus from 2004 to September 2019 for search terms related to "educational approaches" AND "geriatric" AND "residents." Two authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted data (categorized by educational approaches and Kirkpatrick level outcomes), and critically appraised studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results: There were 63 included studies, with a total of 6976 participants. Twelve studies had comparators, including 5 randomized controlled trials. Fifty-three studies (84%) described multicomponent interventions, incorporating combinations of didactic or self-directed approaches with interactive, simulation, experiential, and/or group-based learning. Use of curricular process was explicitly reported in 34 studies (59%). Most studies met at least 4 of 5 Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool criteria. Studies commonly measured outcomes at Kirkpatrick levels 1 and 2 (reaction and learning), with 15 studies measuring performance outcomes (Kirkpatrick levels 3 and 4b). All included studies had at least one positive result. Conclusions: All educational interventions had positive outcomes; however, curriculum-informed multicomponent interventions were the most common. This scoping review demonstrates that robust methodology with comparators, longer-term designs, and use of higher-level Kirkpatrick outcome measures is possible but not commonly used. Clear direction for future research is provided.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Medicina , Médicos , Idoso , Currículo , Humanos , Aprendizagem
6.
Scott Med J ; 66(4): 166-167, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743635

RESUMO

The possibility of a medical negligence claim lies at the back of many doctors' minds. But which specialties see the greatest and fewest claims, and what are the potential costs to the NHS of a successful claim? In their article, Dr Lane et al. analyse 10 years' NHS litigation data, broken down by specialty, number of claims, and the attendant cost of those claims which were successful. Litigation in the 'post Montgomery' era is considered along with some of the common factors which may lead to a patient or their family taking legal action.


Assuntos
Imperícia , Medicina , Humanos , Medicina Estatal
7.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 51(5): 307-312, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794271

RESUMO

San Xiao Lun is a posthumous manuscript by Liu Wansu. It discussed the etiology, pathogenesis and therapeutic principles of diabetes with special prescriptions for it. Most references in this book came from the works of Liu Wansu himself and some of them came from the works of other sources, such as The Internal Cannon of Medicine. It can be seen that it was a book with Liu Wansu's rethinking and summerising about diabetes after he completed his other works. San Xiao Lun was first published in Ru Men Shi Qin in the Jin Dynasty. It was also cited by Yi Fang Lei Ju in Korea in 1445. It was fully recorded and published in Ru Men Shi Qin in the Wanli Period in the Ming Dynasty and therefore, became the basic version of the current one. After that, it envolved into Si Ku Quan Shu. In the end of the Qing Dynasty, this book was published independently with the comments by Zhou Xuehai, being one of the books in the Zhous' Series Medical Books(Zhou Shi Yi Xue Cong Shu).


Assuntos
Livros , Medicina , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Prescrições , República da Coreia
8.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(4): 890-913, out.-dez. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344001

RESUMO

O campo de produção científica das ciências da saúde destaca-se historicamente como precursor do desenvolvimento das primeiras pesquisas que consolidaram o uso de fontes de informação científica no Brasil. Este artigo analisa o interdomínio dos estudos métricos da informação com a medicina. Elege o campo da medicina como representativo das ciências da saúde na base de dados Scopus, visando, assim, reconhecer esse espaço de produção científica a partir de indicadores de produtividade e de colaboração relacionados a autores, periódicos e instituições. Caracteriza o interdomínio em um corpus de 132 artigos da autoria de 28 pesquisadores, em um período de 28 anos. Apresenta os autores, periódicos e instituições mais producentes, bem como as relações de coautoria e de cocitação entre autores e periódicos. Define agrupamentos de autores e de periódicos, identificando os mais representativos do interdomínio analisado. Qualifica os artigos conforme os seus enfoques, segundo os três grupos-alvo da bibliometria, presentes em Glänzel (2003), e identifica as suas temáticas de pesquisa. Conclui que os autores mais representativos apresentam estudos com enfoques nos três grupos-alvo e que o periódico Scientometrics é o que estabelece a articulação das pesquisas constituintes do interdomínio de forma mais consistente.


The scientific production in health sciences has historically stood out as a precursor to the development of the first studies that consolidated the use of scientific information sources in Brazil. This article analyzes the interdomain between metric studies of information and medicine. The field of medicine is chosen as representative of health sciences in the Scopus database, thus seeking to recognize this space of scientific production from productivity and collaboration indicators related to authors, journals and institutions. It characterizes the interdomain in a corpus of 132 articles by 28 researchers over a 28-year period. It presents the most productive authors, journals and institutions, as well as the co-authoring and co-citation relationships between authors and journals. It defines clusters of authors and journals, identifying the most representative of the analyzed interdomain. It qualifies articles according to their focus on three target groups of bibliometry, presented by Glänzel (2003), and identifies their research themes. It concludes that the most representative authors present studies focusing on the three target groups and that Scientometrics journal is the one that establishes the articulation of the studies that make up the interdomain in a more consistent way.


El campo de la producción científica en ciencias de la salud se ha destacado históricamente como precursor del desarrollo de las primeras investigaciones que consolidaron el uso de fuentes de información científica en Brasil. Este artículo analiza el interdominio de los estudios métricos de la información y de la medicina. Se elige el campo de la medicina como representativo de las ciencias de la salud en la base de datos Scopus, con el objetivo de reconocer este espacio de producción científica a partir de indicadores de producción y de colaboración relacionados con autores, revistas e instituciones. Caracteriza el interdominio en un corpus de 132 artículos de 28 investigadores durante un período de 28 años. Presenta los autores, revistas e instituciones más productivos, así como las relaciones de coautoría, citación y cocitación entre autores y revistas. Define grupos de autores y revistas, identificando los más representativos del interdominio analizado. Califica los artículos según su enfoque de acuerdo con los tres grupos alvo de bibliometría, presentes en Glänzel (2003), e identifica sus temas de investigación. Se concluye que los autores más representativos presentan estudios centrados en los tres grupos destinatarios y que la revista Scientometrics es la que establece la articulación de las investigaciones que componen el interdominio de manera más consistente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Bibliometria , Ciência da Informação , Análise de Dados , Medicina , Informática Médica , Base de Dados , Publicação Periódica , Autoria e Coautoria na Publicação Científica
9.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-01. (OPS/NMH/MH/21-0033).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55093

RESUMO

El Fondo Estratégico para Suministros de Salud Pública de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (Fondo Estratégico) ayuda a asegurar la disponibilidad de los medicamentos esenciales para las enfermedades no transmisibles, incluidos los medicamentos para cuidados paliativos, a un precio competitivo para todos los países. El Fondo Estratégico es un mecanismo integrado de adquisiciones mancomunado, y los productos adquiridos cumplen las normas internacionales de seguridad, eficacia y calidad. En este folleto se presenta información sobre los medicamentos y formulaciones disponibles para las enfermedades no transmisibles mediante el Fondo Estratégico, agrupados por categorías: enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes, cáncer, enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y cuidados paliativos. Incluye ejemplos de los descuentos logrados por el Fondo Estratégico para los medicamentos esenciales, con el objetivo de procurar precios competitivos para América Latina y el Caribe.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Cuidados Paliativos , Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Doenças Respiratórias , Medicina , Medicamentos Essenciais , Acesso a Medicamentos Essenciais e Tecnologias em Saúde
10.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-11-01. (PAHO/NMH/MH/21-0033).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55092

RESUMO

The Pan American Health Organization’s Revolving Fund for Strategic Public Health Supplies (Strategic Fund) helps ensure the availability of essential medicines for noncommunicable diseases, including palliative care medicines, at a competitive price for all countries. The Strategic Fund is an integrated pooled procurement mechanism, and the products purchased through the Strategic Fund meet international standards in safety, efficacy, and quality. This brochure presents information on the medications and their formulations available through the Strategic Fund for noncommunicable diseases, summarized by category: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and palliative care. The brochure includes examples of price reductions achieved by the Strategic Fund for key essential medicines, ensuring competitive prices for these for Latin America and the Caribbean.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Medicina , Acesso a Medicamentos Essenciais e Tecnologias em Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias , Doenças Respiratórias , Medicamentos Essenciais
11.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1318-1323, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792884

RESUMO

Continuing medical education (CME) is embedded in the structure of the institutes of qualification assessment. These are institutes of accreditation of specialists and their certification for obtaining a qualification category. CME has become an element of accreditation. So far, an absolute minority of specialists have been accredited. Therefore, the study focuses on the analysis of the implementation of CME. The materials of the expert survey of medical personnel were used. It was found that respondents generally have a positive opinion of the CME system. But its organization has significant drawbacks. Their impact on the provision of high-quality medical services to the population and on the social security of doctors in the field of professional development is negative. Specialists bear the main share of responsibility for the choice of programs and forms of training. And their supply and quality do not always meet the needs of doctors. The system of scoring participation in the CME often forces specialists to make a choice in favor of a set of points, but at the expense of real knowledge. It is revealed that the CME is not built into the institute of certification for qualification category, although the level of qualification of specialists certainly depends on it. This is caused by an unjustified decline in the prestige of this institution.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicos , Acreditação , Educação Médica Continuada , Humanos , Especialização
12.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 1395-1399, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792895

RESUMO

The article discusses an approach to assessing the level of maturity of medical technologies based on the TRL (technology readiness level) methodology. The author presents a tool for planning scientific results and developments in the direction of «medical sciences¼ with a clear description of the expected results at each level of research and development. The levels of technological maturity of developments in the field of healthcare are described in detail, possible results and reporting forms for each level are presented, their differences are analyzed depending on the planned final product. Also presented are proposals for the distribution of powers between the state and business to finance the process of creating and implementing a new medical technology, depending on its stage of maturity.


Assuntos
Medicina , Tecnologia , Atenção à Saúde
14.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 51(5): 276-281, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794266

RESUMO

The Putuo Mountain, as one of the four famous Buddhist mountains in China, has a long history with Buddhist medicine. Buddhist medicine at Putuo Mountain was developed extensively in the late Qing Dynasty and was shaped with a variety of characteristics resulting in some great achievements. Hua Yu Tang, as a Chinese medicine clinic, was established by the Fa Yu Temple at the end of the Qing Dynasty. After that, Yi De Ji was written by Xin Chan, a Buddhist physician. Some medical hospitals, such as Pu Ji Hospital, and drug stores were also opened to serve people, and commonly did charity when there were epidemic or natural hazard outbreaks.Buddhist medicine was almost bogged down after the establishment of the New China. It has been well developed, however, since the 80s last century, through processes such as the operation of hospitals funded by Buddhist Associations and helping people in trouble in epidemic and natural hazard.The review of the Buddhist medicine at Putuo Mountain is meaningful to understand the significance of Buddhist medicine and also helpful to inherit traditional cultures.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina , Budismo , Instituições de Caridade , China , Humanos
16.
Adv Health Care Manag ; 202021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779186

RESUMO

Women in medicine face barriers that hinder progress toward top leadership roles, and the industry remains plagued by the grand challenge of gender inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore how subtle and overt gender biases affect women physicians, physician leaders, researchers, and faculty working in academic health sciences environments and to further examine the association of these biases with workplace satisfaction. The study used a convergent mixed methods approach. Sampling from a list of medical schools in the United States, in conjunction with a list of each state's medical society, the authors analyzed the quantitative survey responses of 293 women in medicine. The authors conducted ordinary least squares multiple regression to assess the relationship of gender barriers on workplace satisfaction. Additionally, 132 of the 293 participants provided written open-ended responses that were explored using a qualitative content analysis methodology. The survey results showed that male culture, lack of sponsorship, lack of mentoring, and queen bee syndrome were associated with lower workplace satisfaction. The qualitative results provided illustrations of how participants experienced these biases. These results emphasize the obstacles that women face and highlight the detrimental nature of gender bias in medicine. The authors conclude by presenting concrete recommendations for managers endeavoring to improve the culture of gender equity and inclusivity.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicas , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Sexismo , Estados Unidos
17.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(5): 904-906, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785020

RESUMO

Historic medical texts in China focused on schematic representations of external pathologies for the most part, but Imperially Commissioned Golden Mirror of the Orthodox Lineage of Medicine (, Yuzuan yizong jinjian), published in 1742, stands out for its illustrations of disease states. This contribution explores depictions of smallpox and breast abscesses, as they appeared in The Golden Mirror.


Assuntos
Ilustração Médica , Medicina , China , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Publicações
18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(9): 1229-1232, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the social isolation on the interest rates of different medical specialties in Brazil. METHODS: The research was performed using the terms "Médico" (Doctor), "Infectologista" (Infectologist), "Cirurgião" (Surgeon), "Geriatra" (Geriatrician), "Otorrinolaringologista" (Otolaryngologist), and "Oftalmologista" (Ophthalmologist), related to several medical specialties, and "COVID-19," which represented the public interest for the disease, utilizing the Brazilian version of Google Trends, where the data were acquired. The time range of this analysis was from 29 September, 2019 to 20 September, 2020. The data were tabulated in Microsoft Excel, exported to the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, and correlated with searches for the term "COVID-19" using Pearson's correlation. 95% confidence interval was used for all analyses. RESULTS: "Geriatra" (72.26±16.42) and "Cirurgião" (72.15±12.53) remained with the higher means among the evaluated specialties. In terms of standard deviation, "Oftalmologista" (64.71±16.72) and "Infectologista" (22.03±16.60) presented the most significant changes. After utilizing the Pearson's analysis to identify the correlation between each medical specialty and the term "COVID-19," all the evaluated specialties presented significant statistical correlations. "Oftalmologista" (r= -0.607) was notoriously the most negatively affected, while "Infectologista" (r=0.504) was pointed to have the highest positive correlation with the term. CONCLUSIONS: Several changes in the interest rates of different medical specialties in Brazil were found during the time range of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina , Brasil , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(4): 657-666, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809770

RESUMO

Dermatology and medicine are producing data at an increasing rate that are progressively difficult to sort and manage. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning are examples of tools that may have the capability to produce significant and meaningful results from these data. Currently, AI and machine learning have a variety of applications in medicine including, but not limited to, diagnostics, patient management, preventive medicine, and genomic analysis. Although the role of AI in dermatology is greater than ever, its use is still extremely limited. As AI is continually developed and implemented, it is essential that stakeholders understand AI terminology, applications, limitations, and projected uses in dermatology. With the continued development of AI technology, however, its implementation may afford greater dermatologist efficiency, greater increased patient access to dermatologic care, and improved patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Medicina , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
20.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(4): 724-726, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809781

RESUMO

More data are needed to characterize the perceptions of dermatology by nondermatologist physicians in order to address how current perceptions may be improved. Residency program directors of 21 medical specialties were contacted by e-mail and directed to a survey created with Research Electronic Data Capture software. Data from survey responses were collated and analyzed. A total of 80 residency program directors completed the survey. Physicians who worked more frequently with dermatologists were more likely to describe dermatologists positively. Most physicians believed dermatologists manage skin conditions, but fewer knew that they also manage hair, nail, or mucosal conditions. Cross-specialty collaboration between nondermatologists and dermatologists is associated with positive perceptions of dermatology. Further collaboration could provide the opportunity to educate physicians regarding the conditions treated by dermatologists and how their expertise may benefit patient care.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Internato e Residência , Medicina , Dermatologistas , Dermatologia/educação , Humanos , Percepção
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