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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 527-531, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570439

RESUMO

In this paper we present work on creating and evaluating a Text-to-Speech system for the Albanian language to be used in the BabelDr medical speech translation system. Its quality was assessed by twelve native speakers who provided feedback on 60 prompts generated by the synthesizer and on 60 real human recordings across three dimensions, namely comprehensibility, naturalness and likeability. The results suggest that the newly created voice can be incorporated in the content creation pipeline of the BabelDr platform.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Fala , Voz , Albânia , Humanos , Medida da Produção da Fala
2.
Codas ; 32(4): e20190152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401996

RESUMO

Purpose This study investigated the influence of the cleft type on the appearance of hypernasality after surgical maxillary advancement (MA). Methods Nasality was determined by measurement of nasalance (acoustic correlate of nasality) by nasometry. The study involved analysis of the nasalance scores of 17 individuals with isolated cleft palate (CP), 118 with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and 69 with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), of both sexes, aged 18 to 28 years, after MA. Only individuals with normal nasalance scores indicating balanced resonance before MA were included in this study. Nasometry was performed 3 days before and 15 months after MA, on average. The proportion of patients who presented nasalance scores indicating hypernasality after surgery was calculated by the ANOVA test, and comparison among the different cleft types was evaluated by the chi-square test (p < 0.05). Results No significant difference was found in the proportions of individuals with hypernasality among the cleft types. Conclusion Nasometry showed that the appearance of hypernasality after MA in individuals with cleft palate with or without cleft lip occurred in similar proportions, regardless of the cleft type.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/efeitos adversos , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenda Labial/fisiopatologia , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maxila/cirurgia , Osteotomia de Le Fort/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Medida da Produção da Fala , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Codas ; 32(2): e20190002, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267336

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the indicators of speech fluency that differs subjects with stuttering, with phonological disorder, and with the two disorders in comorbidity. METHODS: Thirty subjects aged 4-11 years old were divided into 3 groups, each one with 10 subjects: groups with developmental stuttering (SG), phonological disorder (PDG), and with two diagnoses in comorbidity (SPDG) participated in this study. The procedures were speech fluency and phonology evaluation. The data were submitted to statistical analysis. RESULTS: Subjects from SG and SPDG showed a greater occurrence of stuttering-like disfluencies and total of disfluencies in relation to the subjects with PDG. Regarding to the other disfluencies, the three groups were similar. Subjects with PDG showed fewer monosyllabic word repetitions, part of word repetition and prolongations in relation to subjects from SG and SPDG. Blocks occurred more frequently in the two groups with stuttering (SG and SPDG) than in the group with PDG. Interjection occurred more frequently in subjects from SG than in PDG. CONCLUSION: The PDG was the most differentiated in quantitative and qualitative terms in the three groups analyzed. The similarities and differences between the groups will assist the differential diagnosis and, consequently, will enable improved therapy. The presence of blocks represents an important marker for the diagnosis of stuttering.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Fluência com Início na Infância/diagnóstico , Transtorno Fonológico/diagnóstico , Gagueira/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Fluência com Início na Infância/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medida da Produção da Fala , Gagueira/fisiopatologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287289

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the role of motor control immaturity in the speech production characteristics of 4-year-old children, compared to adults. Specifically, two indices were examined: trial-to-trial variability, which is assumed to be linked to motor control accuracy, and anticipatory extra-syllabic vowel-to-vowel coarticulation, which is assumed to be linked to the comprehensiveness, maturity and efficiency of sensorimotor representations in the central nervous system. METHOD: Acoustic and articulatory (ultrasound) data were recorded for 20 children and 10 adults, all native speakers of Canadian French, during the production of isolated vowels and vowel-consonant-vowel (V1-C-V2) sequences. Trial-to-trial variability was measured in isolated vowels. Extra-syllabic anticipatory coarticulation was assessed in V1-C-V2 sequences by measuring the patterns of variability of V1 associated with variations in V2. Acoustic data were reported for all subjects and articulatory data, for a subset of 6 children and 2 adults. RESULTS: Trial-to-trial variability was significantly larger in children. Systematic and significant anticipation of V2 in V1 was always found in adults, but was rare in children. Significant anticipation was observed in children only when V1 was /a/, and only along the antero-posterior dimension, with a much smaller magnitude than in adults. A closer analysis of individual speakers revealed that some children showed adult-like anticipation along this dimension, whereas the majority did not. CONCLUSION: The larger trial-to-trial variability and the lack of anticipatory behavior in most children-two phenomena that have been observed in several non-speech motor tasks-support the hypothesis that motor control immaturity may explain a large part of the differences observed between speech production in adults and 4-year-old children, apart from other causes that may be linked with language development.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Acústica , Adulto , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Canadá , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Fonética , Espectrografia do Som/métodos , Acústica da Fala , Testes de Articulação da Fala/métodos , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: It is widely believed that 'creaky voice' ('creak', 'vocal fry', 'glottal fry') is increasingly prevalent among some English speakers, particularly among young American women. Motivated by the widespread and cross-disciplinary interest in the phenomenon, this paper offers a systematic review of peer-reviewed research (up to January 2019) on the prevalence of creaky voice in varieties of English. The review aimed to understand whose and what speech has been studied, how creaky voice prevalence has been measured, and what the findings collectively reveal. METHOD: Literature was located by searching four electronic databases (ProQuest, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science) and the proceedings of two recurrent conferences ('ICPhS' and 'SST'). Studies were included if they reported the prevalence of creaky voice in naturalistic samples of English spoken by vocally-healthy speakers. Reference lists of included studies were cross-checked. RESULTS: Only ten studies meeting inclusion criteria were identified. All studies sampled a small number of speakers and/or short durations of speech. Nine were recent studies of American-English speakers, and many of these sampled young, female, college students. Across the ten studies, creaky voice was detected using three types of methods, and prevalence was calculated using five different formulae. The findings show that prevalence varies across groups, individuals, and contexts. However, the precise nature of this variability remains unclear due to the scarcity and methodological heterogeneity of the research. CONCLUSIONS: This paper illustrated the application of systematic literature review methods in sociophonetic research-a field in which such methods are not common. The review found that creaky voice prevalence in English is not well understood, and that widespread claims of its recent increase among young American women have not been empirically confirmed. A number of specific limitations in the existing research are highlighted, which may serve as a guide for future research design.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Idioma , Fonação/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Fatores de Tempo , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6255-6263, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123070

RESUMO

Auditory speech perception enables listeners to access phonological categories from speech sounds. During speech production and speech motor learning, speakers' experience matched auditory and somatosensory input. Accordingly, access to phonetic units might also be provided by somatosensory information. The present study assessed whether humans can identify vowels using somatosensory feedback, without auditory feedback. A tongue-positioning task was used in which participants were required to achieve different tongue postures within the /e, ε, a/ articulatory range, in a procedure that was totally nonspeech like, involving distorted visual feedback of tongue shape. Tongue postures were measured using electromagnetic articulography. At the end of each tongue-positioning trial, subjects were required to whisper the corresponding vocal tract configuration with masked auditory feedback and to identify the vowel associated with the reached tongue posture. Masked auditory feedback ensured that vowel categorization was based on somatosensory feedback rather than auditory feedback. A separate group of subjects was required to auditorily classify the whispered sounds. In addition, we modeled the link between vowel categories and tongue postures in normal speech production with a Bayesian classifier based on the tongue postures recorded from the same speakers for several repetitions of the /e, ε, a/ vowels during a separate speech production task. Overall, our results indicate that vowel categorization is possible with somatosensory feedback alone, with an accuracy that is similar to the accuracy of the auditory perception of whispered sounds, and in congruence with normal speech articulation, as accounted for by the Bayesian classifier.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Fonética , Sensação/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Língua/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Palato/fisiologia , Medida da Produção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Fluency Disord ; 63: 105748, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065916

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This two-part (i.e., Study 1, Study 2) study investigated behavioral inhibition (BI) in preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not (CWNS) stutter. The purpose of Study 1 was to develop the Short Behavioral Inhibition Scale (SBIS), a parent-report scale of BI. The purpose of Study 2 was to determine, based on the SBIS, differences in BI between CWS and CWNS, and associations between BI and CWS's stuttering frequency, stuttering severity, speech-associated attitudes, and stuttering-related consequences/reactions. METHOD: Participants in Study 1 were 225 CWS and 243 CWNS with the majority of them being included in Study 2. In Study 2, a speech sample was obtained for the calculation of stuttering frequency and severity, and the parents of a subset of CWS completed the Communication Attitude Test for Preschool and Kindergarten Children Who Stutter (Vanryckeghem & Brutten, 2007), and the Test of Childhood Stuttering Disfluency-Related Consequences Rating Scale (Gillam, Logan, & Pearson, 2009). RESULTS: Study 1 analyses indicated that SBIS is a valid and reliable tool whose items assess a single, relatively homogeneous construct. In Study 2, CWS exhibited greater mean and extreme BI tendencies than CWNS. Also CWS with higher, compared to CWS with lower, BI presented with greater stuttering frequency, more severe stuttering, greater stuttering-related consequences, and more negative communication attitudes (for CWS older than 4 years of age). CONCLUSION: Findings were taken to suggest that BI is associated with early childhood stuttering and that the SBIS could be included as part of a comprehensive evaluation of stuttering.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Inibição Psicológica , Fala , Gagueira/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Testes Psicológicos , Medida da Produção da Fala , Gagueira/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Codas ; 32(2): e20180141, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049096

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Describe the self-referred personal behavior profiles of university professors and verify the association of these profiles with the self-assessment of communicative aspects and vocal symptoms. METHODS: Study conducted with 334 professors at a public university who responded to an online questionnaire regarding voice use in teaching practice. Personal behavior profile classification was the response variable, which was divided into four types: pragmatic, analytical, expressive and affable. Explanatory variables were vocal self-perception, vocal resources, and communicative aspects. Descriptive data analysis was performed with application of the Pearson's Chi-squared and Fisher's Exact tests. RESULTS: University professors identified themselves more with the affable and expressive personal behavior profiles. Overall, professors presented good self-perception about vocal and communicative aspects, in addition to having reported few vocal symptoms. Profiles differed for some of the assessed variables, namely, pragmatic professors reported high speech velocity and sporadic eye contact; expressive professors demonstrated self-perception about their voice and strong voice intensity; those in the analytical profile self-reported negative perception about vocal quality, weak voice intensity, poor articulation and rapid speaking rate; the other professors mostly reported voice tiredness symptoms and difficulty projecting the voice. CONCLUSION: University professors identify themselves mostly with the affable and expressive profiles. Self-perception analysis of the personal behavior profile in university professors showed the influence of self-reported personality characteristics on communicative skills in the classroom.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Autoavaliação , Medida da Produção da Fala/psicologia , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acústica da Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Distúrbios da Voz/classificação , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Voz/psicologia
9.
J Fluency Disord ; 63: 105745, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study employed nonword repetition and nonword identification tasks to explore the phonological working memory (PWM) abilities and its interaction with speech motor control in school-aged children who do and do not stutter. METHOD: Participants were 17 children who stutter (CWS) (Age range = 7-12) and 17 age and gender-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS). For the nonword repetition task, the participants repeated sets of 2-, 3-, and 4-syllable nonwords (n = 12 per set). The participants silently identified a target nonword from a subsequent set of three nonwords (n = 12 per 2-, 3- and 4-syllable length) for the nonword identification task. The performance of CWS on the nonword repetition task was compared with the CWNS for the mean number of accurate repetitions, number of trials taken, number of accurate repetitions on initial trial, and number of fluent repetitions across the three-syllable conditions for the tasks. For the nonword identification task, the number of nonwords identified accurately by the two groups were subjected to analysis. RESULTS: CWS were significantly less accurate on the initial production of nonwords and required significantly more number of attempts to repeat the nonword accurately. Further for the nonword identification task, CWS were significantly less accurate than CWNS in correctly identifying the target nonword. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that, in addition to limitations in PWM capacity, an unstable speech motor control system in CWS may lead to dysfluent speech.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Gagueira/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Medida da Produção da Fala , Comportamento Verbal
10.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227686, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Speech intelligibility is fundamental to social interactions and a critical surgical outcome in patients with cleft palate. Online crowdsourcing is a burgeoning technology, with potential to mitigate the burden of limited accessibility to speech-language-pathologists (SLPs). This pilot study investigates the concordance of online crowdsourced evaluations of hypernasality with SLP ratings of children with cleft palate. METHODS: Six audio-phrases each from children with cleft palate were assessed by online crowdsourcing using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), and compared to SLP's gold-standard hypernasality score on the Pittsburgh Weighted Speech Score (PWSS). Phrases were presented to MTurk crowdsourced lay-raters to assess hypernasality on a Likert scale analogous to the PWSS. The survey included clickable reference audio samples for different levels of hypernasality. RESULTS: 1,088 unique online crowdsourced speech ratings were collected on 16 sentences of 3 children with cleft palate aged 4-8 years, with audio averaging 6.5 years follow-up after cleft palate surgery. Patient 1 crowd-mean was 2.62 (SLP rated 2-3); Patient 2 crowd-mean 2.66 (SLP rated 3); and Patient 3 crowd-mean 1.76 (SLP rated 2). Rounded for consistency with PWSS scale, all patients matched SLP ratings. Different sentences had different accuracies compared to the SLP gold standard scores. CONCLUSION: Online crowdsourced ratings of hypernasal speech in children with cleft palate were concordant with SLP ratings, predicting SLP scores in all 3 patients. This novel technology has potential for translation in clinical speech assessments, and may serve as a valuable screening tool for non-experts to identify children requiring further assessment and intervention by a qualified speech language pathology expert.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Crowdsourcing , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Acústica da Fala , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 57(1): 43-54, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a Belgian Dutch outcome tool for the perceptual evaluation of speech in patients with cleft palate. SETTING: Cleft palate team in a tertiary university hospital. METHODS: The tool was based on the Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech-Augmented (John et al., 2006; Sell et al., 2009), with adaptations to some of the speech variables and the structured listening protocol. Following a preliminary listening experiment in phase 1, the tool was optimized. In the second phase, a listening experiment with 4 experienced listeners was set up to assess face validity, inter- and intrarater reliability and criterion validity. RESULTS: Results of phase 1 indicated good to very good inter- and intrarater reliability for the majority of the speech variables, good discriminant validity, and varying sensitivity and specificity based on a comparison with nasalance values and the Nasality Severity Index 2.0 (criterion validity). Results of phase 2 showed good to very good interrater reliability for 5 of the 14 variables and good intrarater reliability in 3 of the 4 experienced listeners. Sensitivity and specificity were sufficient, except the specificity of the hypernasality judgments in comparison with the nasalance values of the oral text. Overall, listeners positively judged the face validity of the tool. CONCLUSION: The 2-phase evaluation indicated varying validity and reliability results. Future studies will aim to optimize validity and reliability of the developed tool based on adaptations to the listening protocol, the addition of speech variables, and the inclusion of a more elaborate training.


Assuntos
Fissura Palatina , Bélgica , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fala , Distúrbios da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
12.
Codas ; 31(6): e20180296, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800882

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability in auditory-perceptual assessment of hypernasality of the Borg centiMax scale and the influence of the speech material on the reliability of two scales. METHODS: Four experienced speech-language pathologists rated hypernasality of 80 audio recordings of patients with repaired cleft palate (40 single-word string and 40 sentences) using the 5-point ordinal scale and the Borg centiMax scale. Intra and inter-rater reliability were calculated for both scales and for both types of speech samples. The comparison between the agreement coefficients of the two speech samples was calculated using the Z test and between the scales was calculated by Spearman correlation coefficient, considering as significant p<0.05. RESULTS: A very high and statistically significant correlation was found between the Borg centiMax scale and the ordinal scale for both speech samples. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was higher for Borg scale as compared to ordinal scale. Good to excellent intra-rater reliability was found for Borg scale for both speech samples. Poor to excellent intra-rater reliability was found for ordinal scale for both stimuli. Higher inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for Borg scale than ordinal scale for both speech samples. There was a significant difference between the single words string and sentences for intra- and inter-rater reliability using Borg scale, and for inter-rater reliability using ordinal scale. CONCLUSION: The Borg centiMax scale showed better intra and inter-rater reliability. Additionally, the speech material comprising of single words string showed better reliability in most of the comparisons for both scales.


Assuntos
Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Medida da Produção da Fala/instrumentação , Qualidade da Voz , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distúrbios da Fala/classificação , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Insuficiência Velofaríngea/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios da Voz/fisiopatologia
13.
Codas ; 31(6): e20180241, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the acoustic-articulatory configuration of vowels in women with vocal nodules and with healthy voice. METHODS: Twelve women with vocal nodules (EG) and twelve vocally health women (CG) participated of this study. All women recorded vehicle phrases with the vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ in stress position, preceded and followed by the occlusive consonant /p/: "Digo papa baixinho", "Digo pipa baixinho", and "Digo pupa baixinho". Subsequently, the first three formants (F1, F2, and F3) were extracted from these vowel targets. RESULTS: Between the two groups studied, F1 measures differed for vowels /a/ and /u/, and F2 measures differed for the vowel /a/. Women with vocal nodules showed lower values for these measures compared to vocally healthy women. Patients with vocal nodules showed a smaller interval in F1 and F2 values between vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ compared to vocally healthy women. CONCLUSION: Women with vocal nodules show lower F1 and F2 values and lower range of motion of the articulators during vowel production compared to vocally healthy women.


Assuntos
Acústica da Fala , Prega Vocal/fisiopatologia , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças da Laringe/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos
14.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180121, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691745

RESUMO

Apraxia of speech is defined as the inability to sequence the movements required for accurate articulatory production, traditionally involving a deficit in speech motor programming. Language clinicians often confront about speech inconsistency clinical cases, which raise questions concerning the differential diagnosis between apraxia and language disorders. Such problem often results in the difficulty to establish an adequate treatment decision. In this work, we discuss a clinical report in which both diagnosis and treatment raise questions about the apraxic speech condition in childhood. We start from the recognition that, in apraxia, it seems imperative to consider that the body to be considered is the one that surpasses its organic functions and structure. Clinical consequences are drawn from the premise that the human body is one whose ear can listen, and mouth can speak, i.e., the organic structure is a material realm open to the incidence of language and its "music", which creates the speaking body.


Assuntos
Apraxias/diagnóstico , Apraxias/terapia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Fala/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Medida da Produção da Fala
15.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 70(5): 251-257, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186367

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: La inadecuada retroalimentación auditiva en los niños con hipoacusia prelocutiva altera la articulación de consonantes y vocales. El propósito de esta investigación es comparar la producción de vocales en niños hipoacúsicos hispanohablantes con implante coclear o adaptación audioprotésica con niños normooyentes por medio del análisis acústico de las frecuencias formánticas y el espacio vocal. Método: Un total de 56 niños con hipoacusia prelocutiva (25 con implante coclear y 31 con audífonos) y 47 niños normooyentes participaron en el estudio. Los 2 primeros formantes (F1 y F2) de las 5 vocales del idioma español se midieron utilizando el programa Praat. Para analizar las diferencias entre los 3 grupos se aplicó el método ANOVA de análisis de la varianza y el test de Scheffé. También se calculó el área del espacio vocal. Resultados: El valor medio del F1 en todas las vocales no mostró diferencias significativas en los 3 grupos de niños. Para las vocales /i/, /o/ y /u/ el valor medio del F2 fue significativamente diferente entre los 2 grupos de niños hipoacúsicos y el grupo de niños normooyentes. Conclusión: Ambos grupos de niños con hipoacusia prelocutiva tienden a presentar sutiles desviaciones en la articulación de las vocales que pueden ser analizadas mediante un programa de análisis acústico


Introduction and objectives: Inadequate auditory feedback in prelingually deaf children alters the articulation of consonants and vowels. The purpose of this investigation was to compare vowel production in Spanish-speaking deaf children with cochlear implantation, and with hearing-aids with normal-hearing children by means of acoustic analysis of formant frequencies and vowel space. Methods: A total of 56 prelingually deaf children (25 with cochlear implants and 31 wearing hearing-aids) and 47 normal-hearing children participated. The first 2 formants (F1 and F2) of the five Spanish vowels were measured using Praat software. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Scheffé test were applied to analyze the differences between the 3 groups. The surface area of the vowel space was also calculated. Results: The mean value of F1 in all vowels was not significantly different between the 3 groups. For vowels /i/, /o/ and /u/, the mean value of F2 was significantly different between the 2 groups of deaf children and their normal-hearing peers. Conclusion: Both prelingually hearing-impaired groups tended toward subtle deviations in the articulation of vowels that could be analyzed using an objective acoustic analysis programme


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Transtornos da Articulação/etiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Fonética , Transtornos da Articulação/fisiopatologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Qualidade da Voz
16.
Otolaryngol Pol ; 73(4): 21-28, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474623

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the acoustic and capacity analysis of singing voice using DiagnoScope Specialist software. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 131 adult subjects, including 74 women and 46 men aged 21-51, divided into 3 groups: I - 40 subjects (treatment group) - professional vocalists, II - 40 subjects (treatment group) - semiprofessional vocalists, III - 40 subjects (control group) - students of The Military Medical Faculty at the Medical University of Lodz - nonsingers. The research methodology included: primary medical history, physical examination (otolaryngological), videolaryngoscopic examination, the GRBAS scale for subjective voice evaluation, diagnostic voice acoustic and capacity analysis using DiagnoScope Specialist software, survey on lifestyle patterns which may affect voice quality. R esults: Average value of the fundamental frequency F0 was the highest in professional vocalists group; it was 316.46 Hz in women and 165.09 Hz in men. In semiprofessional vocalists group it was accordingly 260.50 Hz and 149.26 Hz, in nonsingers group it was accordingly 261.23 Hz and 159.27 Hz. The mean value of Jitter parameter in professional vocalists group was 0.30% in women and 0.54% in men, in semiprofessional vocalists group it was accordingly 0.31% and 0.57%, in nonsingers group it was 0.31% and 0.56%. The mean value of Shimmer parameter in professional vocalists group was 3.27% in women and 3.75% in men, in semiprofessional vocalists group it was accordingly 3.46% and 3.77%, in nonsingers group it was 4.33% and 4.39%. The mean value of the NHR index in professional vocalists group was 3.28% in women and 6.00% in men, in semiprofessional vocalists group it was accordingly 3.23% and 6.72%, in nonsingers group it was 3.89% and 6.13%. CONCLUSIONS: Values of the parameters which measure the character of the voice, relative period-to-period fundamental frequency perturbations, relative period-to-period amplitude perturbation and level of buzzing together with other methods have diagnostic and predictive value in early detection of voice disorders. Capacity analysis in singing voice showed very low values of the following parameters: phonation time, true phonation time, no phonation coefficient, voice efficiency coefficient and voice capacity.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Canto , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças da Laringe/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Música , Saúde do Trabalhador , Fatores de Risco , Software , Acústica da Fala , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Fluency Disord ; 61: 105714, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Motor theories indicate that focusing attention on well-practiced movements interferes with skilled performance; however, specific forms of attention (alerting vs. orienting vs. executive control) associated with this effect are not well understood. The present study explored this question in relation to stuttering, and examined whether dual task conditions that engaged sustained attention or working memory (WM) affected speech fluency in different ways. We also considered whether fluency changes were associated with changes in speech rate and language. METHODS: Nineteen adults who stutter (AWS) and 20 controls produced spontaneous speech under a baseline condition and two dual task conditions: one involving a sustained attention task, the other involving WM demands. RESULTS: Both groups produced fewer stutter-like disfluencies under dual task relative to baseline conditions and this reduction did not differ between the two dual tasks (attention vs. WM). Speech rate and language variables, which were potentially influenced by attention conditions, were not affected by dual tasks in the same way as disfluencies, and appeared to be unassociated with fluency results. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that atypical disfluencies decrease when attention is divided, even when secondary task demands are minimal, as they were in the sustained attention task. For simple secondary tasks, fluency changes do not appear to be a byproduct of slowed rate and are not accompanied by observable changes in language. These results demonstrate that simple manipulations of attention can induce measurable effects on aspects of speech production, and may be a useful tool for facilitating fluency in clinical intervention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Gagueira/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 127: 109680, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Normative nasalance scores are essential for treatment and assessment purposes for clinicians. The purpose of the current study is to determine the normative data on nasalance scores for Farsi speaking children. Comparing to the obtained normative data, hypernasal or hyponasal speech (i.e. the higher or lower nasalance score) can be evaluated. METHODS: Ninety-six Farsi speakers ranging from 4 years to 11 years old with typically developing speech were included in this study. Mean nasalance scores were obtained using the Universal Parameters System sentences with nasometer II (model 6450). The nasalance data was also analyzed for any gender, age and phonetic context dependence. RESULTS: Normative nasalance values were determined, Nno differences were found for gender and age for the school-aged children. With an increasing in age, the nasalance score also increased in oral passages but not in nasal passages. Furthermore, amongst the nasalance scores there was a significant difference between these four categories of sentences: 7 sentences loaded with oral stop consonants, 5 sentences loaded with oral fricative consonants, 2 sentences loaded with oral affricatives and 3 sentences loaded with nasal consonants. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of age and gender differences led to a computation of an overall mean nasalance score for different types of phonetic context (Nasal, oral and oronasal). These normative nasalance data for Farsi speaking children will provide important reference information during speech assessments of children with velopharyngeal insufficiency.


Assuntos
Fala , Qualidade da Voz , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Doenças Nasais , Fonética , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Medida da Produção da Fala
19.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180143, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531555

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the effects of vocal warm-up (VWU) and vocal cool-down (VCD) strategies on teachers. METHODS: A quasi-experimental exploratory blind-evaluator study with control group that included teachers from a public secondary school. Teachers assigned to the experimental group (EG) performed VW prior to classes and VCD after classes. Teachers in the control group (CG) did not perform VWU and simply got voice rest after classes. Intergroup (EG vs. CG) and intragroup (pre-test versus post-test) comparisons were drawn from an auditory-perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis, and self-reported discomfort. The mean acoustic and discomfort indicators and the percentage of improvement or worsening of vocal quality were calculated with a statistically significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: EG and CG did not differ from each other in the intergroup analysis. The intragroup analysis showed that VWU improved voice quality and decreased the degree of body-related discomfort. VCD decreased both the fundamental frequency (f0) and the degree of discomfort, particularly in relation to the voice aspects. Vocal rest did not show any statistical difference. CONCLUSION: VWU showed positive effects on the auditory-perceptual evaluation and self-reported discomfort (body). VCD impacted f0 and self-reported discomfort (voice). Due to the exploratory nature of the research, the statistical power was not enough to demonstrate a difference in the comparison between EG and CG. However, the results indicate a potential for protecting teachers' voice and may be incorporated into daily work settings. Further controlled studies with random samples and greater numbers of participants should be conducted to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Distúrbios da Voz/prevenção & controle , Treinamento da Voz , Adulto , Brasil , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Setor Público , Professores Escolares , Autoavaliação , Medida da Produção da Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários , Qualidade da Voz
20.
Res Dev Disabil ; 93: 103453, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: It remains unclear how recognition of segmental and suprasegmental phonemes contributes to sentence-level language processing skills in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). Our study examined the influence of implantation age on the recognition of consonants, lexical tones and sentences respectively, and more importantly, the contribution of phonological skills to sentence repetition accuracy in Mandarin-speaking children with CIs. METHODS: The participants were three groups of prelingually deaf children who received cochlear implants at various ages and their age-matched controls with normal hearing. Three tasks were administered to assess their consonant perception, lexical tone recognition and language skills in open-set sentence repetition. RESULTS: Children with CIs lagged behind NH peers in all the three tests, and performances on segmental, suprasegmental and sentence-level processing were differentially modulated by implantation age. Furthermore, performances on recognition of consonants and lexical tones were significant predictors of sentence repetition accuracy in the children with CIs. CONCLUSION: Overall, segmental and suprasegmental perception as well as sentence-level processing is impaired in Mandarin-speaking children with CIs compared with age-matched children with NH. In children with CIs recognition of segmental and suprasegmental phonemes at the lower level predicts sentence repetition accuracy at the higher level. More importantly, implantation age plays an important role in the development of phonological skills and higher-order language skills, suggesting that age-appropriate aural rehabilitation and speech intervention programs need to be developed in order to better help CI users who receive CIs at different ages.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Percepção Auditiva , Linguagem Infantil , Implantes Cocleares , Correção de Deficiência Auditiva , Surdez , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Implante Coclear/instrumentação , Implante Coclear/métodos , Correção de Deficiência Auditiva/métodos , Correção de Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Surdez/psicologia , Surdez/reabilitação , Surdez/cirurgia , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos
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