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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26280, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115027

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Despite lacking aphasia seen with left hemisphere (LH) infarcts involving the middle cerebral artery territory, right hemisphere (RH) strokes can result in significant difficulties in affective prosody. These impairments may be more difficult to identify but lead to significant communication problems.We determine if evaluation of singing can accurately identify stroke patients with cortical RH infarcts at risk for prosodic impairment who may benefit from rehabilitation.A prospective cohort of 36 patients evaluated with acute ischemic stroke was recruited. Participants underwent an experimental battery evaluating their singing, prosody comprehension, and prosody production. Singing samples were rated by 2 independent reviewers as subjectively "normal" or "abnormal," and analyzed for properties of the fundamental frequency. Relationships between infarct location, singing, and prosody performance were evaluated using t tests and chi-squared analysis.Eighty percent of participants with LH cortical strokes were unable to successfully complete any of the tasks due to severe aphasia. For the remainder, singing ratings corresponded to stroke location for 68% of patients. RH cortical strokes demonstrated a lower mean fundamental frequency while singing than those with subcortical infarcts (176.8 vs 130.4, P = 0.02). They also made more errors on tasks of prosody comprehension (28.6 vs 16.0, P < 0.001) and production (40.4 vs 18.4, P < 0.001).Patients with RH cortical infarcts are more likely to exhibit impaired prosody comprehension and production and demonstrate the poor variation of tone when singing compared to patients with subcortical infarcts. A simple singing screen is able to successfully identify patients with cortical lesions and potential prosodic deficits.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Infarto Cerebral , Canto/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/etiologia , Idoso , Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico , Infarto Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Infarto Cerebral/psicologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , Masculino
2.
Codas ; 33(1): e20190197, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze if the use of synthesized voice anchor emissions in auditory-perceptual evaluation improves intra- and inter-rater agreement. METHODS: This is a quantitative study. Thirty-two inexperienced evaluators were selected and performed two activities on a Programming Interface created by the authors: Active Calibrator Activity - auditory-perceptual evaluation of the roughness and breathiness parameters as 0-no deviation, 1-slight deviation, 2-moderate deviation, or 3-intense deviation of 25 voices with the support of anchored emissions of synthesized voices; and Inactive Calibrator Activity - auditory-perceptual evaluation of these same voices without the support of anchored vocal emissions. The voices were randomized for each activity, and the order of the activities was drawn randomly for each evaluator. The second activity was performed 15 days after the first. The Kappa coefficient was used to analyze intra- and inter-rater agreement, and the confidence interval (CI) was employed to compare concordances. RESULTS: Inter-rater agreement was higher for the intense degree of the breathiness parameter in the Active Calibrator Activity when compared to the Inactive Calibrator Activity, as well as the intra-rater agreement of the roughness parameter.333. CONCLUSION: Use of anchor emissions of synthesized voices directly in the evaluation improves intra- and inter-rater agreement in auditory-perceptual voice analysis.


Assuntos
Qualidade da Voz , Voz , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
3.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(6): 1904-1917, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019771

RESUMO

Introduction The current study examined the extent to which practice amount mediates dual-task interference patterns associated with concurrent performance of a novel speech task and attention-demanding visuomotor task. Method A Sequential Nonword Repetition Task was used to examine the effect of practice on interference associated with concurrent performance of a Visuomotor Pursuit Task. Twenty-five young adult participants were assigned to either an Extended Practice Group or a Limited Practice Group and performed a novel Sequential Nonword Repetition Task in isolation and while performing a concurrent visuomotor pursuit rotor task. Results Participants in the Limited Practice Group who were afforded a limited amount of practice exhibited dual-task interference (i.e., dual-task performance reductions) for both the speech and visuomotor tasks (i.e., bidirectional dual-task interference). Conversely, participants in the Extended Practice Group who were afforded extended practice exhibited little-to-no observable dual-task interference on the nonword repetition task. Conclusion Data from the current investigation suggest that the amount of initial practice mediates the degree of dual-task interference observed when a novel speech production task is performed with an attention-demanding Visuomotor Pursuit Task. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14608071.


Assuntos
Fonética , Fala , Humanos , Medida da Produção da Fala , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(3S): 1446-1458, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010033

RESUMO

Purpose This retrospective pilot study investigated whether sound-level and speech production errors decreased in confrontation naming following Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST) for four participants with acquired apraxia of speech (A-AOS) and aphasia for whom lexical retrieval was previously reported. Specifically, we investigated a potential increase in correct number of syllables per word and posttreatment changes across three domains of speech: segmental production, fluency, and prosody. It was hypothesized that treatment shown to increase lexical retrieval in persons with aphasia and A-AOS could potentially facilitate a reduction in sound-level and speech production errors consistent with dual diagnoses of A-AOS and aphasia. Method Naming responses from four participants with aphasia and A-AOS who previously participated in VNeST studies were investigated for correct number of syllables per word and measures of segmental speech, fluency, and prosody. Results Significant gains in at least one measure of speech production were reported for three of the participants. One participant demonstrated decreased segmental speech errors, two showed significant reduction on syllable segmentation, and two demonstrated a significant reduction on false starts and pauses. Significant gains in production of correct number of syllables were limited to one participant, and one participant did not demonstrate increased accuracy on any measure of speech production. Conclusions While speech production errors consistent with motor speech impairment cannot always be definitively distinguished from the confound of aphasia, two participants produced significantly decreased segmentation of syllables, a characteristic unique to A-AOS. The sound-level and speech production changes recorded may be attributed to a combination of interacting motor and language processes and resource allocation. In addition, specific components of VNeST may have contributed to speech production changes. Future work will focus on a prospective study of effects of language therapy (e.g., VNeST) on measures of speech production with investigation beyond the single-word level.


Assuntos
Afasia , Apraxias , Afasia/diagnóstico , Afasia/terapia , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Apraxias/terapia , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
5.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(3S): 1343-1360, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048663

RESUMO

Purpose This exploratory study sought to identify acoustic variables explaining rate-related variation in intelligibility for speakers with dysarthria secondary to multiple sclerosis. Method Seven speakers with dysarthria due to multiple sclerosis produced the same set of Harvard sentences at habitual and slow rates. Speakers were selected from a larger corpus on the basis of rate-related intelligibility characteristics. Four speakers demonstrated improved intelligibility and three speakers demonstrated reduced intelligibility when rate was slowed. A speech analysis resynthesis paradigm termed hybridization was used to create stimuli in which segmental (i.e., short-term spectral) and suprasegmental variables (i.e., sentence-level fundamental frequency, energy characteristics, and duration) of sentences produced at the slow rate were donated individually or in combination to habitually produced sentences. Online crowdsourced orthographic transcription was used to quantify intelligibility for six hybridized sentence types and the original habitual and slow productions. Results Sentence duration alone was not a contributing factor to improved intelligibility associated with slowed rate. Speakers whose intelligibility improved with slowed rate showed higher intelligibility scores for duration spectrum hybrids and energy hybrids compared to the original habitual rate sentences, suggesting these acoustic cues contributed to improved intelligibility for sentences produced with a slowed rate. Energy contour characteristics were also found to play a role in intelligibility losses for speakers with decreased intelligibility at slowed rate. The relative contribution of speech acoustic variables to intelligibility gains and losses varied considerably between speakers. Conclusions Hybridization can be used to identify acoustic correlates of intelligibility variation associated with slowed rate. This approach has further elucidated speaker-specific and individualized speech production adjustments when slowing rate.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Acústica , Disartria/diagnóstico , Disartria/etiologia , Humanos , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
6.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(3S): 1477-1495, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826355

RESUMO

Purpose Variability has been interpreted in differing ways according to context (e.g., development, speech impairment, and learning). A challenge arises when interpreting variability in the context of learning for children with speech impairment characterized by high movement variability, as in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The objective of this study is to investigate changes in variability in CAS with practice in comparison to patterns seen in children with non-CAS speech sound disorders (SSD) and typical development. Method Speech production variability was examined in 24 children (5-6 years of age) with CAS, non-CAS SSD, and typical development in production of nonwords of varied motoric complexity. Multidimensional analyses were performed using measures of token-to-token speech consistency (percent word consistency), acoustic variability (acoustic spatiotemporal index), and movement variability (lip aperture spatiotemporal index). Changes in variability were examined in each group of children by comparing the first half to the last half of nonword tokens in the same data collection session. The impact of token complexity on practice effects was also explored across groups of children. Results All children displayed increased speech consistency within this practice period (p = .01). Only children with CAS displayed increased movement variability following practice (p = .01). Differences in acoustic and kinematic variability were observed across complexity levels in all groups, though these did not interact with practice effects. Discussion These findings suggest that increased movement variability in children with CAS might be facilitating perceptual consistency. It is believed that this finding reflects an inefficient strategy adapted by children with CAS in the absence of motor-based cueing and feedback to guide speech performance with practice.


Assuntos
Apraxias , Fala , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Humanos , Distúrbios da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(6S): 2325-2346, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887150

RESUMO

Purpose Stuttering is characterized by intermittent speech disfluencies, which are dramatically reduced when speakers synchronize their speech with a steady beat. The goal of this study was to characterize the neural underpinnings of this phenomenon using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Method Data were collected from 16 adults who stutter and 17 adults who do not stutter while they read sentences aloud either in a normal, self-paced fashion or paced by the beat of a series of isochronous tones ("rhythmic"). Task activation and task-based functional connectivity analyses were carried out to compare neural responses between speaking conditions and groups after controlling for speaking rate. Results Adults who stutter produced fewer disfluent trials in the rhythmic condition than in the normal condition. Adults who stutter did not have any significant changes in activation between the rhythmic condition and the normal condition, but when groups were collapsed, participants had greater activation in the rhythmic condition in regions associated with speech sequencing, sensory feedback control, and timing perception. Adults who stutter also demonstrated increased functional connectivity among cerebellar regions during rhythmic speech as compared to normal speech and decreased connectivity between the left inferior cerebellum and the left prefrontal cortex. Conclusions Modulation of connectivity in the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex during rhythmic speech suggests that this fluency-inducing technique activates a compensatory timing system in the cerebellum and potentially modulates top-down motor control and attentional systems. These findings corroborate previous work associating the cerebellum with fluency in adults who stutter and indicate that the cerebellum may be targeted to enhance future therapeutic interventions. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14417681.


Assuntos
Gagueira , Adulto , Humanos , Idioma , Leitura , Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(5): 1490-1502, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900802

RESUMO

Purpose This study investigated Icelandic-speaking children's acquisition of singleton consonants and consonant clusters. Method Participants were 437 typically developing children aged 2;6-7;11 (years;months) acquiring Icelandic as their first language. Single-word speech samples of the 47 single consonants and 45 consonant clusters were collected using Málhljóðapróf ÞM (ÞM's Test of Speech Sound Disorders). Results Percentage of consonants correct for children aged 2;6-2;11 was 73.12 (SD = 13.33) and increased to 98.55 (SD = 3.24) for children aged 7;0-7;11. Overall, singleton consonants were more likely to be accurate than consonant clusters. The earliest consonants to be acquired were /m, n, p, t, j, h/ in word-initial position and /f, l/ within words. The last consonants to be acquired were /x, r, rÌ¥, s, θ, nÌ¥/, and consonant clusters in word-initial /sv-, stl-, str-, skr-, θr-/, within-word /-ðr-, -tl-/, and word-final /-klÌ¥, -xt/ contexts. Within-word phonemes were more often accurate than those in word-initial position, with word-final position the least accurate. Accuracy of production was significantly related to increasing age, but not sex. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive study of consonants and consonant cluster acquisition by typically developing Icelandic-speaking children. The findings align with trends for other Germanic languages; however, there are notable language-specific differences of clinical importance.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Idioma , Criança , Humanos , Fonética , Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(5): 1560-1570, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900806

RESUMO

Purpose Auditory perceptual judgments are commonly used to diagnose dysarthria and assess treatment progress. The purpose of the study was to examine the acoustic underpinnings of perceptual speech abnormalities in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method Auditory perceptual judgments were obtained from sentences produced by 13 speakers with PD and five healthy older adults. Twenty young listeners rated overall ease of understanding, articulatory precision, voice quality, and prosodic adequacy on a visual analog scale. Acoustic measures associated with the speech subsystems of articulation, phonation, and prosody were obtained, including second formant transitions, articulation rate, cepstral and spectral measures of voice, and pitch variations. Regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between perceptual judgments and acoustic variables. Results Perceptual impressions of Parkinsonian speech were related to combinations of several acoustic variables. Approximately 36%-49% of the variance in the perceptual ratings were explained by the acoustic measures indicating a modest acoustic perceptual relationship. Conclusions The relationships between perceptual ratings and acoustic signals in Parkinsonian speech are multifactorial and involve a variety of acoustic features simultaneously. The modest acoustic perceptual relationships, however, suggest that future work is needed to further examine the acoustic bases of perceptual judgments in dysarthria.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Fala , Acústica , Idoso , Disartria/diagnóstico , Disartria/etiologia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Acústica da Fala , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(5): 1515-1525, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909445

RESUMO

Purpose The purpose of the current study was to examine normative nasalance values in Vietnamese adult speakers with Southern dialect and to investigate the effects of vowels and tones on nasalance. Previous studies examining nasalance have been mainly conducted with Indo-European languages. Limited information on nasalance is available in tone languages other than Chinese. Furthermore, tone and vowel effects on nasalance scores in tone languages have not been fully examined. Method Nasalance scores of various speech stimuli including passages, syllables, and prolonged vowels were obtained from Vietnamese-speaking adults with Southern dialect (M age = 23 years) using a nasometer (KayPENTAX 6450). Results The average nasalance scores of Southern Vietnamese adult speakers were 24.16%, 38.17%, and 70.03% for the oral, oral-nasal, and nasal passages, respectively. Southern Vietnamese speakers produced the highest nasalance scores on the vowel /a/, followed by /i/ and /u/. Nasalance scores of stimuli produced with the falling and restricted tone were significantly lower than those produced with the other tones. Conclusions The normative nasalance values of the current study will contribute as a reference index for the Vietnamese language. The effects of vowels and tones can also provide insight into the development of nasalance testing stimuli and for characterizing nasalance values across languages.


Assuntos
Idioma , Acústica da Fala , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Humanos , Medida da Produção da Fala , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(5): 1571-1580, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909472

RESUMO

Purpose The reliability of auditory-perceptual judgments between listeners is a long-standing problem in the assessment of voice disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relatively novel experimental scaling method, called visual sort and rate (VSR), yielded stronger reliability than the more frequently used method of visual analog scales (VAS) for ratings of overall severity (OS) and breathiness (BR) in speakers with voicedisorders. Method Fifty speech samples were selected from a database of speakers with voice disorders. Twenty-two inexperienced listeners provided ratings of OS or BR in four rating blocks: VSR-OS, VSR-BR, VAS-OS, and VSR-BR. For the VAS task, listeners rated each speaker for BR or OS using a vertically oriented 100-mm VAS. For the VSR task, stimuli were distributed into sets of samples with a range of speaker severities in each set. Listeners sorted and ranked samples for OS or BR within each set, and final ratings were captured on a vertically oriented 100-mm VAS. Interrater variability, defined as the mean of the squared differences between a listener's ratings and group mean ratings, and intrarater reliability (Pearson r) were compared across rating tasks for OS and BR using paired t tests. Results Results showed that listeners had significantly less interrater variability (better reliability) when using VSR methods compared to VAS for judgments of both OS and BR. Intrarater reliability was high across rating tasks and dimensions; however, ratings of BR were significantly more consistent within individual listeners when using VAS than when using VSR. Conclusions VSR is an experimental method that decreases variability of auditory-perceptual judgments between inexperienced listeners when rating speakers with a range of dysphonic severities and disorders. Future research should determine whether a clinically viable tool may be developed based on VSR principles and whether such benefits extend to experienced listeners.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Percepção da Fala , Disfonia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Julgamento , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Escala Visual Analógica , Qualidade da Voz
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929963

RESUMO

Dysarthria is a disorder that affects an individual's speech intelligibility due to the paralysis of muscles and organs involved in the articulation process. As the condition is often associated with physically debilitating disabilities, not only do such individuals face communication problems, but also interactions with digital devices can become a burden. For these individuals, automatic speech recognition (ASR) technologies can make a significant difference in their lives as computing and portable digital devices can become an interaction medium, enabling them to communicate with others and computers. However, ASR technologies have performed poorly in recognizing dysarthric speech, especially for severe dysarthria, due to multiple challenges facing dysarthric ASR systems. We identified these challenges are due to the alternation and inaccuracy of dysarthric phonemes, the scarcity of dysarthric speech data, and the phoneme labeling imprecision. This paper reports on our second dysarthric-specific ASR system, called Speech Vision (SV) that tackles these challenges by adopting a novel approach towards dysarthric ASR in which speech features are extracted visually, then SV learns to see the shape of the words pronounced by dysarthric individuals. This visual acoustic modeling feature of SV eliminates phoneme-related challenges. To address the data scarcity problem, SV adopts visual data augmentation techniques, generates synthetic dysarthric acoustic visuals, and leverages transfer learning. Benchmarking with other state-of-the-art dysarthric ASR considered in this study, SV outperformed them by improving recognition accuracies for 67% of UA-Speech speakers, where the biggest improvements were achieved for severe dysarthria.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Disartria , Disartria/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Interface para o Reconhecimento da Fala
13.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 24(6): 408-417, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849395

RESUMO

The primary aim was to describe speech and language abilities in a clinical group of verbal 5-year-old children diagnosed with neurological disability (ND) in infancy, and the secondary aim was to trace precursors to consonant production at age 5 years (T2) in data from 12 to 22 months (T1). The participants (n = 11, with Down syndrome (DS), cerebral palsy, and chromosomal deletion syndromes) were tested with a battery of speech and language tests. Consonant production at T2 was compared to data on consonant use at T1. At T2, two participants had age appropriate speech and language and another three had age-appropriate speech, but low results on language tests. The remaining six participants had severe speech and language difficulties. Participants with DS had significantly lower results on consonant production measures. An association between consonant production at T1 and T2 for participants with DS indicates that number of different true consonants might be a predictive measure when evaluating young children with DS.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Transtornos Cromossômicos/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Idioma , Fala , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Medida da Produção da Fala
14.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(6S): 2377-2384, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826364

RESUMO

Purpose To better understand the role of tongue visibility in speech, this study compared the spatiotemporal patterns of silent versus audible speech for lingual consonants of American English. Kinematic data were obtained for articulatory features assumed to be visually salient, including tongue movement (anterior displacement and midsagittal area), lip aperture, and consonant duration. Method Electromagnetic articulography was used to measure 11 native speakers' productions of five consonants (/É¡/, /w/, /ɹ/, /l/, and /ð/), selected to represent a continuum of tongue visibility. Nonword consonant-vowel syllables were elicited during a procedure designed to convey a dyadic communication environment. A method of kinematic-based consonant segmentation was developed for data processing, and results were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Findings indicated increased consonant duration and lip aperture in the silent condition (vs. audible) for all five consonants. Tongue forward displacement was slightly greater in the silent condition, compared to audible, for all consonants except /É¡/, the only consonant without a visible tongue component. In addition, the extent of tongue forwarding in silent speech corresponded with the degree of tongue visibility. Conclusion During silent speech, talkers increased their lip aperture and consonant duration and tended to shift their tongues forward for the most visible lingual consonants, suggesting that talkers may be aware at some level of the need to increase articulatory visibility of the tongue in the presence of an interlocutor during adverse speech conditions.


Assuntos
Fala , Língua , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Idioma , Medida da Produção da Fala
15.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(5): 1539-1549, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831330

RESUMO

Purpose For individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), conversational interactions can be challenging. Efforts to improve the success of these interactions have largely fallen on the individual with PD. Successful communication, however, involves contributions from both the individual with PD and their communication partner. The current study examines whether healthy communication partners naturally engage in different acoustic-prosodic behavior (speech compensations) when conversing with an individual with PD and, further, whether such behavior aids communication success. Method Measures of articulatory precision, speaking rate, and pitch variability were extracted from the speech of healthy speakers engaged in goal-directed dialogue with other healthy speakers (healthy-healthy dyads) and with individuals with PD (healthy-PD dyads). Speech compensations, operationally defined as significant differences in healthy speakers' acoustic-prosodic behavior in healthy-healthy dyads versus healthy-PD dyads, were calculated for the three speech behaviors. Finally, the relationships between speech behaviors and an objective measure of communicative efficiency were examined. Results Healthy speakers engaged in speech characterized by greater articulatory precision and slower speaking rate when conversing with individuals with PD relative to conversations with other healthy individuals. However, these adaptive speech compensations were not predictive of communicative efficiency. Conclusions Evidence that healthy speakers naturally engage in speech compensations when conversing with individuals with PD is novel, yet consistent with findings from studies with other populations in which conversation can be challenging. In the case of PD, these compensatory behaviors did not support communication outcomes. While preliminary in nature, the results raise important questions regarding the speech behavior of healthy communication partners and provide directions for future work.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Doença de Parkinson , Comunicação , Eficiência , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Fala , Acústica da Fala , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
16.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(3): 734-753, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646815

RESUMO

Purpose Liquids are among the last sounds to be acquired by English-speaking children. The current study considers their acquisition from an articulatory timing perspective by investigating anticipatory posturing for /l/ versus /ɹ/ in child and adult speech. Method In Experiment 1, twelve 5-year-old, twelve 8-year-old, and 11 college-aged speakers produced carrier phrases with penultimate stress on monosyllabic words that had /l/, /ɹ/, or /d/ (control) as singleton onsets and /æ/ or /u/ as the vowel. Short-domain anticipatory effects were acoustically investigated based on schwa formant values extracted from the preceding determiner (= the) and dynamic formant values across the /ə#LV/ sequence. In Experiment 2, long-domain effects were perceptually indexed using a previously validated forward-gated audiovisual speech prediction task. Results Experiment 1 results indicated that all speakers distinguished /l/ from /ɹ/ along F3. Adults distinguished /l/ from /ɹ/ with a lower F2. Older children produced subtler versions of the adult pattern; their anticipatory posturing was also more influenced by the following vowel. Younger children did not distinguish /l/ from /ɹ/ along F2, but both liquids were distinguished from /d/ in the domains investigated. Experiment 2 results indicated that /ɹ/ was identified earlier than /l/ in gated adult speech; both liquids were identified equally early in 5-year-olds' speech. Conclusions The results are interpreted to suggest a pattern of early tongue-body retraction for liquids in /ə#LV/ sequences in children's speech. More generally, it is suggested that children must learn to inhibit the influence of vowels on liquid articulation to achieve an adultlike contrast between /l/ and /ɹ/ in running speech.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Humanos , Fonética , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Língua , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(4): 1136-1156, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769849

RESUMO

Purpose Auditory-perceptual evaluation is essential for the clinical assessment of voice disorders. Unstable perceptual voice evaluation has been shown for inexperienced listeners as compared to expert listeners. We examined the effects of perceptual training with external auditory anchors with and without immediate feedback on the evaluation of roughness and breathiness of natural, nonsynthesized speech stimuli (reading of a standard passage) in speech-language pathology students. Method Perceptual voice evaluation and training with anchors using a visual analog scale was implemented with a computer software. Forty-eight speech-language pathology students were randomly assigned into three groups, feedback group (Group F), no feedback group (Group NF), and control group (Group C), attending one training session and four assessment sessions (before training, immediately after training, and 1 and 7 weeks after training). Group F received training with anchors with immediate feedback, Group NF received training without immediate feedback, and Group C received sham training (exposure session). Results Training with anchors significantly increased the rating accuracy (agreement with expert ratings) on both roughness and breathiness for Group F, with the effects lasting for 7 weeks. No significant changes in rating accuracy with training were observed for Group NF and Group C. No improvements in intra- and interrater reliability as well as intrarater agreement were observed in all three groups, whereas interrater agreement on breathiness (but not roughness) significantly increased for all groups, with the effect lasting for 7 weeks only for Group F. Conclusions These findings suggested that perceptual training with external auditory anchors and the use of immediate feedback could be effective for facilitating the development of perceptual voice evaluation skills in speech-language pathology students. Further studies involving more extensive training with stimuli covering a full range of dysphonia severity categories and improvements in design of the training protocol are recommended to verify these results.


Assuntos
Disfonia , Percepção da Fala , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Disfonia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Estudantes , Qualidade da Voz
18.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(4): 1271-1282, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784197

RESUMO

Purpose Analysis of connected speech in the field of adult neurogenic communication disorders is essential for research and clinical purposes, yet time and expertise are often cited as limiting factors. The purpose of this project was to create and evaluate an automated program to score and compute the measures from the Quantitative Production Analysis (QPA), an objective and systematic approach for measuring morphological and structural features of connected speech. Method The QPA was used to analyze transcripts of Cinderella stories from 109 individuals with acute-subacute left hemisphere stroke. Regression slopes and residuals were used to compare the results of manual scoring and automated scoring using the newly developed C-QPA command in CLAN, a set of programs for automatic analysis of language samples. Results The C-QPA command produced two spreadsheet outputs: an analysis spreadsheet with scores for each utterance in the language sample, and a summary spreadsheet with 18 score totals from the analysis spreadsheet and an additional 15 measures derived from those totals. Linear regression analysis revealed that 32 of the 33 measures had good agreement; auxiliary complexity index was the one score that did not have good agreement. Conclusions The C-QPA command can be used to perform automated analyses of language transcripts, saving time and training and providing reliable and valid quantification of connected speech. Transcribing in CHAT, the CLAN editor, also streamlined the process of transcript preparation for QPA and allowed for precise linking of media files to language transcripts for temporal analyses.


Assuntos
Fala , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Humanos , Idioma , Modelos Lineares , Medida da Produção da Fala
19.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(4): 1157-1175, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789057

RESUMO

Purpose The aim of this study was to determine how the speech disorder profiles in Down syndrome (DS) relate to reduced intelligibility, atypical overall quality, and impairments in the subsystems of speech production (phonation, articulation, resonance, and prosody). Method Auditory-perceptual ratings of intelligibility, overall quality, and features associated with the subsystems of speech production were obtained from recordings of 79 children and adults with DS. Ratings were made for sustained vowels (62 of 79 speakers) and short sentences (79 speakers). The data were analyzed to determine the severity of the affected features in each speaking task and to detect patterns in the group data by means of principal components analysis. Results Reduced intelligibility was noted in 90% of the speakers, and atypical overall speech quality was noted in 100%. Affected speech features were distributed across the speech production subsystems. Principal components analysis revealed four components each for the vowel and sentence tasks, showing that individuals with DS are not homogeneous in the features of their speech disorder. Discussion The speech disorder in DS is complex in its perceptual features and reflects impairments across the subsystems of speech production, but the pattern is not uniform across individuals, indicating that attention must be given to individual variation in designing treatments.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Fala , Adulto , Criança , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Humanos , Fonação , Acústica da Fala , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala
20.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 622-648, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705676

RESUMO

Purpose The aim of the study was to develop and validate a probe word list and scoring system to assess speech motor skills in preschool and school-age children with motor speech disorders. Method This article describes the development of a probe word list and scoring system using a modified word complexity measure and principles based on the hierarchical development of speech motor control known as the Motor Speech Hierarchy (MSH). The probe word list development accounted for factors related to word (i.e., motoric) complexity, linguistic variables, and content familiarity. The probe word list and scoring system was administered to 48 preschool and school-age children with moderate-to-severe speech motor delay at clinical centers in Ontario, Canada, and then evaluated for reliability and validity. Results One-way analyses of variance revealed that the motor complexity of the probe words increased significantly for each MSH stage, while no significant differences in the linguistic complexity were found for neighborhood density, mean biphone frequency, or log word frequency. The probe word list and scoring system yielded high reliability on measures of internal consistency and intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability indicated moderate agreement across the MSH stages, with the exception of MSH Stage V, which yielded substantial agreement. The probe word list and scoring system demonstrated high content, construct (unidimensionality, convergent validity, and discriminant validity), and criterion-related (concurrent and predictive) validity. Conclusions The probe word list and scoring system described in the current study provide a standardized method that speech-language pathologists can use in the assessment of speech motor control. It can support clinicians in identifying speech motor difficulties in preschool and school-age children, set appropriate goals, and potentially measure changes in these goals across time and/or after intervention.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Fala , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Ontário , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medida da Produção da Fala
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