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2.
Disasters ; 44(1): 25-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231841

RESUMO

Although the literature is increasingly concerned with cooperation among humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs), we still lack studies that explain cooperation under conditions of competition. Drawing on 22 semi-structured interviews, this article argues that trust is the driving force behind security-related cooperation within networks of humanitarian NGOs. Which type of trust comes into play and how trust is built depends on the structure of a network. In small, stable networks, trust is typically based on experience, whereas shared identity is at the heart of trust in large, unstable networks. In the latter case, cooperation among humanitarian NGOs is exclusive and comparable to a form of club governance, because NGOs are kept out based on their identity-that is, if they adopt a different operational interpretation of the humanitarian principles.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Organizações/organização & administração , Socorro em Desastres/organização & administração , Medidas de Segurança/organização & administração , Confiança/psicologia , Humanos
3.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(6): 263-270, nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185152

RESUMO

Se presenta un trabajo multidisciplinar realizado por especialistas de Cardiología, Hemostasia y Trombosis, Medicina Interna y Neurología en el que se exponen las evidencias científicas actuales que demuestran el mejor perfil de seguridad de los anticoagulantes orales de acción directa (ACOD) frente a los antivitamina K (AVK) y se discuten indicaciones y el papel de los antídotos específicos y hemostáticos para la reversión del efecto anticoagulante. El análisis sugiere que el mejor perfil de seguridad de los ACOD los hace especialmente útiles en pacientes con alto riesgo hemorrágico


A multidisciplinary panel of cardiologists, neurologists, internal medicine and specialists in hemostasis and thrombosis has elaborated this document showing recent scientific evidences supporting a better profile of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) versus vitamin K antagonists (VKA), as well as the indications of specific antidotes and hemostatic agents to reverse the anticoagulant effects of DOACs. The analysis reinforces the best profile of DOACs and its special benefit in patients with basal high hemorrhagic risk


Assuntos
Humanos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Segurança , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/metabolismo , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral
4.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 742-749, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682354

RESUMO

This article updates how Australia's national security concerns have intersected with the regulation of Australian medical practitioners in the area of mandatory, indefinite, administrative offshore detention of asylum-seekers. It outlines relevant recent decisions of the High Court, including dissenting opinions that such detention represents unconstitutional extra-judicial punishment with a primary deterrence aim. It evaluates recent amendments to the Australian Border Force Act 2015 (Cth) as well as exploring recent relevant legislation and administrative, political and judicial decisions made in both Papua New Guinea and the Republic of Nauru. It considers the Medical Evacuation legislation and the Australian Government's attempts to challenge judicial authority to transfer people off Nauru for medical treatment. The article concludes with an analysis of prospects for further Australian asylum seeker and refugee policy and legislative reform more coherent with basic principles of medical ethics and international human rights.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Refugiados , Transporte de Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , Austrália , Humanos , Punição , Medidas de Segurança
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12238-12246, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589027

RESUMO

The migration of low levels of plutonium has been observed at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and attributed to colloids. To better understand the mechanism(s) of colloid-facilitated transport at this site, we performed flow cell desorption experiments with mineral colloid suspensions produced by hydrothermal alteration of NNSS nuclear melt glass, residual material left behind from nuclear testing. Three different colloid suspensions were used: (1) colloidal material from hydrothermal alteration of nuclear melt glass at 140 °C; (2) at 200 °C; and (3) plutonium sorbed to SWy-1 montmorillonite at room temperature. The 140 °C sample contained only montmorillonite, while zeolite and other phases were present in the 200 °C sample. Overall, more plutonium was desorbed from the 140 °C colloids (ca. 9-16%) than from the 200 °C colloids (ca. 4-8%). Furthermore, at the end of the 4.5 day flow cell experiments, the desorption rates for the 140 °C colloids and the Pu-montmorillonite colloids were similar while the desorption rates from the 200 °C colloids were up to an order of magnitude lower. We posit that the formation of zeolites and clays hydrothermally altered at 200 °C may lead to a more stable association of plutonium with colloids, resulting in lower desorption rates. This may give rise to more extensive colloid-facilitated transport and help explain why trace levels of plutonium are found downgradient from their original source decades after a nuclear detonation. Interestingly, in the case of cesium (a co-contaminant of plutonium), no difference was observed between the 140 and 200 °C colloids. This reflects intrinsic differences between cesium and plutonium sorption/desorption behavior (charge, cation size) and suggests that the Cs sorption mechanism (cation exchange) is not similarly affected by colloid formation temperature.


Assuntos
Plutônio , Bentonita , Coloides , Nevada , Medidas de Segurança
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17569, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593143

RESUMO

Near misses and unsafe conditions have become more serious for patients in emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to search the near misses and unsafe conditions that occurred in an ED to improve patient safety.This was a retrospective analysis of a 10-year observational period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2016. We gained access to the adverse event notification forms (AENFs) sent to the hospital quality department from the ED. Patient age, sex, and date of presentation were recorded. The near misses and unsafe conditions were classified into 7 types: medication errors, falls, management errors, penetrative-sharp tool injuries, incidents due to institution security, incidents due to medical equipment, and forensic events. The outcome of these events was recorded.A total of 220 AENF were reported from 294,673 ED visits. The median age of the 166 patients was 60 (21-95) years. Of these, 57.1% of the patients were females and 47.9% were males. The most commonly reported events were medication errors (32.7%) and management errors (27.3%). The median age of falling patients was 67.5 years. The nurse-patient ratio between 2007 to 2011 and 2011 to 2016 were 1/10 and 1/7, respectively. We found that when this ratio increased, the adverse events results were less significant (P < .003).This was the 1st study investigating the adverse events in ED in Turkey. The reporting ratio of 0.07% for the total ED visits was too low. This showed that adverse events were under-reported.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros Médicos/classificação , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Medicação/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/classificação , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medidas de Segurança/classificação , Turquia/epidemiologia
7.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed; 20191000. 34 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1023681

RESUMO

La publicación contiene las disposiciones para el pintado interno y externo de los volúmenes, ambientes, espacios y otros; sobre todo de tipo de superficies como elementos arquitectónicos y estructurales, tales como: pisos, zócalos, contrazócalos, muros, parapetos, franjas y otros; de la infraestructura física de los establecimientos que se encuentran en el ámbito del Ministerio de Salud.


Assuntos
Medidas de Segurança , Manutenção Preventiva , Gestão em Saúde , Instalações de Saúde
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement of public health promotion practice at Russian resorts is constrained by insufficient knowledge and, therefore, a weak consideration of psychological factors for choosing the favorable rest conditions. The role of subject reflection of the safety of resort components remains underestimated. AIM: To identify the structural-content and functional features of the personal concept of a resort rehabilitation subject, which is determined by the reflection of security measures at a resort. METHODS: The sample consisted of 200 rehabilitation subjects in the Russian Caucasian Spas and foreign resorts. There was no medical intervention. The study was conducted in 2017-2018. The methods used were unstructured interviews, questionnaires, and expert evaluation. Fisher's angular transformation, Student's t-test, and methods for cluster and correlation analyses were used for data processing. RESULTS: The structure of the targeting and organizational components of the personal concept of resort rehabilitation subjects was detailed. There were statistically significant differences in the blocks of personal concepts of the subjects differentiated by the place of resort rehabilitation and the type of a resort plan. DISCUSSION: The personal concept of a resort rehabilitation subject sets motivational selectivity of its choice of resort conditions. The variability of the resort choice is accompanied by differences in the personal concepts of rehabilitation subjects: the foreign resorts are attractive because of their comfortable conditions and high-quality service; the Russian resorts are promising in health resumption; the orientative-searching choice of a resort is characterized by the priority of novelty and high-quality board and lodging; the sustainable choice for a resort is the priority of obtaining the expected results of rehabilitation, as well as the conditions of stay at the resort. SUMMARY: The reflection of security determines the content and structural organization of the personal concept of a resort rehabilitation subject. The personal concept of the resort rehabilitation subject is based on the unity of the targeting and organizational components, one of which combines the objectives of recovery, high-quality board and lodging, and new opportunities; the other is the compliance with the basic and contextual conditions of rest. The bilateral relations between the components of the personal concept of the resort health promotion subject determine the selective orientation of the subjects to specific rest conditions, depending on the expected result. The differences in subject priorities of the place of rest and the type of its planning are accompanied by significant variations in the personal concept of a resort rehabilitation subject. CONCLUSION: The study identified the features of self-consciousness of the subjects as the psychological bases for their choice of rest conditions in the resort areas. The findings determine the direction of administrative, advertising, and marketing promotion of the development of Russian resorts.


Assuntos
Estâncias para Tratamento de Saúde , Reabilitação/métodos , Medidas de Segurança , Humanos , Federação Russa
9.
J Environ Radioact ; 208-209: 106047, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526956

RESUMO

As part of an underground gas migration study, two radioactive noble gases (37Ar and 127Xe) and two stable tracer gases (SF6 and PFDMCH) were injected into a historic nuclear explosion test chimney and allowed to migrate naturally. The purpose of this experiment was to provide a bounding case (natural transport) for the flow of radioactive noble gases following an underground nuclear explosion. To accomplish this, soil gas samples were collected from a series of boreholes and a range of depths from the shallow subsurface (3 m) to deeper levels (~160 m) over a period of eleven months. These samples have provided insights into the development and evolution of the subsurface plume and constrained the relative migration rates of the radioactive and stable gas species in the case when the driving pressure from the cavity is low. Analysis of the samples concluded that the stable tracer SF6 was consistently enriched in the subsurface samples relative to the radiotracer 127Xe, but the ratios of SF6 and 37Ar remained similar throughout the samples.


Assuntos
Gases Nobres/análise , Armas Nucleares , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Explosões , Nevada , Medidas de Segurança
13.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 12(2): 377-383, maio/ago 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016583

RESUMO

Avaliar a decanulação utilizando a laringotraqueoscopia flexível visando o reconhecimento das lesões laringotraqueais não diagnosticadas quando utilizados somente critérios clínicos. Participaram do estudo 100 pacientes, com idade entre 18 e 80 anos, traqueostomizados, com indicação de decanulação que foram submetidos à oclusão da cânula por 03 minutos para avaliar fonação e ventilação seguido da realização do exame. Foi comparada a indicação de decanulação por critérios clínicos com o diagnóstico de lesões laringotraqueais reconhecidas após o término da laringotraqueoscopia flexível. Os critérios de Myer-Cotton foram utilizados como referencial para classificação de doença laringotraqueal. Resultados: 62 (62%) pacientes apresentaram critérios clínicos para decanulação, porém, com doença laringotraqueal identificada pela laringotraqueoscopia flexível. Dentre estes, oito (8%) considerados aptos à decanulação baseados nos critérios clínicos apresentaram contraindicação à retirada da cânula. Apenas 26 (26%) pacientes não apresentaram doença laringotraqueal; 11 (11%) não foram decanulados por não preencherem critérios clínicos e endoscópicos. A laringotraqueoscopia flexível reconheceu doença laringotraqueal nos pacientes que preenchiam critérios clínicos para retirada da cânula traqueal. Este exame como rotina na avaliação de pacientes preenchendo critérios de decanulação mostrou-se útil e seguro.


To evaluate de-cannulation by flexible laringeotracheoscopy for laringeotracheal lesions which are not diagnosed by clinical criteria. One hundred tracheostomized patients, aged between 18 and 80 years old, with indication of de-cannulation submitted to occlusion of the cannula during three minutes to evaluate fonation and ventilation, followed by tests. De-cannulation by clinical criteria was compared with diagnosis of larigeotracheal lesions after the end of flexible laringeotracheoscopy. Myer-Cotton criteria were employed, a referential for the classification of laringeotracheal diseases. Sixty-two (62%) patients had clinical criteria for de-cannulation but with laringeotracheal disease identified by flexible largineotracheoscopy. Eight (8%) could be de-cannulated, based on clinical criteria which counterindicated the removal of the cannula. Only twenty-six (26%) did not present a laringeotracheal disease. Eleven (11%) were not de-cannulated since they did not comply with clinical and endoscopy criteria. Flexible laringeotracheoscopy acknowledged the laringeotracheal disease in patients who complied with clinical criteria for the removal of tracheal cannula. The test, as a routine in patients´ evaluation complying with de-cannulation criteria, was useful and safe.


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medidas de Segurança , Doenças da Traqueia , Traqueostomia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Cânula
15.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(6): 1884-1888, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287563

RESUMO

In clinical and most forensic evaluations, "diagnosis" connotes the expectation of a DSM-5 or ICD-10 formally labeled mental condition. When the task is to evaluate the security risk a person's psychological makeup presents to an institution, such a molar diagnosis can blind the clinician and elevate the risk to a security agency. When "diagnosis" connotes achieving an understanding of a person's behavior that has raised security concerns, then a different conceptualization of the diagnostic process is required. Unlike the clinical situation, the evaluation is not being performed to benefit the person but for the purpose of assessing risk to an agency. The differences this introduces involve every aspect of the evaluation and changes the type of diagnosis expected. Not appreciating these differences can cause the clinician to fail in the task of assessing psychological tendencies that affect national security.


Assuntos
Emprego , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Medidas de Segurança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Entrevista Psicológica , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 954, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic, the concept of measuring health security capacity has become increasingly important within the broader context of health systems-strengthening, enhancing responses to public health emergencies, and reducing global catastrophic biological risks. Efforts to regularly and sustainably track the evolution of health security capabilities and capacities over time - while also accounting for political, social, and environmental risks - could help countries progress toward eliminating sources of health insecurity. We sought to aggregate evidence-based principles that capture a country's baseline public health and healthcare capabilities, its health security system performance before and during infectious disease crises, and its broader social, political, security, and ecological risk environments. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of English-language scholarly and gray literature to identify evidence- and practice-based indicators and proxies for measuring health security at the country level over time. We then used a qualitative coding framework to identify recurrent themes in the literature and synthesize foundational principles for measuring global health security. Documents reviewed included English-language literature published after 2001 until the end of the research period-September 2017-to ensure relevance to the current global health security landscape; literature examining acute infectious disease threats with potential for transnational spread; and literature addressing global health security efforts at the country level. RESULTS: We synthesized four foundational principles for measuring global health security: measurement requires assessment of existing capacities, as well as efforts to build core public health, healthcare, and biosecurity capabilities; assessments of national programs and efforts to mitigate a critical subset of priority threats could inform efforts to generate useful metrics for global health security; there are measurable enabling factors facilitating health security-strengthening efforts; and finally, measurement requires consideration of social, political, and ecological risk environments. CONCLUSION: The themes identified in this review could inform efforts to systematically assess the impacts and effectiveness of activities undertaken to strengthen global health security.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Medidas de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
17.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 117-119, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299483

RESUMO

DNA can be useful corroborative evidence in establishing familial relationship in immigration cases. Presently, there is no specific law in the UK regulating the use of DNA in this domain. This has led to inconsistencies in policy guidance and the rejection of some immigrant applications solely or partly due to a lack of DNA evidence. This commentary draws on the DNA regulatory regime in law enforcement to make a case for a specific DNA immigration law to protect individual rights, assure fairness and trust in the treatment of applicants. In addition to a specific law, consistency in operations should be ensured by developing a central point of contact for guidance including a central IT system, and a custodian of the DNA application process. Further, a single code of practice and conduct is proposed to ensure that guidance products are in line with the law and practice. An independent multi-stakeholder board is also recommended to ensure that policies are representative of the views of applicants and their relatives; policy officers and operational staff; and policymakers and the public.


Assuntos
Impressões Digitais de DNA/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Medidas de Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Reino Unido
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(13): 7363-7370, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192587

RESUMO

Approximately 2.8 t of plutonium (Pu) has been deposited in the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) subsurface as a result of underground nuclear testing. Most of this Pu is sequestered in nuclear melt glass. However, Pu migration has been observed and attributed to colloid facilitated transport. To identify the mechanisms controlling Pu mobilization, long-term (∼3 year) laboratory nuclear melt glass alteration experiments were performed at 25 to 200 °C to mimic hydrothermal conditions in the vicinity of underground nuclear tests. The clay and zeolite colloids produced in these experiments are similar to those identified in NNSS groundwater. At 200 °C, maximum Pu and colloid concentrations of 30 Bq/L and 150 mg/L, respectively, were observed. However, much lower Pu and colloid concentrations were observed at 25 and 80 °C. These data suggest that Pu concentrations above the drinking water Maximum Contaminant Levels (0.56 Bq/L) may exist during early hydrothermal conditions in the vicinity of underground nuclear tests. However, formation of colloid-associated Pu will tend to decrease with time as nuclear test cavity temperatures decrease. Furthermore, median colloid concentrations in NNSS groundwater (1.8 mg/L) suggest that the high colloid and Pu concentrations observed in our 140 and 200 °C experiments are unlikely to persist in downgradient NNSS groundwater. While our experiments did not span all groundwater and nuclear melt glass conditions that may be present at the NNSS, our results are consistent with the documented low Pu concentrations in NNSS groundwater.


Assuntos
Plutônio , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Coloides , Nevada , Medidas de Segurança
20.
Rev Infirm ; 68(251): 16-19, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208560

RESUMO

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATIONS, A CONSTANTLY EVOLVING PHENOMENON: The migrations of people and communities are an age-old phenomenon. However, the current geopolitical, technological and climatic context is leading to an intensification of migratory flows from multiple departure points, some of which are voluntary, others forced. Agreeing on measures to ensure the security, legal and health protection of these people is a global priority. Many migrants fall victim to human trafficking and violence. The International Organization for Migration works to protect migrants, their rights and their health.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Medidas de Segurança/organização & administração , Nível de Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Migrantes
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