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1.
Exp Neurol ; 347: 113896, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662541

RESUMO

Presenilins (PS) form the active subunit of the gamma-secretase complex, which mediates the proteolytic clearance of a broad variety of type-I plasma membrane proteins. Loss-of-function mutations in PSEN1/2 genes are the leading cause of familial Alzheimer's disease (fAD). However, the PS/gamma-secretase substrates relevant for the neuronal deficits associated with a loss of PS function are not completely known. The members of the neurexin (Nrxn) family of presynaptic plasma membrane proteins are candidates to mediate aspects of the synaptic and memory deficits associated with a loss of PS function. Previous work has shown that fAD-linked PS mutants or inactivation of PS by genetic and pharmacological approaches failed to clear Nrxn C-terminal fragments (NrxnCTF), leading to its abnormal accumulation at presynaptic terminals. Here, we generated transgenic mice that selectively recreate the presynaptic accumulation of NrxnCTF in adult forebrain neurons, leaving unaltered the function of PS/gamma-secretase complex towards other substrates. Behavioral characterization identified selective impairments in NrxnCTF mice, including decreased fear-conditioning memory. Electrophysiological recordings in medial prefrontal cortex-basolateral amygdala (mPFC-BLA) of behaving mice showed normal synaptic transmission and uncovered specific defects in synaptic facilitation. These data functionally link the accumulation of NrxnCTF with defects in associative memory and short-term synaptic plasticity, pointing at impaired clearance of NrxnCTF as a new mediator in AD.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/biossíntese , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/biossíntese , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Presenilinas/biossíntese , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/genética , Presenilina-1/biossíntese , Presenilina-1/genética , Presenilina-2/biossíntese , Presenilina-2/genética , Presenilinas/genética , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261745, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has had a global major healthcare, social and economic impact. In present study we aim to adapt the Fear of COVID-19 Scale to Hungarian. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forward-backward translation method was used to translate the English version of the scale to Hungarian. Participants were a convenience sample of 2175 university students and employees. The study was conducted between January 18th and February 12th 2021. The test battery included Hungarian versions of Fear of COVID-19 scale, short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-H) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). RESULTS: The scale showed one-factor structure, the loadings on the factor were significant and strong (from .47 to .84). Internal consistency was very good (α = .84). Construct validity for the Fear of COVID-19 Scale was supported by significant and positive correlations with STAI (r = 0.402; p < 0.001) and BDI-H (r = 0.270; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Hungarian version of Fear of COVID-19 Scale is a reliable and valid tool in assessing fear of coronavirus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Pandemias , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/virologia , Docentes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 17(6): 1540-1546, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916392

RESUMO

Purpose: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the entire health-care system and has led to a sense of fear and anxiety in the minds of patients. Patient's perceptions in this scenario of the pandemic are unknown. Providing continued care for cancer patients during the lockdown has been challenging. Measures are needed to improve patient safety and satisfaction during these challenging times and hence the importance of measuring the degree of satisfaction for the quality of care provided. The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors related to patients' satisfaction and also understand their apprehensions, fears, and anxieties they face as they receive radiotherapy treatment amid COVID-19 pandemic. The study's objective was to explore other aspects such as logistic issues, patient-staff communication, and also perceptions of the patients toward the outbreak. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from April to September 2020. A questionnaire was created for which the patients were asked to provide answers. Parameters assessed included general information such as mode of transport used, frame of mind during treatment, awareness about pandemic, satisfaction toward care provided by health-care staff, and also documenting the suggestions to improve the quality of care. Results: During this period, we interviewed 108 patients: 56 males (51.9%) and 52 females (48.1%). 90.7% of the participants were satisfied with the condition and safety measures employed in waiting area and billing section. Majority (88.9%) were found to be aware about COVID-19. 74.1% of the participants were very satisfied with the services provided to them in the department of radiation oncology. Conclusion: The survey was useful in measuring the patient satisfaction, in understanding their fears and anxieties, and also in determining their awareness about the pandemic. The survey was also useful to get the patients' opinion and ideas for improvement in the health-care services.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/radioterapia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936651

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of Covid-19, the use of digital devices, especially smartphones, remarkably increased. Smartphone use belongs to one's daily routine, but can negatively impact physical and mental health, performance, and relationships if used excessively. The present study aimed to investigate potential correlates of problematic smartphone use (PSU) severity and the mechanisms underlying its development. Data of 516 smartphone users from Germany (Mage = 31.91, SDage = 12.96) were assessed via online surveys in April and May 2021. PSU severity was significantly negatively associated with sense of control. In contrast, it was significantly positively linked to fear of missing out (FoMO), repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and daily time spent on smartphone use. In a moderated mediation analysis, the negative relationship between sense of control and PSU severity was significantly mediated by FoMO. RNT significantly moderated the positive association between FoMO and PSU severity. Specifically, the higher the RNT, the stronger the relationship between FoMO and PSU. The present findings disclose potential mechanisms that could contribute to PSU. Potential ways of how to reduce PSU severity are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Medo/psicologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 2120-2131, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761972

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been influencing people's psychological health, especially in pregnant women. We aimed to examine associated factors of fear of COVID-19, anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the pandemic where the impacts of healthy eating behaviour (HES) and health literacy (HL) were emphasized. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 14 February 2020 and 31 May 2020 in 18 health centres and hospitals across Vietnam. Data of 518 pregnant women were analysed, including socio-demographics, pregnant-related factors, HES, HL, health-related behaviours, fear of COVID-19 scale (FCoV-19S), anxiety (using the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7)) and depression (using the patient health questionnaire with 9 items (PHQ-9)). Regression analysis was utilized to explore the associations. RESULTS: Pregnant women with higher scores of HES and HL had lower likelihood of anxiety (odds ratio, OR, 0.79; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 0.73, 0.87; p < .001; and OR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.90, 0.99; p = .018) and depression (OR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.78, 0.91; p < .001; and OR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.91, 0.99; p = .044), respectively. Pregnant women being employed had a lower FCoV-19S score (regression coefficient, B, -1.46; 95%CI, -2.51, -0.40; p = .007). Besides, other significant predictors of anxiety were eating healthier during the pandemic, unchanged or more physical activity, elevated gestational age and smoking. Other significant predictors of depression were eating healthier during the pandemic, elevated gestational age and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Among others, HES and HL had positive impacts on protecting pregnant women against anxiety and depression. Improving HES and HL should be addressed as a strategic approach to improve reproductive health during the pandemic.KEY MESSAGEThe COVID-19 pandemic influences antenatal mental disorders with the higher level as opposed to that before the pandemic.Healthy eating behaviour and better health literacy (HL) had critical roles in lowering prenatal anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 crisis.Strategic approaches for improving healthy eating and HL should be recommended for protecting pregnant women from mental health problems during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Dieta Saudável , Medo/psicologia , Letramento em Saúde , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659618

RESUMO

Introduction: the year 2020 was marked by the COVID-19 pandemic that killed more than one million people. Several vaccines have been developed and vaccination campaigns started in December 2020. The objective of our study was to assess the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine by hospital staff. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted on a representative sample drawn at random from the staff of the Military General Hospital of Tunis. Data was collected between August and September 2020 by a clinical psychologist. We studied the associations between the different characteristics of our population and the decision to accept or refuse vaccination against COVID-19. Results: a total of 398 hospital staff agreed to answer our questionnaire. Our sample was composed of 9% (n=36) physicians, 0.9% (n=3) pharmacists, 41.3% (n=164) paramedics, 16.1% (n=64) cleaning staff and 32.7% (n=131) administrative staff. The rapid discovery of the vaccine was hoped by 97% (n=386). Vaccination was considered a means of collective protection by 84.7% (n=337). However, only 58% (n=231) agreed to be vaccinated by the COVID-19 vaccine. The main factors significantly associated with acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine was previous influenza vaccination (aOR: 2.58, 95% CI 1.69-3.94; p=0.000). Conclusion: apprehension about vaccination does not appear to be sparing the future COVID-19 vaccine. Fear of vaccine side effects outweighs fear of the disease, even among hospital staff. To achieve vaccination coverage, several awareness and communication activities must be carried out.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tunísia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256963, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570782

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess the influence of adding straw bales, step platforms, and laser projectors as environmental enrichment resources on the behaviour and welfare indicators of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A sample of 4,000 day-old male Cobb® 500 birds was used. The experimental treatments consisted of No Environmental Enrichment (NEE)-similar to a conventional environment; and Environmental Enrichment (EE)-environment enriched with straw bales, step platforms, and laser projectors, with four replicates per treatment of 500 animals. Behavioural characteristics (ethological observation through cameras, grab test, and modified touch test) and animal welfare indicators (pododermatitis and dorsal cranial myopathy) were assessed. The birds submitted to the EE treatment exhibited greater exploratory activity and expression of behaviours associated with comfort and welfare, whereas those in the NEE group were less active. Locomotion and play fighting behaviour decreased and behaviours associated with comfort increased as age advanced. The frequencies of interaction with laser spots and birds lying around straw bales were the highest in the 1st week (P<0.01). The behaviours of pecking at straw bales (P<0.0004), using the step platforms (P = 0.0001) and being on top of straw bales (P<0.0002) gradually increased. The chickens accessed the feeding troughs the most in the period of 0800 hours (P<0.0001) and expressed the highest frequencies of behaviours associated with comfort in the 1400 hours and 1700 hours periods. The birds in the EE group were calmer in face of human presence and touch and scored higher in animal welfare indicators. Adding straw bales, step platforms, and laser projectors increased locomotion, reduced expression of fear, and improved animal welfare indicators of broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Medo/psicologia , Abrigo para Animais/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1885-1893, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554817

RESUMO

Objectives. To explore associations between police stops, self-harm, and attempted suicide among a large, representative sample of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Methods. Data were drawn from the 3 most recent sweeps of the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), from 2012 to 2019. The MCS is an ongoing nationally representative contemporary birth cohort of children born in the United Kingdom between September 2000 and January 2002 (n = 10 345). Weights were used to account for sample design and multiple imputation for missing data. Results. Youths experiencing police stops by the age of 14 years (14.77%) reported significantly higher rates of self-harm (incidence rate ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35, 1.69) at age 17 years and significantly higher odds of attempted suicide (odds ratio = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.84, 2.76) by age 17 years. These patterns were largely consistent across examined features of police stops and generally did not vary by sociodemographic factors. In addition, 17.73% to 40.18% of associations between police stops and outcomes were explained by mental distress. Conclusions. Police-initiated encounters are associated with youth self-harm and attempted suicide. Youths may benefit when school counselors or social workers provide mental health screenings and offer counseling care following these events. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1885-1893. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306434).


Assuntos
Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Polícia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Reino Unido
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257726, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555103

RESUMO

To investigate a specificity of spiders as a prototypical fear- and disgust-eliciting stimuli, we conducted an online experiment. The respondents rated images of 25 spiders, 12 non-spider chelicerates, and 10 other arthropods on a fear and disgust 7-point scale. The evaluation of 968 Central European respondents confirmed the specificity of spiders among fear- and disgust-eliciting arthropods and supported the notion of spiders as a cognitive category. We delineated this category as covering extant spider species as well as some other chelicerates bearing a physical resemblance to spiders, mainly whip spiders and camel spiders. We suggested calling this category the spider-like cognitive category. We discussed evolutionary roots of the spider-like category and concluded that its roots should be sought in fear, with disgust being secondary of the two emotions. We suggested other chelicerates, e.g., scorpions, might have been important in formation and fixation of the spider-like category. Further, we investigated an effect of respondent's sensitivity to a specific fear of spiders on evaluation of the stimuli. We found that suspected phobic respondents were in their rating nearly identical to those with only high fear of spiders and similar to those with only moderate fear of spiders. We concluded that results based on healthy respondents with elevated fear should also be considered relevant for arachnophobia research.


Assuntos
Asco , Medo/psicologia , Aranhas , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Artrópodes , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação da Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256823, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525117

RESUMO

Being satisfied in marriage provides protective stress buffering benefits to various health complications but the causal mechanisms and speed at which this is accomplished is less well understood. Much of the research on health and marriage has conceptualized marital quality in a unidimensional way, with high levels of either positivity or negativity. This conceptualization may not fully capture the nuanced benefits of marital relationships. Pupillometry is an innovative method which captures the effects of marital stress buffering on the body's autonomic nervous system in real time; pupil dilation occurs within 200ms to stress exposure. Additionally, this method records hundreds of readings per second, providing precision and sensitivity. This preregistered experiment aimed to conceptually replicate previous pupillometry stress buffering results and extend the previous findings by including a generalizable, real-life stressor-viewing a horror movie-and multidimensional relationship quality effects. Eighty-three couples (166 participants) were quasi-grouped, based on a self-reported multidimensional relationship quality scale, to either supportive or ambivalent marital relationship conditions. They were then randomly assigned to either a spousal support (i.e., handholding) or non-support (spousal absence) condition and watched clips from both horror and nature movies while pupil dilation was measured. Tonic pupillary response results revealed that the horror video clips elicited a stress response and there were significant differences between the support and non-support conditions, as well as marital relationship quality conditions. These results frame the precision, speed, and sensitivity of pupillometry as a potentially fruitful method to investigate the causal mechanisms linking stress buffering and supportive marital relationships.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Casamento/psicologia , Reflexo Pupilar/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filmes Cinematográficos , Satisfação Pessoal , Violência/psicologia
11.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475811

RESUMO

Objectives: During the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States, we investigated the impact of digital interventions to reduce COVID-19 related fear, loneliness, and public stigma. Methods: We recruited and randomly assigned 988 United States residents to: 1) no intervention 2) informational sheet to learn about COVID-19, 3) (2) AND video encouraging digital social activity, 4) (2) AND video sensitizing to COVID-19 related stigma (registered in Clinicaltrials.gov). Surveys were conducted between April 2-16, 2020. We employed generalized linear mixed models to investigate intervention effects. Results: 10% of the participants reported not being afraid of people COVID-19+ and 32% reported not feeling lonely. Stigma and fear items reflected acute worries about the outbreak. Relative to the informational sheet only group, video groups led to greater reduction in perceptions of fear towards COVID-19+ (ORvideo.solo = 0.78, p-val<0.001; ORvideo.friend = 0.79, p-val<0.001) and of stigma (BETAvideo.solo = -0.50, p-val<0.001; BETAvideo.friend = -0.69, p-val<0.001). Conclusion: Video-based interventions lead to reductions in COVID-19-related fear and stigma. No difference in social activity among groups was found, potentially explaining lack of efficacy on loneliness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Intervenção Psicossocial , Gravação em Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Intervenção Psicossocial/métodos , Estigma Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257064, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478482

RESUMO

The pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought significant pressure on nurses globally as they are the frontline of care. This study aimed to explore the experiences and challenges of nurses who worked with hospitalised patients with COVID-19. In this qualitative study, a purposive sample of 14 nurses participated in in-depth telephone interviews. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Five key themes emerged: (1) physical and psychological distress of nurses, (2) willingness to work, (3) the essential role of support mechanisms, (4) educational and informational needs of nurses and (5) the role of modern technology in COVID-19 care. Although the provision of care led to physical and psychological distress among nurses, with their commitment and professional obligation, it is a new experience that leads to personal satisfaction. Guilty feeling related to inefficiency of care, witnessing the suffering of patients, discomfort associated with wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), work-related issues (e.g., long hour shifts), negative impact to the family and rejection by others are the leading distress factors. Religious beliefs, including keeping trust in good and bad merits, have become a strong coping mechanism. Addressing distress among nurses is essential. The reported learning needs of nurses included skills related to donning and doffing PPE, skills in performing nursing procedures and breaking bad news. Nurse managers need to pay special attention to expanding training opportunities as well as support mechanisms, for example, welfare, appreciations and counselling services for nurses. Modern technology, particularly robots and telecommunication, can perform an essential role in COVID-19 care. The establishment of timely policies and strategies to protect health workers during a national disaster like COVID-19 is needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Pandemias , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Angústia Psicológica , Psicologia Clínica , Robótica/normas , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Telecomunicações
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256483, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469451

RESUMO

Individuals tend to satisfy their assimilation needs by purchasing products that bear a specific group identity. Such products might be preferred when an individual is threatened because anxiety increases affiliative needs. In contrast, individuals might be more attracted to unique-design products when they feel less anxious. We examined the impact of anxiety on assimilation and differentiation needs amongst consumers primed with independent and interdependent self-construal. We expected that anxiety would produce stronger assimilation needs and show a weaker preference for unique products. In Study 1 (N = 110), we found that individuals in the anxiety-inducing condition decreased their evaluation of unique products and exhibited stronger assimilation needs. Independents who felt anxiety reacted with a reduced preference for group-linked products. Study 2 (N = 102) found that introducing an anxiety-decreasing agent (vanilla scent) after a social identity threat reduced differentiation needs and preference for unique products. Physiological data showed that the social identity threat increased sympathetic arousal, but the vanilla scent did not have a soothing effect on physiological reactivity. Overall, this work showed that both anxiety and vanilla scent reduced consumer need for differentiation. Furthermore, for independents, anxiety reduced assimilation needs. We found novel determinants of assimilation/differentiation needs with implications for advertising and retailing products with a unique design.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Medo/psicologia , Autoimagem , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidade/métodos , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Political ideologies drove public actions and health behaviors in the first year of the global pandemic. Different ideas about contagion, health behaviors, and the actions of governing bodies impacted the spread of the virus and health and life. Researchers used an immediate, mixed methods design to explore sociocultural responses to the virus and identified differences and similarities in anxiety, fear, blame, and perceptions of nation across political divides. METHODS: Researchers conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and administered over 1,000 questionnaires with people living in the United States. The team analyzed data through an exploratory and confirmatory sequential mixed methods design. RESULTS: In the first months of the pandemic interviewees cited economic inequality, untrustworthy corporations and other entities, and the federal government as threats to life and pandemic control. Participants invoked ideas about others to determine blame. Findings reveal heavy associations between lack of safety during a public health crisis and blame of "culture" and government power across the political spectrum. CONCLUSION: Data indicate anxiety across political differences related to ideas of contagion and the maleficence of a powerful elite. Findings on how people understand the nation, politics, and pandemic management contribute to understanding dimensions of health behaviors and underlying connections between anxiety and the uptake of conspiracy theories in public health. The article ends with recommendations drawn from project findings for future pandemic response.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Medo/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Governo Federal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256479, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The unmet need for contraceptives among refugee adolescents is high globally, leaving girls vulnerable to unintended pregnancies. Lack of knowledge and fear of side effects are the most reported reasons for non-use of contraceptives amongst refugee adolescents. Peer counselling, the use of trained adolescents to offer contraceptive counselling to fellow peers, has showed effectiveness in increasing use of contraceptives in non-refugee adolescent resarch. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of peer counselling on acceptance of modern contraceptives among female refugee adolescents in northern Uganda. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial carried out in Palabek refugee settlement in northern Uganda, May to July 2019. Adolescents were included if they were sexually active or in any form of union, wanted to delay child bearing, and were not using any contraceptives. A total of 588 consenting adolescents were randomised to either peer counselling or routine counselling, the standard of care. RESULTS: Adolescents who received peer counselling were more likely to accept a contraceptive method compared to those who received routine counselling (PR: 1·24, 95% CI: 1·03 to 1·50, p = 0·023). Adolescents whose partners had attained up to tertiary education were more likely to accept a method than those whose partners had secondary or less education (PR: 1·45, 95% CI: 1·02 to 2·06, p = 0·037). In both groups, the most frequently accepted methods were the injectable and implant, with the commonest reasons for non-acceptance of contraception being fear of side effects and partner prohibition. CONCLUSION: Our data indicates that peer counselling has a positive effect on same day acceptance of modern contraceptives and should therefore be considered in future efforts to prevent adolescent pregnancies in refugee settings. Future peer counselling interventions should focus on how to effectively address adolescents' fear of side effects and partner prohibition, as these factors continue to impede decision making for contraceptive uptake.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Aconselhamento Sexual/métodos , Adolescente , Anticoncepção/métodos , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados , Uganda
16.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 301, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, renal healthcare practitioners provide intensive and protracted support to a highly complex multi-morbid patient population however knowledge about the impact of COVID-19 on these practitioners is extremely limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the experiences of COVID-19 with renal healthcare practitioners during the first global lockdown between June 2020 and September 2020. METHODS: A multi-methods approach was carried out including a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. This was a multinational study of renal healthcare practitioners from 29 countries. Quantitative: A self-designed survey on COVID-19 experiences and standardised questionnaires (General Health Questionnaire-12; Maslach Burnout Inventory). Descriptive statistics were generated for numerical data. Qualitative: Online semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data was subjected to thematic analysis. Renal healthcare practitioners (n = 251) completed an online survey. Thirteen renal healthcare practitioners took part in semi-structured interviews (12 nurses and 1 dietician). RESULTS: The majority of participants surveyed were female (86.9 %; n = 218), nurses (86.9 %; n = 218) with an average 21.5 (SD = 11.1) years' experience since professional qualification, and 16.3 years (SD = 9.3) working in renal healthcare. Survey responses indicated a level of preparedness, training and satisfactory personal protective equipment during the pandemic however approximately 40.3 % experienced fear about attending work, and 49.8 % experienced mental health distress. The highest prevalence of burnout was emotional exhaustion (35.9 %). Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis highlighting the holistic complexities in managing renal healthcare, a neglected specialist workforce, and the need for appropriate support at work during a pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Results have highlighted the psychological impact, in terms of emotional exhaustion and mental health distress in our sample of renal healthcare practitioners. As the pandemic has continued, it is important to consider the long-term impact on an already stretched workforce including the risk of developing mental health disorders. Future research and interventions are required to understand and improve the provision of psychological support for specialist medical and nursing personnel.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Nefrologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , COVID-19/terapia , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermagem em Nefrologia/economia , Enfermagem em Nefrologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Angústia Psicológica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Recursos Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255750, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352033

RESUMO

This study's main goal was to evaluate the association between anxious temperament and the fear of COVID-19-related self-infection and infection in loved ones (family members, friends, relatives) and cyberchondria. The sample consisted of 499 men and women aged between 18 and 72 who were gathered from the general population via an online recruitment platform. A numerical rating scale comprising 11 degrees of fear was used to assess participants' COVID-19-related fear, and affective temperaments were evaluated using Akiskal's Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) scales. Cyberchondria was assessed using McElroy and Shevlin's Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS). Small to medium positive correlations were found between depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments and cyberchondria and between depressive and anxious temperaments and COVID-19 fears. However, no correlation was observed between the hyperthymic temperament and cyberchondria. Cyberchondria positively correlated with both COVID-19 fears scales, though the correlation coefficients were medium. Based on the results of linear regression analysis, only anxious temperament and COVID-19 fear of self-infection were significant predictors of cyberchondria. The analysis also revealed a significant indirect effect of anxious temperament on cyberchondria through fear of COVID-19 self-infection as a mediator between anxious temperament and cyberchondria.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Hipocondríase/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento
18.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(4): 771-784, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340743

RESUMO

Objectives: COVID-19 has become a global concern, affecting both physical and mental health. In this study, we measured knowledge, fear, anxiety, and psychological distress related to COVID-19 among residents of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: A total of 1053 adult participants completed a Web-based cross-sectional survey. Results: Our data revealed 75.7% of the sample to be knowledgeable about COVID-19, 15.3% had experienced anxiety and 50.4%, psychological distress about COVID-19. Being knowledgeable about COVID-19 was significantly associated with having spent one to 2 hours reading about COVID-19. There was also an association between being knowledgeable about COVID-19 and low levels of anxiety and psychological distress. Psychological distress was associated with a history of mental illness (76.2%), anxiety (85.1%), and fear of COVID-19 (21±6.6). Age, history of mental illness (OR = 3.70, 95% CI = 2.35-5.82, p < .001), and COVID-19 anxiety (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.48-4.13, p < .001) and fear (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.14-1.20, p < .001) were risk factors for psychological distress. Conclusion: Our results showed significant psychological distress in the UAE population. Providing pre-recorded workshops and continuous telemedicine on biopsychosocial perspectives of COVID-19 may enhance the COVID-19 insight and reduce the COVID-19 anxiety and psychological distress.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19 , Medo/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Emirados Árabes Unidos
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16204, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376756

RESUMO

Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus have been shown to encode danger. Through projections to the amygdala and other forebrain structures, they regulate food intake and trigger adaptive behaviors in response to threats like inflammation, intoxication, tumors and pain. Despite the fact that this danger-encoding neuronal population has been defined based on its CGRP expression, it is not clear if CGRP is critical for its function. It is also not clear if CGRP in other neuronal structures is involved in danger-encoding. To examine the role of CGRP in danger-related motivational responses, we used male and female mice lacking αCGRP, which is the main form of CGRP in the brain. These mice had no, or only very weak, CGRP expression. Despite this, they did not behave differently compared to wildtype mice when they were tested for a battery of danger-related responses known to be mediated by CGRP neurons in the parabrachial nucleus. Mice lacking αCGRP and wildtype mice showed similar inflammation-induced anorexia, conditioned taste aversion, aversion to thermal pain and pain-induced escape behavior, although it should be pointed out that the study was not powered to detect any possible differences that were minor or sex-specific. Collectively, our findings suggest that αCGRP is not necessary for many threat-related responses, including some that are known to be mediated by CGRP neurons in the parabrachial nucleus.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Neurônios/patologia , Dor/patologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Animais , Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Motivação , Neurônios/metabolismo , Nociceptividade , Dor/metabolismo , Núcleos Parabraquiais/metabolismo , Núcleos Parabraquiais/patologia
20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 198, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruptions in the implementation of programs across educational institutions. Nursing students, being both young adults and by practical training, part of the health care system, may be particularly vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between self-reported fear of COVID-19, general health, psychological distress and overall quality of life (QoL) in a sample of Norwegian baccalaureate nursing students compared to reference data. METHODS: The survey targeted baccalaureate nursing students from five universities in February 2021. An electronic questionnaire consisted of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 5 (SCL-5), one general health and one overall QoL question. The respondents' mean scores were compared to reference data. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 2605 out of 6088 (43%) students responded. Their FCV-19S scores (mean 2.45, CI 2.42, 2.48) were significantly higher than those of the reference population (mean 1.8, P < 0.001). Nursing students scores showed significantly lower general health (mean 3.50 ± 0.93 SD, population mean = 3.57, Cohen's d = 0.07), higher levels of psychological distress (mean 2.68 ± 1.03 SD, population mean = 2.12, Cohen's d = 0.55) and lower overall QoL (mean 5.50 ± 2.16 SD, population mean = 8.00, Cohen's d = 1.16) compared to pre-pandemic reference data. FCV-19S scores were significantly associated with levels of general health (Cohen's d = 0.26), psychological distress (Cohen's d = 0.76) and overall QoL (Cohen's d = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Baccalaureate nursing students reported worse outcomes during the Covid-19 pandemic on general health, psychological distress and overall QoL compared to the reference population. Level of fear of Covid-19, however, accounted for few of these differences. Other factors related to the pandemic may have reduced nursing students' overall QoL.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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