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1.
Life Sci ; 245: 117386, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006528

RESUMO

AIMS: Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is a key coactivator for the efficient transcriptional activity of steroids in the regulation of hippocampal functions. However, the effect of SRC-1 on hippocampal memory processes remains unknown. Our aim was to investigate the roles of hippocampal SRC-1 in the consolidation and reconsolidation of contextual fear memory in mice. MAIN METHODS: Contextual fear conditioning paradigm was constructed in adult male C57BL/6 mice to examine the fear learning and memory processes. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was infused into hippocampus to block hippocampal SRC-1 level. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the efficiency of transfection. High plus maze and open field test were used to determine anxiety and locomotor activity. Western blot analyses were used to detect the expression of SRC-1 and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. KEY FINDINGS: We first showed that the expression of SRC-1 was regulated by fear conditioning training in a time-dependent manner, and knockdown of SRC-1 impaired contextual fear memory consolidation without affecting innate anxiety or locomotor activity. In addition, hippocampal SRC-1 was also regulated by the retrieval of contextual fear memory, and downregulation of SRC-1 disrupted fear memory reconsolidation. Moreover, knockdown of SRC-1 reversed the increased GluR1 and PSD-95 levels induced by contextual fear memory retrieval. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that hippocampal SRC-1 is required for the consolidation and reconsolidation of contextual fear memory, and SRC-1 may be a potential therapeutic target for mental disorders that are involved in hippocampal memory dysfunction.


Assuntos
Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Coativador 1 de Receptor Nuclear/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Western Blotting , Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Imunofluorescência , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Coativador 1 de Receptor Nuclear/fisiologia
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(1): 17-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888370

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of recovery for use in patients who have suffered an open tibial fracture. METHODS: An initial pool of 109 items was generated from previous qualitative data relating to recovery following an open tibial fracture. These items were field tested in a cohort of patients recovering from an open tibial fracture. They were asked to comment on the content of the items and structure of the scale. Reduction in the number of items led to a refined scale tested in a larger cohort of patients. Principal components analysis permitted further reduction and the development of a definitive scale. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness were assessed for the retained items. RESULTS: The initial scale was completed by 35 patients who were recovering from an open tibial fracture. Subjective and objective analysis permitted removal of poorly performing items and the addition of items suggested by patients. The refined scale consisted of 50 Likert scaled items and eight additional items. It was completed on 228 occasions by a different cohort of 204 patients with an open tibial fracture recruited from several UK orthoplastic tertiary referral centres. There were eight underlying components with tangible real-life meaning, which were retained as sub-scales represented by ten Likert scaled and eight non-Likert items. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were good to excellent. CONCLUSION: The Wales Lower Limb Trauma Recovery (WaLLTR) Scale is the first tool to be developed from patient data with the potential to assess recovery following an open tibial fracture. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(1):17-25.


Assuntos
Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Medo/psicologia , Fraturas Expostas/psicologia , Fraturas Expostas/reabilitação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Autoeficácia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fraturas da Tíbia/psicologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/reabilitação , Adulto Jovem
4.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 202: 102983, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864214

RESUMO

It is unclear whether the effects of emotional state on working memory (WM) are valence-based or motivation-based since the type of emotions used in previous research differed on both dimensions of emotion. Especially, effects of anger, which is a negative but approach-related emotional state, were mostly overlooked. To distinguish between valence vs. motivation accounts, two experiments were conducted in which participants were induced one of four emotional states to create approach-positive (happiness), avoidance-negative (fear), approach-negative (anger), and control (neutral) conditions, followed by Self-ordered Pointing Task (Experiment 1) or N-Back task (Experiment 2) as WM measures. The main effect of emotion on WM accuracy was not significant in neither experiment. In the second experiment, however, reaction times (RTs) in the avoidance-related emotion condition were significantly faster compared to those in approach-related conditions, without compromising accuracy. Together the two experiments suggest that the motivational dimension of emotional state is more effective on WM than the valence dimension, especially on the RTs, indicating working memory updating efficiency.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 201-210, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997595

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) in people with breast cancer affects treatment recovery, quality of life, service utilisation and relationships. Our aim was to investigate how specialist breast cancer nurses (SBCN) respond to their patients' fears of cancer recurrence and analyse SBCN's views about embedding a new psychological intervention, the Mini-AFTERc, into their consultations. METHOD: A mixed methods sequential design was used, informed by normalisation process theory. Phase 1: UK SBCNs were emailed a web-based survey to investigate how breast cancer survivors' FCR is currently identified and managed, and their willingness to utilise the Mini-AFTERc. Phase 2: a purposive sample of respondents (n = 20) were interviewed to augment phase 1 responses, and explore views on the importance of addressing FCR, interest in the Mini-AFTERc intervention, its content, skills required and challenges to delivering the intervention. RESULTS: Ninety nurses responded to the survey. When SBCN's were asked to identify the proportion of patients experiencing FCR in their caseload, there was no consensus on the size of the problem or unmet need. They estimated that 20-100% people experience moderate FCR and 10-70% severe FCR. The interviews identified that clinical conversations are focused primarily on giving information about signs and symptoms of recurrence rather than addressing the psychological aspects of fear. CONCLUSION: Findings indicate wide variability in how FCR was identified, assessed and supported by a sample of UK SBCNs. The introduction of a structured intervention into practice was viewed favourably and has implications for nursing and health professional ways of working in all cancer services.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enfermagem , Medo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Percepção , Transtornos Fóbicos/enfermagem , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Oncologia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/enfermagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Fóbicos/etiologia , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem/normas , Qualidade de Vida , Especialidades de Enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 138-158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265373

RESUMO

It is unquestioned that reaching the hypnotic state is helped along by relational factors and that, conversely, relational experiences can be deepened through hypnosis. It is also true that deepening the experience of being in a relationship with another person is neither comfortable nor indicated for every patient or therapist. Most humans feel ambivalent about closeness. People vary in their desire for and their skill in sustaining mature intimacy. When we move along the continuum from rudimentary notions about relational factors in psychotherapy, such as rapport, to complex concepts, such as enactments, we move along a corresponding continuum of increasing need for specialized training, supervised experience, and personal therapy. The field of psychotherapy has been plagued from its inception by not knowing what to do with the tensions that emerge when two people listen to and look at each other. Avoiding relational factors may be a very human response to a very daunting matter.


Assuntos
Medo , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia , Emoções , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Hipnose , Relações Interpessoais , Psicanálise , Aliança Terapêutica
7.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(12): 1635-1643, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793468

RESUMO

Background: Prenatal distress and fear of childbirth negatively affect the health of the mother and the fetus. Sociodemographic and pregnancy related characteristics may influence prenatal distress and fear of childbirth. Aim: This study aimed to explore the relationship between fear of childbirth and prenatal distress levels with accompanying factors. Subjects and Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey study and conducted in the outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Pamukkale University Hospital, Denizli, Turkey, between April 2017 and January 2018. Survey data were collected from 103 third-trimester pregnant women who had admitted to the hospital for routine prenatal examination. Sociodemographic Information Form, the Revised Prenatal Distress Questionnaire (NUPDQ), and the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) were used to collect data. Sociodemographics, obstetrics, and other variables were summarized by descriptive statistics. Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-squared test, and Fisher's exact test were used for comparison of data between groups. Results: The mean score of NUPDQ was 7.58 (SD 4.09) in the nulliparous group and 8.17 (SD 5.16) in the multiparous group (P = 0.68). The mean W-DEQ score was 40.46 (SD 21.80) in nulliparous women and 45.55 (SD 26.72) in multiparous women (P = 0.38). The W-DEQ and NUPDQ scores were moderately correlated with a Spearman correlation co-efficient of 0.58 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that fear of childbirth and prenatal distress were moderately and positively correlated. NUPDQ and W-DEQ can be used during pregnancy to understand if pregnant women have fear or distress. This could help to give a better support to pregnant women.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Paridade , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(4): 227-232, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833746

RESUMO

Introduction: In the present study were determined the psychological, social and cultural factors that are related to organ donation in a Peruvian sample from the districts of San Isidro, Lince and San Juan de Lurigancho (Lima-Peru). Methods: Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study controls that included adults between 18-60 years. Districts of Lima of different socioeconomic levels (A, B and C), A - San Isidro, B - Lince, and C - San Juan de Lurigancho were included. The questionnaire was administered to people who indicated they were donors and those who were not according to their district of domicile, with an equitable distribution of the surveyed population and the sectors of each district: San Isidro, Lince and San Juan de Lurigancho (5 sectors), 32 inhabitants for each sector of the district. Results: psychological factor was significantly associated with organ donation (OR = 6.407; p <0.001), altruism and fear of disfiguring the body being the ones with the greatest strength of association to organ donation. Social factors (OR = 0.879; p> 0.05) and cultural factors (OR = 0.659; p> 0.05) were not significantly associated. Major conclusion: The statistically significant associated factor to organ donation in the three districts of Lima was the psychological factor; the social and cultural factor did not show association in the districts evaluated.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Características Culturais , Medo/psicologia , Psicologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 74, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prioritization of the processing of threatening stimuli induces deleterious effects on task performance. However, emotion evoked by viewing images of snakes exerts a facilitating effect upon making judgments of their color in neurotypical adults and schoolchildren. We attempted to confirm this in school and preschool children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). METHODS: Forty French children participated and corresponded to two age groups: a group of schoolchildren and a group of preschool children, each group including 10 children with typical development and 10 children with ASD. Each participant was exposed to 120 trials composed of 20 photographs of snakes and 20 photographs of flowers, each of which appeared 3 times (in red, green and blue). Participants were asked to indicate the color of each image as quickly as possible via key-press. A three-way analysis of variance test for reaction time (RT) considering image type (IMAGE), participant group (PARTICIPANT), and age (AGE) as main effects and its interaction terms was performed for each subject. RESULTS: When the reaction time required to respond to presented stimuli was measured, schoolchildren tended to respond faster when stimuli were snake images than when stimuli were flower images whether the children had or did not have ASD. For the 5-to-6-year-old preschool participants, the difference between reaction time for the color-naming of snake images and flower images was ambiguous overall. CONCLUSIONS: There were possible odd color-specific effects in children with ASD when images were presented to the children in green. Implications of the findings are argued with respect to active avoidance or attraction as one of the behavioral characteristics commonly noted in children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Serpentes , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual
10.
Behav Ther ; 50(6): 1125-1135, 2019 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735247

RESUMO

Evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy for eating disorders includes a component of exposure therapy, which involves patients confronting feared eating and body-related stimuli while preventing safety behaviors. With recent research demonstrating that eating-related fears and safety behaviors are central to eating disorder pathology, there is increased emphasis on improving the efficacy of exposure therapy in eating disorders. Doing so will require a better understanding of important mechanisms of action in this treatment. The present study explored how changes during treatment in eating-related fears and avoidance as well as body-related safety behaviors influence overall treatment outcomes. Individuals with eating disorders (N = 71) receiving exposure-based treatment completed measures of global eating disorder severity at admission and discharge. Hypothesized mechanisms of action were also assessed at admission and discharge as well as at a 2-week time point after beginning treatment. Path modeling analyses showed that decreased eating-related cognitions (feared concerns about eating) and emotions (anxiety about eating) at the 2-week time point were prospectively predictive of lowered global eating disorder symptom severity at discharge. Additionally, reduced body checking and avoidance behaviors after 2 weeks of treatment were also associated with lower eating disorder severity at discharge. These findings highlight the importance of exposure-based therapy in eating disorders and the need to uniquely address eating-related fears and safety behaviors.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Medo/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Cognição , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Behav Ther ; 50(6): 1173-1184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC), or fear of cognitive dyscontrol sensations, confers risk for anxiety and mood psychopathology. Recent work demonstrated that novel perceptual challenges generated by a head mounted display can elicit fear among those with elevated ASCC. This suggests that interoceptive exposure to perceptual challenges may offer a means to mitigate ASCC. This study was designed to evaluate whether repeated exposure to novel perceptual challenges can reduce ASCC, and if these effects are stronger among those experiencing greater negative emotionality as a proxy for individuals likely to present for treatment. METHODS: Participants with elevated ASCC (N = 57) were randomized to one of three experimental conditions utilizing a head-mounted display. In the rotations condition (n = 20), participants viewed themselves spinning in a circle. In the opposite directions condition (n = 20), participants turned their head while the camera moved in the opposite direction creating dissonance in their visual field. In the control condition (n = 17), participants completed a series of simple arithmetic problems. RESULTS: Participants in the rotation condition, relative to control, reported significant reductions in ASCC from pre- to post-exposure and these effects were strongest for those with elevated negative affect. The main effect of the opposite directions exposure on post-treatment ASCC was non-significant, but follow-up analyses revealed that reductions in ASCC were observed among those with elevated negative affectivity. DISCUSSION: Perceptual illusion challenges appear to have utility for reducing ASCC through repeated exposure. There was evidence for the perceptual illusion exercises, particularly the rotations condition, specifically reducing ASCC, making this challenge the first we are aware of that specifically targets ASCC-related concerns. LIMITATIONS: As a proof-of-concept study, the present sample was not recruited for clinically-significant psychopathology, and only a brief follow-up was utilized. Future research should utilize a longer follow-up and test if these exposures mitigate ASCC-relevant psychopathology among clinical samples.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Ilusões/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1834-1843, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636447

RESUMO

Learning drives behavioral adaptations necessary for survival. While plasticity of excitatory projection neurons during associative learning has been extensively studied, little is known about the contributions of local interneurons. Using fear conditioning as a model for associative learning, we found that behaviorally relevant, salient stimuli cause learning by tapping into a local microcircuit consisting of precisely connected subtypes of inhibitory interneurons. By employing deep-brain calcium imaging and optogenetics, we demonstrate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing interneurons in the basolateral amygdala are activated by aversive events and provide a mandatory disinhibitory signal for associative learning. Notably, VIP interneuron responses during learning are strongly modulated by expectations. Our findings indicate that VIP interneurons are a central component of a dynamic circuit motif that mediates adaptive disinhibitory gating to specifically learn about unexpected, salient events, thereby ensuring appropriate behavioral adaptations.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Filtro Sensorial/fisiologia , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Optogenética
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3107692, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637256

RESUMO

Introduction: Nurses play an important role in caring for dying patients. However, little is known about the attitude towards death of the registered nurses in China. Materials and Methods: A knowledge, attitude, and the practice (KAP) survey using standardized questionnaires was conducted at eight teaching hospitals in Jiangsu Province, China. In total, 366 nursing interns were recruited and 357 turned in valid response. Data about the interns' demographic characteristics and their attitudes to death in five domains, including fear of death, death avoidance, natural acceptance, approach acceptance, and escape acceptance, were collected. Results: Compared to the norms, the nursing interns had statistically significantly higher scores in the domains death avoidance, approach acceptance, and fear of death (14.9 vs. 11.1, 26.2 vs. 24.2, and 20.3 vs. 19.0, respectively); however, statistically significantly lower scores were in the domains natural acceptance and escape acceptance (18.4 vs. 22.0, and 13.6 vs. 15.1, respectively). Religious belief, experience of a deceased relative in family, death education, and family atmosphere of discussing death are positively associated with one or more domains of attitude towards death. Conclusion: The positive attitude towards death and death education before clinical practice are helpful for nursing interns when they care for dying patients. In general, the scores of attitude towards death are at a moderate level in the surveyed Chinese nursing interns. The death education for nursing students needs to be reinforced in China.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Morte , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Religião , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Assistência Terminal/psicologia
14.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(5): 564-576, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580125

RESUMO

Sexual minorities high in attachment avoidance (i.e., discomfort with closeness) and attachment anxiety (i.e., fear of abandonment) tend to report greater internalized heterosexism. Yet, the causes of this link have not been fully explored. Some propose that insecure attachment schemas may make it difficult to form the types of social connections that can help alleviate internalized stigma (and vice versa: internalized heterosexism might make one avoid the types of relationships that would foster secure attachment). This study used structural equation modeling to test whether reduced connection to the LGBTQ+ community could help explain the link between insecure attachment and internalized heterosexism. Study 1 (n = 480) explored links between attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, community connectedness and internalized heterosexism. Higher avoidance predicted lower connection which, in turn, predicted higher internalized heterosexism. Attachment avoidance's association with internalized heterosexism was fully explained by an indirect effect through connectedness. Conversely, attachment anxiety did not predict connectedness or internalized heterosexism. Study 2 (n = 447) replicated these findings. These results suggest low connectedness might help explain the association between attachment insecurity and internalized heterosexism, though this path might be specific to attachment avoidance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Psicológicos , Apego ao Objeto , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105294, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586825

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between pedestrians' risk perception and worry, and how worry influence pedestrians' behaviour. Worry is regarded as a feeling that emerges as a result of an individual's cognitive assessment of risk. The study was based on a questionnaire survey carried out among a representative sample (n = 2000) of the Norwegian population. The results showed differences in how people perceived risk and how worried they were about being exposed to different hazards (traffic accident, harassment, theft, and terror) as a pedestrian during night-time and daytime. As expected, pedestrians perceived their risk as higher and were more worried being exposed to hazards during night-time than in daytime. Structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed that risk perception was a significant predictor variable for worry during both night-time and daytime. Additionally, worry was found to influence pedestrian behaviour. Worry was moderately associated with walking frequency during night-time, and how often individuals walked alone outdoors during night-time. These associations were stronger for people without access to a private car. No associations were found between worry and walking frequency during daytime. The results of the study contribute to the understanding of the association between pedestrians' risk perceptions and worry, and how worry influence walking frequency. From both a pro-environmental and a health promoting perspective, it is important that people choose to walk or cycle for their daily travels.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Pedestres/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Codas ; 31(6): e20180266, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the prevalence of fear of public speaking and verify its association with sociodemographic variables, self-perception of voice, speech, and oral communication skills in public. METHODS: A cross-sectional and analytical study with 1,124 university students was carried out. An online questionnaire addressed was performed, considering factors as sociodemographic characteristics; fear of speaking; Scale for Self-Assessment When Speaking in Public (SSPS), self-perception of the voice, the ability to grasp, and keep the listener's attention and influence another. RESULTS: The fear of public speaking was prevalent in undergraduate students. There was an association of the fear of speaking with the vocal self-perception, with the ability to capture and keep the listener's attention and to influence another with their communication. Individuals who have the ability to capture and maintain the attention of the interlocutor are more likely to be afraid of public speaking than the undergraduate students who perceive themselves as having the ability to influence the listener with their communication. CONCLUSION: The more communicative skills and more persuasive the individual perceives his or her self, the less likely he or she is to be affected by the fear of speaking.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Fala , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comunicação Persuasiva , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Voz , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pers Disord ; 33(5): 633-639, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621541

RESUMO

Lilienfeld and colleagues (this issue) propose that some personality disorders can be conceptualized as emergent interpersonal syndromes (EIS). An EIS elicits negative interpersonal reactions in others. Further, an EIS results from statistical interactions between symptom dimensions that are uncorrelated. As a prototypical EIS, psychopathy is an interaction between boldness (or fearlessness) and interpersonal antagonism. The authors marshal many threads of research to develop an intriguing idea that suggests the "whole" of psychopathy is more than the sum of its parts. Unfortunately, the authors focus primarily on psychopathy, and fail to provide convincing quantitative data for the statistical interaction that forms the basis for their theory. Also missing from this model of personality pathology is a consideration of what function boldness serves; viewing boldness as a means to accomplish the (maladaptive) rewarding goals that motivate the individual high in antagonism and disinhibition may serve to flesh out this theory and our conceptualization of personality pathology more broadly.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome
18.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1586-1597, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551602

RESUMO

Emotional learning and memory are functionally and dysfunctionally regulated by the neuromodulatory state of the brain. While the role of excitatory and inhibitory neural circuits mediating emotional learning and its control have been the focus of much research, we are only now beginning to understand the more diffuse role of neuromodulation in these processes. Recent experimental studies of the acetylcholine, noradrenaline and dopamine systems in fear learning and extinction of fear responding provide surprising answers to key questions in neuromodulation. One area of research has revealed how modular organization, coupled with context-dependent coding modes, allows for flexible brain-wide or targeted neuromodulation. Other work has shown how these neuromodulators act in downstream targets to enhance signal-to-noise ratios and gain, as well as to bind distributed circuits through neuronal oscillations. These studies elucidate how different neuromodulatory systems regulate aversive emotional processing and reveal fundamental principles of neuromodulatory function.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Animais , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia
19.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 150, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Psychological factors including fear of pain, re-injury during movement (kinesiophbia) affect return-to-sport rates after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Clinicians often encounter in the daily practice that athletes explain lack of self-confidence or psychological readiness during the sports activity. The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) has been used to evaluate psychological outcomes in patients with ACL injuries in many countries and translated into Japanese version in 2013. However, no researchers validated its reliability, validity, and responsiveness of TSK for patients with ACL injury up to now. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Japanese version of the TSK (TSK-J) in patients with ACL injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (Diagnostic); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: This prospective study was performed in the department of orthopaedic surgery at the university hospital of Juntendo from Sep 2016 and Apr 2017. Patients who diagnosed with ACL injury with or without reconstruction surgery completed several patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were included in this study. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines were used to evaluate reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability of the TSK-J. RESULTS: 222 patients were included in this study. The TSK-J for ACL injured patients showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79) and excellent test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.95). In addtion, the TSK-J was significantly but moderately correlated with the IKDC-SKF (r = - 0.49, P <0.001), VAS-Sports (r = - 0.48, P <0.001), and JACL-25 (r = 0.48, P <0.001). The effect size (ES) was small with the Cohen's d = - 0.2. The minimal important difference (MID) was - 1.3 points. No significant TSK-J score change was observed over 1-year after ACL reconstruction (r = - 0.12, P <0.001). There were no floor or ceiling effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that the Japanese version of TSK has good reliability. However, its low validity and responsiveness indicate that it may not the best way to assess psychological factors for patients with ACL injury.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/psicologia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540367

RESUMO

El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras rank among the top 10 countries experiencing violence in the world, despite not being at war. Although there is abundant literature on generalized violence in this "northern triangle" of Central America as a driver of out-migration to the United States, very little is known about the perspectives and experiences of youth who do not migrate. This study aimed to elicit the emic perspectives of youth residing in the region on how the day-to-day generalized violence produces a pervasive threat to the overall health and human security of youth as well as the key protective factors and resiliencies at work. We conducted two separate waves of qualitative research in 2015 and 2018 over a 6-month period, which included 60 in-depth interviews and six focus groups among Salvadoran, Guatemalan and Honduran youth living in urban areas. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed two meta-themes: (1) 'Lack of health,' defined as not experiencing peace within the family, the community, and the country' and (2) 'Resilience.' Thematic clusters that reflect the first meta-theme are: (1) violence as a common occurrence; (2) living in fear and insecurity; (3) victimization; and (4) lack of state protection and services. Thematic clusters for the second meta-theme are: (1) a positive future outlook and a commitment to education; (2) transnational and local family network support; and (3) engagement in community-based youth groups. To interpret the findings, we adopt the Latin American Social Medicine and Collective Health (LASM-CH) approach that prioritizes perspectives from the region. Generalized violence is conceptualized as a systemic phenomenon that is generated and reproduced through the complex interactions of structural inequities and unequal power relations. The findings of this study provide new insights into the implementation of a different approach to address the generalized violence, insights that may guide multi-sectoral health policies and interventions both in the region and transnationally.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Medo/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , El Salvador , Feminino , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , Masculino , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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