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1.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 656-664, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865632

RESUMO

Methiozolin is a novel herbicide for controlling annual bluegrass. After applying 14C labelled methiozolin in two sediment (clay loam and sand)-water systems under aerobic conditions, its distribution, half-life, and metabolites within 300 days were investigated. The mass balance ranged within 92.0%-104.4% of applied radioactivity (AR). Radioactivity in the water declined sharply from 94.4% to 0.5% AR, while in the sediment it increased to 83.9% AR at 14 days before declining to 9.1% AR. The volatiles were minimal (< 0.5% AR), and the evolved labelled CO2 accounted for up to ~ 33.4% AR. From Radio-HPLC analysis, labelled methiozolin in water decreased from 108.9% to 0% AR, while a maximum of 15.1% AR remained in the sediment at the end. Eight metabolites were detected, all at minor levels and accounting for < 5.5% AR. The half-life of labelled methiozolin in the total sediment-water systems were 50.7 and 38.7 days for clay loam and sand, respectively.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/análise , Isoxazóis/análise , Tiofenos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Argila , Meia-Vida , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Poa , Água
2.
N Engl J Med ; 383(11): 1018-1027, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor VIII replacement products have improved the care of patients with hemophilia A, but the short half-life of these products affects the patients' quality of life. The half-life of recombinant factor VIII ranges from 15 to 19 hours because of the von Willebrand factor chaperone effect. BIVV001 (rFVIIIFc-VWF-XTEN) is a novel fusion protein designed to overcome this half-life ceiling and maintain high sustained factor VIII activity levels. Data are lacking on the safety and pharmacokinetics of single-dose BIVV001. METHODS: In this phase 1-2a open-label trial, we consecutively assigned 16 previously treated men (18 to 65 years of age) with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII activity, <1%) to receive a single intravenous injection of recombinant factor VIII at a dose of 25 IU per kilogram of body weight (lower-dose group) or 65 IU per kilogram (higher-dose group). This injection was followed by a washout period of at least 3 days. The patients then received a single intravenous injection of BIVV001 at the same corresponding dose of either 25 IU or 65 IU per kilogram. Adverse events and pharmacokinetic measurements were assessed. RESULTS: No inhibitors to factor VIII were detected and no hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis events were reported up to 28 days after the injection of single-dose BIVV001. The geometric mean half-life of BIVV001 was three to four times as long as that of recombinant factor VIII (37.6 hours vs. 9.1 hours in the lower-dose group and 42.5 vs. 13.2 hours in the higher-dose group); the area under the curve (AUC) for product exposure was six to seven times as great in the two dose groups (4470 hours vs. 638 hours × IU per deciliter in the lower-dose group and 12,800 hours vs. 1960 hours × IU per deciliter in the higher-dose group). After the injection of BIVV001 in the higher-dose group, the mean factor VIII level was in the normal range (≥51%) for 4 days and 17% at day 7, which suggested the possibility of a weekly interval between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: In a small, early-phase study involving men with severe hemophilia A, a single intravenous injection of BIVV001 resulted in high sustained factor VIII activity levels, with a half-life that was up to four times the half-life associated with recombinant factor VIII, an increase that could signal a new class of factor VIII replacement therapy with a weekly treatment interval. No safety concerns were reported during the 28-day period after administration. (Funded by Sanofi and Sobi; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03205163.).


Assuntos
Fator VIII/metabolismo , Hemofilia A/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fator VIII/antagonistas & inibidores , Meia-Vida , Hemofilia A/metabolismo , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann Hematol ; 99(11): 2689-2698, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974838

RESUMO

An open-label, crossover randomized study was performed to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) of damoctocog alfa pegol and rurioctocog alfa pegol, two recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) products indicated in patients with hemophilia A, both conjugated to polyethylene glycol to reduce clearance and extend time in circulation. Adult patients (N = 18) with severe hemophilia A (FVIII < 1 IU/dL), previously treated with any FVIII product for ≥ 150 exposure days, were randomized to receive a single 50 IU/kg infusion of damoctocog alfa pegol followed by rurioctocog alfa pegol, or vice versa, with ≥ 7-day washout between doses. FVIII activity was measured using the one-stage clotting assay. PK parameters, including area under the curve from time 0 to the last data point (AUC0-tlast, primary parameter), dose-normalized AUC (AUCnorm), and time to threshold, were calculated based on 11 time points between 0.25 and 120 h post-dose and evaluated using a noncompartmental model. Due to differences in batch-specific vial content used for the study, actual administered median doses were 54.3 IU/kg for damoctocog alfa pegol and 61.4 IU/kg for rurioctocog alfa pegol. Based on actual dosing, a significantly higher geometric mean (coefficient of variation [%CV]) AUCnorm was observed for damoctocog alfa pegol (43.8 h kg/dL [44.0]) versus rurioctocog alfa pegol (36.0 h kg/dL [40.1, P < 0.001]). Based on population PK modeling, median time to reach 1 IU/dL was 16 h longer for damoctocog alfa pegol compared with rurioctocog alfa pegol. No adverse events or any immunogenicity signals were observed. Overall, damoctocog alfa pegol had a superior PK profile versus rurioctocog alfa pegol. Trial registration number: NCT04015492 ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier). Date of registration: July 9, 2019.


Assuntos
Fator VIII , Hemofilia A , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Fator VIII/administração & dosagem , Fator VIII/farmacocinética , Meia-Vida , Hemofilia A/sangue , Hemofilia A/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacocinética
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790679

RESUMO

The focus of gastro-intestinal parasite control in the sheep industry is increasingly on finding a balance between maintaining productivity of the flock whilst minimising selection for anthelmintic resistance to preserve anthelmintic efficacy for the future. Periparturient ewes represent the major source of gastro-intestinal parasites for growing lambs and are therefore a priority for parasite control. This study examines the impact on ewe faecal egg counts (FECs), lamb FECs, lamb daily live weight gains (DLWGs) and pasture larval counts of treating groups of ewes two weeks prior to lambing with either, a long-acting moxidectin treatment, short-acting doramectin or control. Six groups of twenty ewes were allocated to individual paddocks, two groups allocated to each treatment, and weekly faecal sampling was performed throughout from the ewes and from six weeks after the start of lambing in the lambs. Treatment group was found to have a significant effect on both ewe FEC (p<0.001) and lamb FEC (p = 0.001) with the group receiving the long-acting anthelmintic having the lowest ewe and lamb FECs. There was no significant effect on the DLWGs of the lambs. Pasture larval counts at the end of the study period were lowest in the long-acting wormer treatment group. The use of long-acting moxidectin may be helpful as part of a parasite control programme by reducing the worm burdens of ewes and their lambs, decreasing the number of anthelmintic treatments required in that year and by reducing pasture contamination for those sheep which will graze the pasture in the next year. However, like all anthelmintics, its use should be judicious to avoid selection for resistance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacocinética , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Larva , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/farmacocinética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
5.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(9): e649-e659, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avadomide (CC-122) is a novel oral cereblon-modulating agent with promising activity in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We aimed to examine the safety and preliminary activity of avadomide plus obinutuzumab in patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS: CC-122-NHL-001 was a phase 1b dose escalation and expansion study at eight sites in France, Italy, and the Netherlands. Eligible patients (aged ≥18 years) had histologically confirmed CD20-positive relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and had received previous treatment. In the dose expansion phase, only patients with previously treated relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma (grade 1, 2, or 3a) were included. Avadomide was administered in escalating doses and two formulations: active pharmaceutical ingredient in capsule in 1·0 mg, 2·0 mg, 3·0 mg, and 4·0 mg doses and as formulated capsules in 3·0 mg and 4·0 mg doses orally once daily on days 1-5 followed by 2 days off (5-7-day schedule) every week of each 28-day cycle. Obinutuzumab 1000 mg was administered intravenously on days 2, 8, and 15 of cycle 1 and day 1 of cycles 2-8. Primary objectives were to determine the safety and tolerability, the non-tolerated dose, maximum tolerated dose, and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). All patients who received treatment were included in the safety analyses. Efficacy-evaluable patients completed at least one cycle of treatment and had baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02417285 and EudraCT 2014-003333-26, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 24, 2015, and Dec 5, 2018, 73 patients were enrolled and treated; 19 had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 53 follicular lymphoma, and one marginal zone lymphoma. Median follow-up was 253 days (IQR 127-448). The median number of previous anticancer regimens was three (IQR 2-4). The maximum tolerated dose and non-tolerated dose were not reached in the dose escalation phase. On the basis of safety and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data, the avadomide RP2D was established as 3·0 mg as formulated capsules on a 5-7-day schedule in combination with 1000 mg of obinutuzumab. Patients enrolled in the expansion cohort received the established RP2D of avadomide. Across all doses, three patients had dose-limiting toxicities; one patient treated at the RP2D had dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 sepsis). The most common adverse events of grade 3 and above were neutropenia (41 [56%] of 73) and thrombocytopenia (17 [23%] of 73). 34 (47%) patients had serious adverse events, which were considered to be avadomide-related in 23 (32%) of 73 patients and obinutuzumab-related in 20 (27%) of 73 patients. Two treatment-related deaths occurred, one owing to tumour flare and one from acute myeloid leukaemia after study discontinuation. INTERPRETATION: Avadomide plus obinutuzumab has a manageable toxicity, being a tolerable treatment option for most patients. Although the prespecified threshold for activity was not met in the trial, we believe that the preliminary antitumour activity of cereblon modulators plus next-generation anti-CD20 antibodies in heavily pretreated relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma warrants further investigation as a chemotherapy-free option in this setting. FUNDING: Celgene Corporation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidonas/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinonas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/etiologia , Neutropenia/patologia , Piperidonas/efeitos adversos , Piperidonas/farmacocinética , Quinazolinonas/efeitos adversos , Quinazolinonas/farmacocinética , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5459-5471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801700

RESUMO

Purpose: Indocyanine green (ICG), a near infrared (NIR) dye clinically approved in medical diagnostics, possesses great heat conversion efficiency, which renders itself as an effective photosensitizer for photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer. However, there remain bottleneck challenges for use in PTT, which are the poor photo and plasma stability of ICG. To address these problems, in this research, ICG-loaded silver nanoparticles were prepared and evaluated for the applicability as an effective agent for photothermal cancer therapy. Methods and Results: PEGylated bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated silver core/shell nanoparticles were synthesized with a high loading of ICG ("PEG-BSA-AgNP/ICG"). Physical characterization was carried out using size analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry to identify successful preparation and size stability. ICG-loading content and the photothermal conversion efficiency of the particles were confirmed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser instruments. In vitro studies showed that the PEG-BSA-AgNP/ICG could provide great photostability for ICG, and their applicability for PTT was verified from the cellular study results. Furthermore, when the PEG-BSA-AgNP/ICG were tested in vivo, study results exhibited that ICG could stably remain in the blood circulation for a markedly long period (plasma half-life: 112 min), and about 1.7% ID/g tissue could be accumulated in the tumor tissue at 4 h post-injection. Such nanoparticle accumulation in the tumor enabled tumor surface temperature to be risen to 50°C (required for photo-ablation) by laser irradiation and led to successful inhibition of tumor growth in the B16F10 s.c. syngeneic nude mice model, with minimal systemic toxicity. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that PEG-BSA-AgNPs could serve as effective carriers for delivering ICG to the tumor tissue with great stability and safety.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/química , Verde de Indocianina/farmacocinética , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Nus , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Prata/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461403, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823108

RESUMO

Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter that degrades rapidly in aqueous solutions; hence, its analysis following brain microdialysis is challenging. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a new microdialysis coupled LC-MS/MS system with improved accuracy, precision, simplicity and turnaround time for dopamine, serotonin, methamphetamine, amphetamine, 4-hydroxymethamphetamine and 4-hydroxyamphetamine analysis in the brain. Dopamine degradation was studied with different stabilizing agents under different storage conditions. The modified microdialysis system was tested in vitro, and was optimized for best probe recovery, assessed by %gain. LC-MS/MS assay was developed and validated for the targeted compounds. Stabilizing agents (ascorbic acid, EDTA and acetic acid) as well as internal and cold standards were added on-line to the dialysate flow. Assay linearity range was 0.01-100 ng/mL, precision and accuracy passed criteria, and LOQ and LLOQ were 0.2 and 1.0 pg, respectively. The new microdialysis coupled LC-MS/MS system was used in Wistar rats striatum after 4 mg/kg subcutaneous methamphetamine. Methamphetamine rapidly distributed to rat striatum reaching an average ~200 ng/mL maximum, ~82.5 min post-dose. Amphetamine, followed by 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, was the most abundant metabolite. Dopamine was released following methamphetamine injection, while serotonin was not altered. In conclusion, we proposed and tested an innovative and simplified solution to improve stability, accuracy and turnover time to monitor unstable molecules, such as dopamine, by microdialysis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dopamina/análise , Metanfetamina/análise , Serotonina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dopamina/isolamento & purificação , Dopamina/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Masculino , Metanfetamina/isolamento & purificação , Metanfetamina/metabolismo , Microdiálise , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serotonina/isolamento & purificação , Serotonina/metabolismo
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 595-601, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862252

RESUMO

The residual characteristics and risk assessment with respect to cyazofamid and its metabolite 4-chloro-5-p-tolylimidazole-2-carbonitrile were monitored in case of Korean cabbage at different preharvest intervals during a greenhouse trial. The 0.02 kg a.i/ha of cyazofamid was sprayed twice on seven-day intervals (i.e., on day 0, 7, 14, and 21 before harvest). The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used to monitor the residual amount of fungicide. The matrix-matched calibration curves with respect to the cyazofamid in Korean cabbage exhibited good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.999) and acceptable recoveries of 84.1%-114.9%. The biological half-life of cyazofamid in Korean cabbage was 3.18 days. During the treatment, the preharvest residue of cyazofamid in Korean cabbage 14 days before harvest (0.80 mg/kg) was lower than that specified by the MFDS-MRL (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety-Maximum Residue Limit, 2.0 mg/kg) and should be recommended as the safe preharvest-interval application limit. The hazard quotient showed low toxicity (70.58%) during the risk assessment study of cyazofamid.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4268, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848159

RESUMO

Current efforts in the proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) field mostly focus on choosing an appropriate E3 ligase for the target protein, improving the binding affinities towards the target protein and the E3 ligase, and optimizing the PROTAC linker. However, due to the large molecular weights of PROTACs, their cellular uptake remains an issue. Through comparing how different warhead chemistry, reversible noncovalent (RNC), reversible covalent (RC), and irreversible covalent (IRC) binders, affects the degradation of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK), we serendipitously discover that cyano-acrylamide-based reversible covalent chemistry can significantly enhance the intracellular accumulation and target engagement of PROTACs and develop RC-1 as a reversible covalent BTK PROTAC with a high target occupancy as its corresponding kinase inhibitor and effectiveness as a dual functional inhibitor and degrader, a different mechanism-of-action for PROTACs. Importantly, this reversible covalent strategy is generalizable to improve other PROTACs, opening a path to enhance PROTAC efficacy.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Acrilamidas/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Corantes Fluorescentes , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Fenômenos de Química Orgânica , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteólise
10.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 474-480, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757042

RESUMO

Thiamethoxam 75 SG has recently got registered for use against shoot borer and termites of sugarcane. It is the only neonicotinoid having label claim against both the major pests of sugarcane. The dissipation kinetics and environmental risk assessment of thiamethoxam 75 SG were studied in a typical tropical sugarcane crop ecosystem as detailed reports are lacking. Rapid and sensitive method adopted to determine the residues of thiamethoxam in the soil employing HPLC could provide more than 95.5% recoveries. The insecticide was observed to persist in the sandy clay loam soil for 60 days and reached below the detectable level of less than 0.01 mg/kg (LOQ = 0.01 mg/kg) on 75th day when applied @ 120 g a.i./ha. The half-life was worked out to be 16.50 days. At double the recommended dose (240 g a.i./ha), the insecticide persisted up to 75 days with the half-life of 16.91 days. The risk quotient values indicated medium to low level of risk to earthworms during the course of degradation of thiamethoxam in the soil.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tiametoxam/análise , Argila , Ecossistema , Meia-Vida , Cinética , Neonicotinoides , Medição de Risco , Saccharum/metabolismo , Areia , Solo/química
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109147, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738202

RESUMO

Acacetin is a natural flavonoid that is widely distributed in plants and possesses numerous pharmacological activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acacetin on the activities of the cytochrome P450 family members CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2C11, CYP2D1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A2 in rat liver microsomes in vitro and rats in vivo to evaluate potential herb-drug interactions by using a cocktail approach. Phenacetin, bupropion, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, chlorzoxazone, and midazolam were chosen as the probe substrates. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous detection of the probe substrates and their metabolites. In vitro, the mode of acacetin inhibition of CYP2B1, CYP2C11, and CYP2E1 was competitive, while mixed inhibition was observed for CYP1A2 and CYP3A2. The Ki values in this study were less than 8.32 µM. In vivo, the mixed probe substrates were administered by gavage after daily intraperitoneal injection with 50 mg/kg acacetin or saline for 2 weeks. The main pharmacokinetic parameters, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), plasma clearance (CL), and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of the probe substrates were significantly different in the experimental group than in the control group. Overall, the in vitro and in vivo results indicated that acacetin would be at high risk to cause toxicity and drug interactions via cytochrome P450 inhibition.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Flavonas/metabolismo , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/farmacocinética , Meia-Vida , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611701

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in China in late 2019 and is caused by newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Previous studies had reported the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture media and deposited onto surfaces under a limited set of environmental conditions. Here, we broadly investigated the effects of relative humidity, temperature, and droplet size on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in a simulated clinically relevant matrix dried on nonporous surfaces. The results show that SARS-CoV-2 decayed more rapidly when either humidity or temperature was increased but that droplet volume (1 to 50 µl) and surface type (stainless steel, plastic, or nitrile glove) did not significantly impact decay rate. At room temperature (24°C), virus half-life ranged from 6.3 to 18.6 h depending on the relative humidity but was reduced to 1.0 to 8.9 h when the temperature was increased to 35°C. These findings suggest that a potential for fomite transmission may persist for hours to days in indoor environments and have implications for assessment of the risk posed by surface contamination in indoor environments.IMPORTANCE Mitigating the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical settings and public spaces is critically important to reduce the number of COVID-19 cases while effective vaccines and therapeutics are under development. SARS-CoV-2 transmission is thought to primarily occur through direct person-to-person transfer of infectious respiratory droplets or through aerosol-generating medical procedures. However, contact with contaminated surfaces may also play a significant role. In this context, understanding the factors contributing to SARS-CoV-2 persistence on surfaces will enable a more accurate estimation of the risk of contact transmission and inform mitigation strategies. To this end, we have developed a simple mathematical model that can be used to estimate virus decay on nonporous surfaces under a range of conditions and which may be utilized operationally to identify indoor environments in which the virus is most persistent.


Assuntos
Fômites/virologia , Umidade , Modelos Teóricos , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Temperatura , Inativação de Vírus , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Plásticos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Porosidade , Saliva/química , Saliva/virologia , Aço Inoxidável , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
N Engl J Med ; 383(5): 452-459, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insufficient vaccine doses and the lack of therapeutic agents for yellow fever put global health at risk, should this virus emerge from sub-Saharan Africa and South America. METHODS: In phase 1a of this clinical trial, we assessed the safety, side-effect profile, and pharmacokinetics of TY014, a fully human IgG1 anti-yellow fever virus monoclonal antibody. In a double-blind, phase 1b clinical trial, we assessed the efficacy of TY014, as compared with placebo, in abrogating viremia related to the administration of live yellow fever vaccine (YF17D-204; Stamaril). The primary safety outcomes were adverse events reported 1 hour after the infusion and throughout the trial. The primary efficacy outcome was the dose of TY014 at which 100% of the participants tested negative for viremia within 48 hours after infusion. RESULTS: A total of 27 healthy participants were enrolled in phase 1a, and 10 participants in phase 1b. During phase 1a, TY014 dose escalation to a maximum of 20 mg per kilogram of body weight occurred in 22 participants. During phases 1a and 1b, adverse events within 1 hour after infusion occurred in 1 of 27 participants who received TY014 and in none of the 10 participants who received placebo. At least one adverse event occurred during the trial in 22 participants who received TY014 and in 8 who received placebo. The mean half-life of TY014 was approximately 12.8 days. At 48 hours after the infusion, none of the 5 participants who received the starting dose of TY014 of 2 mg per kilogram had detectable YF17D-204 viremia; these participants remained aviremic throughout the trial. Viremia was observed at 48 hours after the infusion in 2 of 5 participants who received placebo and at 72 hours in 2 more placebo recipients. Symptoms associated with yellow fever vaccine were less frequent in the TY014 group than in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: This phase 1 trial of TY014 did not identify worrisome safety signals and suggested potential clinical benefit, which requires further assessment in a phase 2 trial. (Funded by Tysana; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03776786.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(7): 1566-1576, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628231

RESUMO

Plastic scintillation fibers (PSFs) have been instrumental in in situ surface contamination surveys post the Fukushima Daichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Their deployment to monitoring bottom sediments in aquatic environments provides the spatial extent of contamination over wide areas compared to discrete points as provided traditionally by sediment sampling. This study evaluated the wide area ecological half-life (Teco) of radiocesium concentration for surface sediments of five ponds in Fukushima using PSFs, monitoring data generated between 2013 and 2019. The least squares' regression method was employed to evaluate the Teco. Four ponds had a Teco ranging from 3.0 ± 0.3 years to 11.4 ± 2.3 years. A forest-catchment pond exhibited a relatively long Teco of 41.6 ± 55 years. Local variation in the Teco appears to be influenced by sedimentation as we demonstrated larger values for areas showing potential sedimentation in the forest catchment pond. This study demonstrates the importance of wide area in situ monitoring techniques, such as PSF, in providing an overview of the spatial-temporal trends of radiocesium in bottom sediments and confirms the importance of forests as secondary contaminant sources to their drainage.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Radioisótopos de Césio , Meia-Vida , Japão , Plásticos , Tanques
15.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(8): 651-655, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of amantadine after oral administration of single and multiple doses to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). ANIMALS: 12 adult orange-winged Amazon parrots (6 males and 6 females). PROCEDURES: A single dose of amantadine was orally administered to 6 birds at 5 mg/kg (n = 2), 10 mg/kg (2), and 20 mg/kg (2) in a preliminary trial. On the basis of the results, a single dose of amantadine (10 mg/kg, PO) was administered to 6 other birds. Two months later, multiple doses of amantadine (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 7 days) were administered to 8 birds. Heart rate, respiratory rate, behavior, and urofeces were monitored. Plasma concentrations of amantadine were measured via tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were determined via noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS: Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration, time to maximum plasma concentration, half-life, and area under the concentration-versus-time curve from the last dose to infinity were 1,174 ± 186 ng/mL, 3.8 ± 1.8 hours, 23.2 ± 2.9 hours, and 38.6 ± 7.4 µg·h/mL, respectively, after a single dose and 1,185 ± 270 ng/mL, 3.0 ± 2.4 hours, 21.5 ± 5.3 hours, and 26.3 ± 5.7 µg·h/mL, respectively, at steady state after multiple doses. No adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Once-daily oral administration of amantadine at 5 mg/kg to orange-winged Amazon parrots maintained plasma concentrations above those considered to be therapeutic in dogs. Further studies evaluating safety and efficacy of amantadine in orange-winged Amazon parrots are warranted.


Assuntos
Amazona , Administração Oral , Amantadina , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Masculino , Plasma
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234916, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614882

RESUMO

A great deal of attention has been focused on nanoparticles for cancer therapy, with the promise of tumor-selective delivery. However, despite intense work in the field over many years, the biggest obstacle to this vision remains extremely low delivery efficiency of nanoparticles into tumors. Due to the cost, time, and impact on the animals for in vivo studies, the nanoparticle field predominantly uses cellular uptake assays as a proxy to predict in vivo outcomes. Extensive research has focused on decreasing macrophage uptake in vitro as a proxy to delay nanoparticle accumulation in the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), mainly the liver and spleen, and thereby increase tumor accumulation. We have recently reported novel synthetic methods employing small molecule crosslinkers for the controlled assembly of small nanoparticles into larger aggregates and found that these nanoaggregates had remarkably high surface coverage and low cell uptake, even in macrophages. We further found that this extremely low cellular uptake could be recapitulated on solid gold nanoparticles by densely coating their surface with small molecules. Here we report our studies on the biodistribution and clearance of these materials in comparison to more conventional PEGylated gold nanoparticles. It was expected that the remarkably low macrophage uptake in vitro would translate to extended blood circulation time in vivo, but instead we found no correlation between either surface coverage or in vitro macrophage cell uptake and in vivo blood circulation. Gold nanoaggregates accumulate more rapidly and to a higher level in the liver compared to control gold nanoparticles. The lack of correlation between in vitro macrophage uptake and in vivo blood circulation suggests that the field must find other in vitro assays to use as a primary proxy for in vivo outcomes or use direct in vivo experimentation as a primary assay.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacocinética , Ouro/farmacocinética , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Polietilenoglicóis , Animais , Endocitose , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Ouro/sangue , Meia-Vida , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/classificação , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Projetos Piloto , Células RAW 264.7 , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Baço/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3746, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719315

RESUMO

Recently, the clinical proof of concept for the first ultra-long oral insulin was reported, showing efficacy and safety similar to subcutaneously administered insulin glargine. Here, we report the molecular engineering as well as biological and pharmacological properties of these insulin analogues. Molecules were designed to have ultra-long pharmacokinetic profile to minimize variability in plasma exposure. Elimination plasma half-life of ~20 h in dogs and ~70 h in man is achieved by a strong albumin binding, and by lowering the insulin receptor affinity 500-fold to slow down receptor mediated clearance. These insulin analogues still stimulate efficient glucose disposal in rats, pigs and dogs during constant intravenous infusion and euglycemic clamp conditions. The albumin binding facilitates initial high plasma exposure with a concomitant delay in distribution to peripheral tissues. This slow appearance in the periphery mediates an early transient hepato-centric insulin action and blunts hypoglycaemia in dogs in response to overdosing.


Assuntos
Insulina/administração & dosagem , Engenharia de Proteínas , Administração Oral , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Overdose de Drogas/sangue , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Insulina/análogos & derivados , Insulina/química , Insulina/farmacocinética , Masculino , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645091

RESUMO

The current knowledge of the half-lives (T1/2) of several radiolanthanides is either affected by a high uncertainty or is still awaiting confirmation. The scientific information deriving from this imprecise T1/2 data has a significant impact on a variety of research fields, e.g., astrophysics, fundamental nuclear sciences, and nuclear energy and safety. The main reason for these shortcomings in the nuclear databases is the limited availability of suitable sample material together with the difficulties in performing accurate activity measurements with low uncertainties. In reaction to the urgent need to improve the current nuclear databases, the long-term project "ERAWAST" (Exotic Radionuclides from Accelerator Waste for Science and Technology) was launched at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). In this context, we present a wet radiochemical separation procedure for the extraction and purification of dysprosium (Dy), terbium (Tb), gadolinium (Gd), and samarium (Sm) fractions from highly radioactive tantalum specimens, in order to obtain 154Dy, 157-158Tb, 148,150Gd, and 146Sm samples, needed for T1/2 determination studies. Ion-exchange chromatography was successfully applied for the separation of individual lanthanides. All separations were conducted in aqueous phase. The separation process was monitored via γ-spectrometry using suitable radioactive tracers. Both the purity and the quantification of the desired radiolanthanides were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Test experiments revealed that, prior to the Dy, Tb, Gd, and Sm separation, the removal of hafnium, lutetium, and barium from the irradiated tantalum material was necessary to minimize the overall dose rate exposure (in the mSv/h range), as well to obtain pure lanthanide fractions. With the herein proposed separation method, exotic 154Dy, 157-158Tb, 148,150Gd, and 146Sm radionuclides were obtained in sufficient amounts and purity for the preparation of samples for envisaged half-life measurements. During the separation process, fractions containing holmium, europium, and promethium radionuclides were collected and stored for further use.


Assuntos
Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/isolamento & purificação , Radioquímica/métodos , Radioisótopos/química , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Európio/isolamento & purificação , Meia-Vida , Hólmio/isolamento & purificação , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas , Promécio/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria gama , Tantálio/química
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687523

RESUMO

Laboratory assays such as MIC tests assume that antibiotic molecules are stable in the chosen growth medium-but rapid degradation has been observed for antibiotics including ß-lactams under some conditions in aqueous solution. Degradation rates in bacterial growth medium are less well known. Here, we develop a 'delay time bioassay' that provides a simple way to estimate antibiotic stability in bacterial growth media, using only a plate reader and without the need to measure the antibiotic concentration directly. We use the bioassay to measure degradation half-lives of the ß-lactam antibiotics mecillinam, aztreonam and cefotaxime in widely-used bacterial growth media based on MOPS and Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. We find that mecillinam degradation can occur rapidly, with a half-life as short as 2 hours in MOPS medium at 37°C and pH 7.4, and 4-5 hours in LB, but that adjusting the pH and temperature can increase its stability to a half-life around 6 hours without excessively perturbing growth. Aztreonam and cefotaxime were found to have half-lives longer than 6 hours in MOPS medium at 37°C and pH 7.4, but still shorter than the timescale of a typical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Taken together, our results suggest that care is needed in interpreting MIC tests and other laboratory growth assays for ß-lactam antibiotics, since there may be significant degradation of the antibiotic during the assay.


Assuntos
Andinocilina/química , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefotaxima/química , Andinocilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Meia-Vida , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Tempo
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