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1.
Water Environ Res ; 96(7): e11068, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967114

RESUMO

A life cycle assessment (LCA) study was completed to understand the environmental impacts associated with the land application of wastes produced from rural food-processing operations for final disposal. The system boundaries for the two comprised scenarios included the storage of the produced non-agriculture source material (NASM), transportation to an applicable location, land application of the NASM, and the impacts of the final emissions to the soil and groundwater for a full year. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemicals and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) v2.1 was selected as the impact assessment method. Furthermore, SimaPro 8.0.4.26 was the LCA model version that was used with all the databases included. Overall, the LCA study showed that the most significant environmental impacts associated with the disposal process resulted from carcinogenic and eutrophication emissions. The component that contributed the most to carcinogenic impacts was found to be from the material required to create the concrete storage tank. Additionally, eutrophication was identified to be a potential significant impact, if proper setback requirements are not followed for the NASM material. Results of the study look to inform stakeholders about the benefits and risks encountered from NASM disposal. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Life cycle assessment was completed on a representative NASM disposal system using land application. Concrete tank used for storage of NASM had the most significant impact in carcinogenic emissions. Eutrophication impacts were the second most significant impact behind carcinogenic emissions.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
2.
J Texture Stud ; 55(4): e12845, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992972

RESUMO

In this study, Provence tomato variety was chosen for investigating the environmental causes of tomato fruit cracking, cracks characteristics, and their propagation prediction in a greenhouse. Fruit bagging approach was used to alter the temperature and humidity and to create a microclimate around the fruit to induce fruit cracking for testing. Results showed that the fruit cracking rate increased when the environment temperature exceeded 30°C, and the difference between the highest and lowest temperature values in a day was greater than 20°C. The cracking rate was aggravated when the difference between the highest and lowest humidity values in a day was less than 20%. The proportions of top cracking, longitudinal cracking, ring cracking, radial cracking, and combined cracking were 5.4%, 16.1%, 28.3%, 26.8%, and 32.1%, respectively. The fruit shoulder was the most susceptible region to crack, followed by fruit belly and top regions, whereas longer cracks were observed in the fruit belly region indicating a higher propensity to crack propagation in that region. Finally, the measured data were used to validate an extended finite element method developed to effectively predict cracking susceptibility and propagation in tomato fruit with a relative error of 4.68%.


Assuntos
Frutas , Solanum lycopersicum , Temperatura , Umidade , Meio Ambiente
3.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306718, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980885

RESUMO

Environmental, cultural, and public service-dependent factors encourage the development of a country's tourism. In recent years, automated tourism development using statistical and accumulated data has been exploited to recommend attractive tourist features. This article thus discloses an intelligent development assessment method (IDAM) using cumulative factors (CFs) for deriving development-focused improvement in tourism. This method accounts for public services and environmental and cultural factors that promote tourism for better assessment. The fuzzy process identifies the maximum possible impacting factors by independently evaluating the reviewed values. Based on the reviewed values, the manipulation of factor relationships is derived to identify even trivial factors impacting development. The fuzzy outputs are thus integrated with optimistically impacting development factors to provide attractive recommendations. Such recommendations are analyzed using fuzzy data for previous and current development factors for new decisions. The system's efficiency was evaluated using the recommendation ratio, ensuring a 48.58% success rate, a development rate of 0.105%, a 4-factor detection rate, and a review-based assessment rate of 55.5% for a sample size of 5,000 visitors.


Assuntos
Lógica Fuzzy , Turismo , Humanos , Meio Ambiente , Cultura
4.
J Environ Manage ; 365: 121549, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955042

RESUMO

In this study, the authors projected the impacts of clean energy investment on environmental degradation by applying a novel and dynamic Autoregressive Distributed Lag (DARDL) model for Pakistan from 1990 to 2022. Most researchers have used ecological footprint or CO2 emissions indicators to look at how clean energy investment affects environmental degradation, which primarily represents contamination induced by humans' consumption patterns and does not consider the impact of the supply side. Against this background, the study scrutinized the dynamic interaction between clean energy investment and environmental sustainability using the load capacity factor (LCF) as an ecological indicator in Pakistan, including economic growth, population density, trade openness, urbanization, and industrialization in the analysis. The long-run estimates from DARDL indicate that a 1 percent upsurge in clean energy investment mitigates environmental degradation by approximately 0.42 percent on average, controlling for other factors. Further, the study also revealed that a 1 percent increase in clean energy investment diminishes dirty energy consumption by approximately 0.45 percent. The validity of the findings is confirmed using alternate methods, i.e., KRLS. The study recommends that Pakistan prioritize investment in clean energy projects to promote environmental sustainability and enforce environmental regulations to reduce the adverse externalities associated with dirty energy activities.


Assuntos
Investimentos em Saúde , Paquistão , Humanos , Meio Ambiente , Modelos Teóricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
5.
J Environ Manage ; 365: 121639, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959773

RESUMO

Within the literature on energy and environmental economics, it is generally acknowledged that renewable energy can improve environmental quality; however, certain papers suggest that an optimal level of the usage of renewable energy sources may exist. Consequently, the utilization of renewable energy sources can result in environmental degradation up to a certain threshold. Then, environmental quality can be enhanced through the continued application of renewables. This indicates that the link between renewable energy and environmental devastation is inverted U-shaped. This paper presents empirical evidence concerning this possible association between renewable energy and environmental destruction in Türkiye, a country where fossil energy predominates in the energy mix. Additionally, the paper investigates the environmental influences of natural resource rents and schooling. This study utilizes annual data from 1971 to 2020 and implements time series methodologies that rely on the Fourier approximation. The paper thus accounts for an undetermined quantity of structural breaks. The results suggest that an inverted U-shaped link occurs between renewable energy and environmental destruction, signifying renewable energy initially contributes to a diminution in environmental quality before subsequently improving it. Additionally, environmental quality is positively associated with natural resource rents and negatively associated with schooling, according to the findings. Furthermore, the findings reveal that schooling worsens the combined effect of renewable energy on environmental degradation. These conclusions are discussed in the paper.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Recursos Naturais , Energia Renovável , Meio Ambiente
6.
Cell ; 187(14): 3504-3505, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38996485

RESUMO

Organisms experience a constantly changing environment and must adjust their development to maximize fitness. These "life histories" are fantastically diverse and have fascinated biologists for decades. Recent work published in Cell reveals the complex genetic mechanisms that drive life-history variation within and among species in the Brassicaceae plant family.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Brassicaceae/genética , Meio Ambiente
7.
Nutr J ; 23(1): 71, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While healthy and sustainable diets benefit human and planetary health, their monetary cost has a direct impact on consumer food choices. This study aimed to identify the cost and environmental impact of the current Brazilian diet (CBD) and compare it with healthy and sustainable diets. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey 2017/18 and the Footprints of Foods and Culinary Preparations Consumed in Brazil database were used for a modeling study comparing the cost of healthy and sustainable diets (based on the Brazilian Dietary Guidelines (BDG) diet and the EAT-Lancet diet) versus the CBD. The DIETCOST program generated multiple food baskets for each scenario (Montecarlo simulations). Nutritional quality, cost, and environmental impact measures (carbon footprint (CF) and water footprint (WF)) were estimated for all diets and compared by ANOVA. Simple linear regressions used standardized environmental impacts measures to estimate differentials in costs and environmental impacts among diets scenarios. RESULTS: We observed significant differences in costs/1000 kcal. The BDG diet was cheaper (BRL$4.9 (95%IC:4.8;4.9) ≈ USD$1.5) than the CBD (BRL$5.6 (95%IC:5.6;5.7) ≈ USD$1.8) and the EAT-Lancet diet (BRL$6.1 (95%IC:6.0;6.1) ≈ USD$1.9). Ultra-processed foods (UPF) and red meat contributed the most to the CBD cost/1000 kcal, while fruits and vegetables made the lowest contribution to CBD. Red meat, sugary drinks, and UPF were the main contributors to the environmental impacts of the CBD. The environmental impact/1000 kcal of the CBD was nearly double (CF:3.1 kg(95%IC: 3.0;3.1); WF:2,705 L 95%IC:2,671;2,739)) the cost of the BDG diet (CF:1.4 kg (95%IC:1.4;1.4); WF:1,542 L (95%IC:1,524;1,561)) and EAT-Lancet diet (CF:1.1 kg (95%IC:1.0;1.1); WF:1,448 L (95%IC:1,428;1,469)). A one standard deviation increase in standardized CF corresponded to an increase of BRL$0.48 in the cost of the CBD, similar to standardized WF (BRL$0.56). A similar relationship between the environmental impact and the cost of the BDG (CF: BRL$0.20; WF: BRL$0.33) and EAT-Lancet (CF: BRL$0.04; WF: BRL$0.18) was found, but with a less pronounced effect. CONCLUSIONS: The BDG diet was cost-effective, while the EAT-Lancet diet was slightly pricier than the CBD. The CBD presented almost double the CF and WF compared to the BDG and EAT-Lancet diets. The lower cost in each diet was associated with lower environmental impact, particularly for the BDG and EAT-Lancet diets. Multisectoral public policies must be applied to guide individuals and societies towards healthier and more sustainable eating patterns.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Brasil , Humanos , Dieta Saudável/economia , Dieta/economia , Pegada de Carbono , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Custos e Análise de Custo
8.
Yale J Biol Med ; 97(2): 253-263, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38947109

RESUMO

Environmental mismatches are defined as changes in the environment that induce public health crises. Well known mismatches leading to chronic disease include the availability of technologies that facilitate unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles, both factors that adversely affect cardiovascular health. This commentary puts these mismatches in context with biota alteration, an environmental mismatch involving hygiene-related technologies necessary for avoidance of infectious disease. Implementation of hygiene-related technologies causes a loss of symbiotic helminths and protists, profoundly affecting immune function and facilitating a variety of chronic conditions, including allergic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and several inflammation-associated neuropsychiatric conditions. Unfortunately, despite an established understanding of the biology underpinning this and other environmental mismatches, public health agencies have failed to stem the resulting tide of increased chronic disease burden. Both biomedical research and clinical practice continue to focus on an ineffective and reactive pharmaceutical-based paradigm. It is argued that the healthcare of the future could take into account the biology of today, effectively and proactively dealing with environmental mismatch and the resulting chronic disease burden.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Imunitário , Humanos , Doença Crônica , Animais , Meio Ambiente
9.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5672, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971805

RESUMO

While the underlying genetic changes have been uncovered in some cases of adaptive evolution, the lack of a systematic study prevents a general understanding of the genomic basis of adaptation. For example, it is unclear whether protein-coding or noncoding mutations are more important to adaptive evolution and whether adaptations to different environments are brought by genetic changes distributed in diverse genes and biological processes or concentrated in a core set. We here perform laboratory evolution of 3360 Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations in 252 environments of varying levels of stress. We find the yeast adaptations to be primarily fueled by large-effect coding mutations overrepresented in a relatively small gene set, despite prevalent antagonistic pleiotropy across environments. Populations generally adapt faster in more stressful environments, partly because of greater benefits of the same mutations in more stressful environments. These and other findings from this model eukaryote help unravel the genomic principles of environmental adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Mutação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Meio Ambiente , Evolução Molecular , Loci Gênicos , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15580, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971875

RESUMO

A recent experiment probed how purposeful action emerges in early life by manipulating infants' functional connection to an object in the environment (i.e., tethering an infant's foot to a colorful mobile). Vicon motion capture data from multiple infant joints were used here to create Histograms of Joint Displacements (HJDs) to generate pose-based descriptors for 3D infant spatial trajectories. Using HJDs as inputs, machine and deep learning systems were tasked with classifying the experimental state from which snippets of movement data were sampled. The architectures tested included k-Nearest Neighbour (kNN), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Fully connected network (FCNet), 1D-Convolutional Neural Network (1D-Conv), 1D-Capsule Network (1D-CapsNet), 2D-Conv and 2D-CapsNet. Sliding window scenarios were used for temporal analysis to search for topological changes in infant movement related to functional context. kNN and LDA achieved higher classification accuracy with single joint features, while deep learning approaches, particularly 2D-CapsNet, achieved higher accuracy on full-body features. For each AI architecture tested, measures of foot activity displayed the most distinct and coherent pattern alterations across different experimental stages (reflected in the highest classification accuracy rate), indicating that interaction with the world impacts the infant behaviour most at the site of organism~world connection.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Lactente , Movimento/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Aprendizado Profundo , Conscientização/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Meio Ambiente
11.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0304035, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968200

RESUMO

The agricultural sector of Colombia supports the national economy and food security due to the rich lands for cultivation. Although Colombia has a vast hydrological basin, climate change can impact agricultural productivity, generating economic and social adverse effects. For this, we evaluated the impact of some environmental variables on the production of the most sold crops using production, climatic, and hydrological data of the 1121 municipalities from 2007 to 2020. We modeled the production of coffee, rice, palm oil, sugarcane, and corn, adopting a Bayesian spatio-temporal model that involved a set of environmental variables: average temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, soil moisture, vapor pressure, radiation, and wind speed. We found that increases in the average temperatures can affect coffee (-0.2% per °C), rice (-3.76% per °C), and sugarcane (-0.19% per °C) production, meanwhile, these increases can boost palm oil (+2.55% per °C) and corn (+1.28% per °C) production in Colombia. This statement implies that the agricultural sector needs to substitute land use, promoting the production of palm oil and corn. Although our results did not find a significant effect of hydrological variables in any crop, suggesting that the abundance of water in Colombia might balance the impact of these variables. The increases in vapor pressure impact all the crops negatively (between -11.2% to -0.43% per kPa), except rice, evidencing that dry air conditions affect agricultural production. Colombia must manage the production location of the traditional products and implement agro-industrial technologies to avoid the climate change impact on crops.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas , Colômbia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Teorema de Bayes , Temperatura , Meio Ambiente
12.
Nutrients ; 16(13)2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38999856

RESUMO

The collective meals market generates significant revenue for the world economy. Food services are responsible for consuming large amounts of water and energy, as well as generating a substantial volume of waste, which is often improperly disposed of. Given the unchecked expansion of food services, the lack of proper management of environmental resources can undermine sustainability principles, posing a threat to future generations. This scoping review aimed to synthesize the existing scientific literature on carbon and water footprints in food services, describing the main methods and tools used and what strategies have been proposed to mitigate the high values of these footprints. The search for articles was performed on 6 June 2024 in seven electronic databases, using MeSH Terms and adaptations for each database from database inception. The search for local studies was complemented by a manual search in the list of references of the studies selected to compose this review. It included quantitative studies assessing footprints (water or carbon) in food services and excluded reviews, studies that reported footprints for diets, and protocols. A total of 2642 studies were identified, and among these, 29 were selected for this review. According to the findings, it was observed that meats, especially beef, contribute more to water and carbon footprint compared to other proteins. Mitigation strategies for the water footprint include promoting plant-based diets, menu changes, and awareness.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Serviços de Alimentação , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Água , Meio Ambiente , Carne , Animais
13.
Am Nat ; 204(2): 181-190, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008842

RESUMO

AbstractWhere dramatic sexual displays are involved in attracting a mate, individuals can enhance their performances by manipulating their physical environment. Typically, individuals alter their environment either in preparation for a performance by creating a "stage" or during the display itself by using discrete objects as "props." We examined an unusual case of performative manipulation of an entire stage by male Albert's lyrebirds (Menura alberti) during their complex song and dance displays. We found that males from throughout the species' range shake the entangled forest vegetation of their display platforms, creating a highly conspicuous and stereotypical movement external to their bodies. This "stage shaking" is performed in two different rhythms, with the second rhythm an isochronous beat that matches the beat of the coinciding vocalizations. Our results provide evidence that stage shaking is an integral, and thus likely functional, component of male Albert's lyrebird sexual displays and so highlight an intriguing but poorly understood facet of complex communication.


Assuntos
Vocalização Animal , Masculino , Animais , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Meio Ambiente , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Comunicação Animal
14.
Am Nat ; 204(2): E11-E27, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008843

RESUMO

AbstractIn many species, a few individuals produce most of the next generation. How much of this reproductive skew is driven by variation among individuals in fixed traits, how much by external factors, and how much by random chance? And what does it take to have truly exceptional lifetime reproductive output (LRO)? In the past, we and others have partitioned the variance of LRO as a proxy for reproductive skew. Here we explain how to partition LRO skewness itself into contributions from fixed trait variation, four forms of "demographic luck" (birth state, fecundity luck, survival trajectory luck, and growth trajectory luck), and two kinds of "environmental luck" (birth environment and environment trajectory). Each of these is further partitioned into contributions at different ages. We also determine what we can infer about individuals with exceptional LRO. We find that reproductive skew is largely driven by random variation in lifespan, and exceptional LRO generally results from exceptional lifespan. Other kinds of luck frequently bring skewness down rather than increasing it. In populations where fecundity varies greatly with environmental conditions, getting a good year at the right time can be an alternate route to exceptional LRO, so that LRO is less predictive of lifespan.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Longevidade , Reprodução , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Meio Ambiente
15.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1880, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39009998

RESUMO

The following article presents an analysis of the impact of the Environmental, Social and Governance-ESG determinants on Hospital Emigration to Another Region-HEAR in the Italian regions in the period 2004-2021. The data are analysed using Panel Data with Random Effects, Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Pooled Ordinary Least Squares-OLS, Weighted Least Squares-WLS, and Dynamic Panel at 1 Stage. Furthermore, to control endogeneity we also created instrumental variable models for each component of the ESG model. Results show that HEAR is negatively associated to the E, S and G component within the ESG model. The data were subjected to clustering with a k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette coefficient. The optimal clustering with k=2 is compared to the sub-optimal cluster with k=3. The results suggest a negative relationship between the resident population and hospital emigration at regional level. Finally, a prediction is proposed with machine learning algorithms classified based on statistical performance. The results show that the Artificial Neural Network-ANN algorithm is the best predictor. The ANN predictions are critically analyzed in light of health economic policy directions.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Itália , Humanos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , Meio Ambiente , Análise por Conglomerados
16.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0305246, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38995984

RESUMO

Sound ecological and environmental governance systems are critical for promoting green and low-carbon economic transformation and high-quality development. However, financing constraints are major obstacle to the revitalization and transformation of China's real economy. In this study, we constructed an environmental dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (E-DSGE) model that incorporates two types of environmental expenditure and financing constraints, and discussed their economic and environmental effects. Based on this, we further considered the impacts of financing constraints on policy effects. Firstly, we found that increases in carbon emission reduction subsidies in government expenditure (1) increase total economic output and (2) motivate enterprises to increase emission reduction efforts and reduce pollution intensity and emissions, thereby reducing the inventory of environmental pollutants while balancing economic benefits and emission reduction. Secondly, increasing the proportion of government special expenditure on environmental protection promote output growth and directly reduces the pollution stock in the environment. However, such policies may also reduce the emission reduction efforts of enterprises, leading to increases in their pollution emissions and intensity. Lastly, the existence of financing constraints is not conducive to the growth of total output but increases the pollution control effect of emission reduction subsidies and pollution prevention expenditure. Application of the E-DSGE model offers new theoretical insight into environmental economics and macroeconomics. Moreover, the results of this study provide a reference for optimizing the structure of fiscal expenditure.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , China , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Financiamento Governamental , Modelos Econômicos , Meio Ambiente , Política Ambiental/economia , Humanos
17.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1908): 20230244, 2024 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39005030

RESUMO

Several theories suggest that people differ significantly in their environmental sensitivity, defined as the capacity to perceive and process information about the environment. More sensitive people, who make up between 25% and 30% of the population, are not only more negatively affected by adverse experiences but also benefit disproportionately from positive ones, in line with differential susceptibility theory. Heightened emotional reactivity has been identified as one of the key markers of sensitivity. However, the current understanding of the relationship between sensitivity and the experience and processing of emotions remains limited. In the current paper we propose a new conceptual framework for the multiple ways in which environmental sensitivity may impact on different aspects of the experience and processing of emotions. This includes heightened perception of emotions, increased emotional reactivity, as well as the important role of emotion regulation for the well-being of highly sensitive people. In addition, we also consider rearing experiences in shaping sensitivity and emotion regulation. The reviewed empirical studies largely support the conceptual model but more research is needed to explore the dynamics between sensitivity and emotions further. Finally, we discuss several implications for well-being before making a case for the inclusion of individual differences in environmental sensitivity in affective science. This article is part of the theme issue 'Sensing and feeling: an integrative approach to sensory processing and emotional experience'.


Assuntos
Emoções , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Individualidade
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16015, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992210

RESUMO

This research assessed the quantitative and qualitative reactions of commercially grown sugar beets to four different harvest dates and their yield stability. The study followed a split-plot design within a randomized complete block design over 3 years. The main plot involved 10 sugar beet cultivars, while the subplot involved four harvest dates: August 13 (HD1), September 7 (HD2), October 3 (HD3), and November 12 (HD4). The study found that environmental conditions, genotypes, and harvest dates significantly affected various traits of sugar beet. Yearly environmental variations and their interactions with genotypes and harvest dates had substantial impacts on all measured traits at the 1% probability level. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis based on white sugar yield indicated that genotype and environment's additive effects, as well as the genotype-environment interaction, were significant at 1% probability level. Shokoufa and Arya, which exhibit high white sugar yield (WSY) and low first interaction principal component (IPC1) values, are identified as desirable due to their stability across different environments. Among the harvest dates in different years, the fourth and third dates showed a higher yield than the total average. Perfekta and Ekbatan exhibited high specific adaptability. According to the multi-trait stability index, Arta, Arya and Sina were recognized as stable and superior across all measured traits.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Genótipo , Beta vulgaris/genética , Beta vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente
19.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(8): 181, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38985188

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGES: We investigate a method of extracting and fitting synthetic environmental covariates and pedigree information in multilocation trial data analysis to predict genotype performances in untested locations. Plant breeding trials are usually conducted across multiple testing locations to predict genotype performances in the targeted population of environments. The predictive accuracy can be increased by the use of adequate statistical models. We compared linear mixed models with and without synthetic covariates (SCs) and pedigree information under the identity, the diagonal and the factor-analytic variance-covariance structures of the genotype-by-location interactions. A comparison was made to evaluate the accuracy of different models in predicting genotype performances in untested locations using the mean squared error of predicted differences (MSEPD) and the Spearman rank correlation between predicted and adjusted means. A multi-environmental trial (MET) dataset evaluated for yield performance in the dry lowland sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) breeding program of Ethiopia was used. For validating our models, we followed a leave-one-location-out cross-validation strategy. A total of 65 environmental covariates (ECs) obtained from the sorghum test locations were considered. The SCs were extracted from the ECs using multivariate partial least squares analysis and subsequently fitted in the linear mixed model. Then, the model was extended accounting for pedigree information. According to the MSEPD, models accounting for SC improve predictive accuracy of genotype performances in the three of the variance-covariance structures compared to others without SC. The rank correlation was also higher for the model with the SC. When the SC was fitted, the rank correlation was 0.58 for the factor analytic, 0.51 for the diagonal and 0.46 for the identity variance-covariance structures. Our approach indicates improvement in predictive accuracy with SC in the context of genotype-by-location interactions of a sorghum breeding in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sorghum , Sorghum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Etiópia , Meio Ambiente , Modelos Lineares , Fenótipo
20.
Ecol Lett ; 27(7): e14472, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39011649

RESUMO

Rapid evolution of increased dispersal at the edge of a range expansion can accelerate invasions. However, populations expanding across environmental gradients often face challenging environments that reduce fitness of dispersing individuals. We used an eco-evolutionary model to explore how environmental gradients influence dispersal evolution and, in turn, modulate the speed and predictability of invasion. Environmental gradients opposed evolution of increased dispersal during invasion, even leading to evolution of reduced dispersal along steeper gradients. Counterintuitively, reduced dispersal could allow for faster expansion by minimizing maladaptive gene flow and facilitating adaptation. While dispersal evolution across homogenous landscapes increased both the mean and variance of expansion speed, these increases were greatly dampened by environmental gradients. We illustrate our model's potential application to prediction and management of invasions by parameterizing it with data from a recent invertebrate range expansion. Overall, we find that environmental gradients strongly modulate the effect of dispersal evolution on invasion trajectories.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Evolução Biológica , Espécies Introduzidas , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Dinâmica Populacional , Ecossistema , Invertebrados/fisiologia
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