Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 69.377
Filtrar
1.
Talanta ; 233: 122458, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215099

RESUMO

Poor recovery of phosphorus (P) across natural environment (water, soil, sediment, and biological sources) is causing rapid depletion of phosphate rocks and continuous accumulation of P in natural waters, resulting in deteriorated water quality and aquatic lives. Accurate detection and characterization of various P species using suitable analytical methods provide a comprehensive understanding of the biogeochemical cycle of P and thus help its proper management in the environment. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the analytical methods used for P speciation in natural environment by dividing them into five broad categories (i.e., chemical, biological, molecular, staining microscopy, and sensors) and highlighting the suitability (i.e., targeted species, sample matrix), detection limit, advantages-limitations, and reference studies of all methods under each category. This can be useful in designing studies involving P detection and characterization across environmental matrices by providing insights about a wide range of analytical methods based on the end user application needs of individual studies.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Fósforo , Fosfatos/análise , Solo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208294

RESUMO

Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen responsible for fungal meningoencephalitis primarily in immunocompromised individuals. It has become evident the pathogenicity of C. neoformans is dependent on the fungal cell's environment. The differential expression of virulence factors, based on the cell's environmental conditions, is one mechanism allowing for the environmental control of the pathogenic ability of C. neoformans. Here, we discuss how these virulence factors (including melanin, the polysaccharide capsule, and Antiphagocytic protein 1) have been shown to be differentially expressed dependent on the cell's environment. The genetics and signaling pathways leading to the environmental-dependent regulation of virulence factors will also be examined. Susceptibility to antifungal therapeutics is also regulated by the environment, and thus affects the pathogenic abilities of C. neoformans and disease outcomes. This review will also examine the role of the C. neoformans's environment on antifungal susceptibilities, and the genetics and signaling pathways responsible for these susceptibility alterations. By examining the complex interplay between the environment and the pathogenicity of C. neoformans, we have a better understanding of the intricacies of the pathogen-environment interaction and how to exploit this interaction to develop the most effective treatment protocols.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/patogenicidade , Meio Ambiente , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
Science ; 373(6551): 181-186, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244407

RESUMO

Relatives have more similar gut microbiomes than nonrelatives, but the degree to which this similarity results from shared genotypes versus shared environments has been controversial. Here, we leveraged 16,234 gut microbiome profiles, collected over 14 years from 585 wild baboons, to reveal that host genetic effects on the gut microbiome are nearly universal. Controlling for diet, age, and socioecological variation, 97% of microbiome phenotypes were significantly heritable, including several reported as heritable in humans. Heritability was typically low (mean = 0.068) but was systematically greater in the dry season, with low diet diversity, and in older hosts. We show that longitudinal profiles and large sample sizes are crucial to quantifying microbiome heritability, and indicate scope for selection on microbiome characteristics as a host phenotype.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Meio Ambiente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Papio/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Papio/genética , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(3): 240-247, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish an indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk after transmission interruption in Hubei Province, so as to provide insights into the precise control of schistosomiasis. METHODS: The indicator system was preliminarily established based on data collection, literature review, expert interviews. Two rounds of expert consultation were performed. The indicator system was screened based on the importance, operability, sensitivity and comprehensive score of the indicators, and the weights of each indicator were calculated. The credibility of the Delphi method was evaluated by calculating the active coefficient of the experts, degree of expert authority and coordination levels of experts' opinions. RESULTS: An indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk was preliminarily established, including 3 primary indicators, 12 secondary indicators and 44 tertiary indicators. A Delphi consultation was performed among 17 experts participating in schistosomiasis control, management and research. Following two rounds of consultation, a risk assessment indicator system was finally constructed, including 3 primary indicators, 10 secondary indicators and 35 tertiary indicators. Among the primary indicators, the variable with the highest normalized weight was the current status of schistosomiasis (0.420 2), followed by social factors (0.397 3) and natural environments (0.182 5). Among the secondary indicators, those with high combined weights included risk monitoring (0.142 3), current snail status (0.140 1), and current prevalence of human and livestock infections (0.137 8). Among the tertiary indicators, those with high combined weights included the positive rate of wild feces (0.049 8), the prevalence of snail infections (0.047 4), and the area of snail habitats submerged by floods (0.046 8). During the two-round consultation, the active coefficients of the experts were 85.00% and 100.00%, the degree of expert authority was both 0.75 and greater, and the coordination levels of experts' opinions were 0.405 to 0.521 and 0.592 to 0.695 (all P values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An indicator system for assessment of schistosomiasis transmission risk is successfully established after transmission interruption in Hubei Province based on the Delphi method, which provides insights into the identification of the schistosomiasis transmission risk and the targets for schistosomiasis control in Hubei Province.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Inundações , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
5.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e01382021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231772

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the association of self-reported comorbidities with fatality risk among individuals infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. METHODS: We included 212,620 individuals, ≥30 years old. The data were obtained from the COVID-19 panel. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression model were used. RESULTS: COVID-19-positive individuals presenting with chronic conditions were at a higher risk of fatality than individuals without these comorbidities. Age had a significant effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities were associated with an increased risk of fatality. Middle-aged people (30-59 years) with comorbidities should also be considered as a vulnerable group.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14477, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262082

RESUMO

Air quality in urban areas and megacities is dependent on emissions, physicochemical process and atmospheric conditions in a complex manner. The impact on air quality metrics of the COVID-19 lockdown measures was evaluated during two periods in Athens, Greece. The first period involved stoppage of educational and recreational activities and the second severe restrictions to all but necessary transport and workplace activities. Fresh traffic emissions and their aerosol products in terms of ultrafine nuclei particles and nitrates showed the most significant reduction especially during the 2nd period (40-50%). Carbonaceous aerosol both from fossil fuel emissions and biomass burning, as well as aging ultrafine and accumulation mode particles showed an increase of 10-20% of average before showing a decline (5 to 30%). It is found that removal of small nuclei and Aitken modes increased growth rates and migration of condensable species to larger particles maintaining aerosol volume.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Nitratos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Aerossóis/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , COVID-19 , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Grécia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200271

RESUMO

Malnutrition is a well-known risk factor for deteriorated physical function, disability and loss in independence in older adults. An unintended loss in body weight of more than 5% in 3 months is one indicator for malnutrition. In this study we examined the relationship between meal preparation time, hand grip strength, and body weight in order to map impending nutritional problems using ambient sensors. Data were collected in the domestic environments of 20 (pre-) frail older adults aged 85.75 y (Standard Deviation: 5.19 y) over 10-months of observation. Collecting included physical function and nutritional status of the participants and meal preparation time by a combination of motion and power sensor events. Analysis was done by rank correlation of hand grip strength, body weight, and meal preparation time. Ten participants aged 85.1 years (Standard Deviation: 4.6 y) were included. The results show a significant correlation (≥0.99) of the meal preparation time with the hand grip strength. This result validated the meal preparation time as a suitable measure for analysing the correlation between meal preparation time and body weight, and a significant correlation (≥0.99) found. Hence the meal preparation time could be used as an indicator for malnutrition. However, causalities have to be conducted by further clinical studies.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Idoso Fragilizado , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Refeições
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300452

RESUMO

Customer activity (CA) in retail environments, which ranges over various shopper situations in store spaces, provides valuable information for store management and marketing planning. Several systems have been proposed for customer activity recognition (CAR) from in-store camera videos, and most of them use machine learning based end-to-end (E2E) CAR models, due to their remarkable performance. Usually, such E2E models are trained for target conditions (i.e., particular CA types in specific store spaces). Accordingly, the existing systems are not malleable to fit the changes in target conditions because they require entire retraining of their specialized E2E models and concurrent use of additional E2E models for new target conditions. This paper proposes a novel CAR system based on a hierarchy that organizes CA types into different levels of abstraction from lowest to highest. The proposed system consists of multiple CAR models, each of which performs CAR tasks that belong to a certain level of the hierarchy on the lower level's output, and thus conducts CAR for videos through the models level by level. Since these models are separated, this system can deal efficiently with the changes in target conditions by modifying some models individually. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed system in adapting to different target conditions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Meio Ambiente
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300615

RESUMO

Our aims were to evaluate the feasibility of a framework based on micro-sensor technology for in-field analyses of performance and sub-technique selection in Para cross-country (XC) skiing by using it to compare these parameters between elite standing Para (two men; one woman) and able-bodied (AB) (three men; four women) XC skiers during a classical skiing race. The data from a global navigation satellite system and inertial measurement unit were integrated to compare time loss and selected sub-techniques as a function of speed. Compared to male/female AB skiers, male/female Para skiers displayed 19/14% slower average speed with the largest time loss (65 ± 36/35 ± 6 s/lap) found in uphill terrain. Female Para/AB skiers utilized DP, DK, and DIA, 61/43%, 15/10%, and 25/47% of the distance at low speeds, respectively, while the corresponding numbers for male Para/AB skiers were 58/18%, 1/13%, and 40/69%. At higher speeds, female Para/AB skiers utilized DP and OTHER, 26/52% and 74/48% of the distance, respectively, while corresponding numbers for male Para/AB skiers were 29/66% and 71/34%. This indicates different speed thresholds of the classical sub-techniques for Para than AB skiers. The framework provides a point of departure for large-scale international investigations of performance and related factors in Para XC skiing.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Esqui , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205144

RESUMO

The excessive consumption of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), two vital nutrients for living organisms, is associated with negative environmental and health impacts. While food production contributes to a large amount of N and P loss to the environment, very little N and P is consumed as food. Food habits are affected by multiple regulations, including the dietary restrictions and dictates of various religions. In this study, religion-sensitive N-Calculator and P-Calculator approaches were used to determine the impact of religious dietary culture on the food N and P footprints of India in the major religious communities. Using 2013 data, the food N footprint of Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and Buddhists was 10.70, 11.45, 11.47, and 7.39 kg-N capita-1 year-1 (10.82 kg-N capita-1 year-1 was the national average), and the food P footprint was 1.46, 1.58, 1.04. and 1.58 kg-P capita-1 year-1 (1.48 kg-P capita-1 year-1 was the national average). The findings highlight the impact of individual choice on the N and P food footprints, and the importance of encouraging the followers of religion to follow a diet consistent with the food culture of that religion. The results of this study are a clear indication of the requirement for religion-sensitive analyses in the collecting of data pertinent to a particular country for use in making government policies designed to improve the recycling of food waste and the treatment of wastewater.


Assuntos
Cultura , Dieta/etnologia , Meio Ambiente , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Fósforo/administração & dosagem , Religião , Budismo , Cristianismo , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hinduísmo , Humanos , Índia , Islamismo , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(6): 2395-2401, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231748

RESUMO

Tobacco-related diseases kill eight million people worldwide ever year and are responsible for thousands of cases of cancer, cardiovascular disease and other illnesses in Brazil. Cigarette filters are believed by many to reduce the health risks of smoking. This article outlines the history of the technology of filters and discusses the impacts of these cigarette design features and their regulation. We conducted a literature review to assess the impacts of this technology. The results show that filters were initially developed for aesthetic purposes and later improved and marketed as a harm reduction technology. The most widely-used filters are those made of cellulose acetate with or without activated carbon. Despite smokers' beliefs and advertising claims, filters have no health benefits and filter tip ventilation can increase the health risks of smoking. Filters can also make cigarettes more appealing and cause significant environmental impacts. Cigarette filters have no health benefits and lull smokers into a false sense of security and should therefore be banned.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Publicidade , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Fumar
12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256485

RESUMO

Objective: We conducted a Meta-analysis to investigate the necessity of postural restrictions after manual reduction in the treatment of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (PC-BPPV). Methods: We searched PubMed, EBSCO, Proquest, Web of Science databases, Ovid, and screened eligible studies that investigated the effect of post-maneuver postural restriction in treating patients with PC-BPPV. Outcomes included the efficacy of treatment and recurrence. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 15.0 software. Results: Studies of the single visit efficiency included 11 references, with a sample size of 1 733 cases. The Meta-analysis results showed that the difference in the efficacy between the postural restricted group and the non-postural restricted group in PC-BPPV patients was statistically significant(RR=1.12, 95%CI=1.07-1.18, P<0.001). There were 12 references included in the study on the total efficiency, with a cumulative sample size of 1763 cases. There was no statistically significant difference between the effect of postural restriction after manipulative reduction and that of simple manipulative reduction (RR=1.03, 95%CI=0.99-1.08, P=0.118). There were 5 references included in the study of recurrence rate, and the cumulative sample size was 659 cases. There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrence rate between the postural restricted group and the non-postural restricted group(RR=0.98, 95%CI=0.62-1.54, P=0.937). Conclusions: In comparison with non-postural restriction group, post-maneuver postural restriction after a single visit can improve the treatment effective rate of PC-BPPV and contribute to the improvement in the symptoms of patients in a short term. However, postural restrictions has no significant effect on the final prognosis of PC-BPPV, and it also has no significant effect on the recurrence.


Assuntos
Vertigem Posicional Paroxística Benigna , Posicionamento do Paciente , Vertigem Posicional Paroxística Benigna/terapia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Recidiva , Canais Semicirculares , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204586

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones are necessary for the normal functioning of physiological systems. Therefore, knowledge of any factor (whether genetic, environmental or intrinsic) that alters the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones is crucial. Genetic factors contribute up to 65% of interindividual variations in TSH and thyroid hormone levels, but many environmental factors can also affect thyroid function. This review discusses studies that have analyzed the impact of environmental factors on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in healthy adults. We included lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and exercise) and pollutants (chemicals and heavy metals). Many inconsistencies in the results have been observed between studies, making it difficult to draw a general conclusion about how a particular environmental factor influences TSH and thyroid hormone levels. However, lifestyle factors that showed the clearest association with TSH and thyroid hormones were smoking, body mass index (BMI) and iodine (micronutrient taken from the diet). Smoking mainly led to a decrease in TSH levels and an increase in triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels, while BMI levels were positively correlated with TSH and free T3 levels. Excess iodine led to an increase in TSH levels and a decrease in thyroid hormone levels. Among the pollutants analyzed, most studies observed a decrease in thyroid hormone levels after exposure to perchlorate. Future studies should continue to analyze the impact of environmental factors on thyroid function as they could contribute to understanding the complex background of gene-environment interactions underlying the pathology of thyroid diseases.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Tireotropina/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Dieta , Poluentes Ambientais , Patrimônio Genético , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Tireotropina/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299078

RESUMO

The oxytocin system plays a role in stress responses and behavior modulation. However, the effects of oxytocin signaling on stress adaptation remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated the roles of oxytocin signaling as a biomarker under stress conditions in the peripheral tissues (the gills) and central nervous system (the brain). All the environmental stressors downregulated the expression of oxytocin receptors in the gills, and the alteration of the expression of oxytocin receptors was also found in the brain after the acidic (AC) and high-ammonia (HA) treatments. The number of oxytocin neurons was increased after double-deionized (DI) treatment. By transgenic line, Tg(oxtl:EGFP), we also investigated the projections of oxytocin neurons and found oxytocin axon innervations in various nuclei that might regulate the anxiety levels and aggressiveness of adult zebrafish under different environmental stresses. The oxytocin system integrates physiological responses and behavioral outcomes to ensure environmental adaptation in adult zebrafish. Our study provides insight into oxytocin signaling as a stress indicator upon environmental stressors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Ocitócicos/farmacologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Meio Ambiente , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300014

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) has become the focus of attention in the field of urban geography. Built environment, such as the layout of public spaces like transportation hubs and urban open spaces, is an important factor affecting the spread of the epidemic. However, due to the different behavior patterns of different age groups, the intensity and frequency of their use of various built environment spaces may vary. Based on this, we selected patients that were infected, with a non-manipulated time period, and the classification of human behavior patterns; we then conducted a regression analysis study on the spatial distribution and building environment of these COVID-19 patients. The results showed that the spatial distribution of young and middle-aged patients (18-59 years old) was more homogeneous, while the spatial distribution of elderly patients (60 years old and above) had a strong clustering characteristic. Moreover, the significant built environment factors exhibited in the two populations were extremely different. More diverse urban facilities and public spaces exhibited influential properties for older patients, while middle-aged and young adults were more influenced by commuting facilities. It can be said that the built environment shows different influences and mechanisms on the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases in different populations. Therefore, the results of this paper can inform decision makers who expect to reduce the occurrence of urban respiratory infectious diseases by improving the urban built environment.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Meio Ambiente , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportes , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165422

RESUMO

The nasopharyngeal microbiome is a dynamic microbial interface of the aerodigestive tract, and a diagnostic window in the fight against respiratory infections and antimicrobial resistance. As its constituent bacteria, viruses and mycobacteria become better understood and sampling accuracy improves, diagnostics of the nasopharynx could guide more personalized care of infections of surrounding areas including the lungs, ears and sinuses. This review will summarize the current literature from a clinical perspective and highlight its growing importance in diagnostics and infectious disease management.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Mycobacterium/fisiologia , Otite Média/microbiologia , Viroma
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073178

RESUMO

Risk scenarios are caused by the convergence of a hazard with a potentially affected system in a specific place and time. One urban planning goal is to prevent environmental hazards, such as those generated by chemical accidents, from reaching human settlements, as they can cause public health issues. However, in many developing countries, due to their strategic positioning in global value chains, the quick and easy access to labor pools, and competitive production costs, urban sprawls have engulfed industrial areas, exposing residential conurbations to environmental hazards. This case study analyzes the spatial configuration of accidental chemical risk scenarios in three major Mexican metropolitan areas: Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey. Spatial analyses use an areal locations of hazardous atmosphere (ALOHA) dispersion model to represent the spatial effects of high-risk industrial activities in conurbations and the potentially affected populations vulnerable to chemical hazards. Complementary geostatistical correlation analyses use population data, marginalization indexes, and industrial clustering sectors to identify trends that can lead to comprehensive environmental justice approaches. In addition, the marginalization degree of inhabitants evaluates social inequalities concerning chemical risk scenarios.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Meio Ambiente , Cidades , Humanos , México , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112399, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091187

RESUMO

The Rotimer, a rotifer-specific biopolymer, is an exogenic bioactive exudate secreted by different monogonant species (e.g. Euchlanis dilatata or Lecane bulla). The production of this viscoelastic biomolecule is induced by different micro-particles, thereby forming a special Rotimer-Inductor Conglomerate (RIC) in a web format. In this case, the water insoluble Carmine crystals, filtered to size (max. diameter was 50 µm), functioned as an inductor. The RIC production is an adequate empirical indicator to follow up this filamentous biopolymer secretion experientially; moreover, this procedure is very sensitive to the environmental factors (temperature, pH, metals and possible natural pollutant agents). The above mentioned species show completely different reactions to these factors, except to the presence of calcium and to the modulating effects of different drugs. One of the novelties of this work is that the Rotimer secretion and consequently, the RIC-formation is a mutually obligatory and evolutionary calcium-dependent process in the concerned monogonants. This in vivo procedure needs calcium, both for the physiology of animals and for fiber formation, particularly in the latter case. The conglomerate covered area (%) and the detection of the longest filament (mm) of the given RIC were the generally and simultaneously applied methods in the current modulating experiments. Exploring the regulatory (e.g. calcium-dependency) and stimulating (e.g. Lucidril effect) possibilities of biopolymer secretion are the basis for optimizing the RIC-production capacities of these micro-metazoans.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/biossíntese , Cálcio/farmacologia , Meio Ambiente , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Rotíferos/metabolismo , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Rotíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112396, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to residential greenness has been associated with benefits on certain reproductive health outcomes. However, its potential benefits on semen quality remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively explore the association between exposure to residential greenness and semen quality. METHODS: We investigated 9142 sperm donation volunteers who underwent 38,682 semen examinations at Guangdong provincial human sperm bank in China during 2016-2019. Exposure to residential greenness was assessed using mean daily Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at each subject's residential address with a 400 m buffer during 0-90 days before each semen collection. Multivariate linear mixed models and linear regression models were used to assess the association between exposure to residential greenness and semen quality. RESULTS: An interquartile range increase in exposure to residential greenness was significantly associated with a 0.034 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.005, 0.063) ml, 4.06 (95% CI: 0.76, 7.37) × 106, and 0.32% (95% CI: 0.22%, 0.41%) increase in semen volume, total sperm number, and normal forms, respectively; similar trends were observed across quartiles of exposure to residential greenness (all p-values for liner trend <0.05 except for semen volume). The association of greenness exposure with semen volume and total sperm number was stronger in subjects 18-25 years, while the association with normal forms was stronger in subjects 26 years or older. The association for sperm concentration, total sperm number, and normal forms were stronger in cool season, while the association for semen volume was stronger in warm season. CONCLUSION: We found that exposure to residential greenness was significantly associated with higher semen quality. Further studies are warranted to determine the causality of the association and its underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Fertilidade , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Ecologia , Saúde Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Doadores de Tecidos , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...