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1.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1360-1367, out.-dez. 2019. il
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022105

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed at identifying the elements of the Ecological Model by analyzing scientific publications on social participation in health and the role of nursing. Methods: This integrative literature review was carried out in June 2017. The articles were selected using pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria, obtaining 19 studies for synthesis. Results: Individual, organizational and environmental elements of the Ecological Model were highlighted, allowing the identification of social participation in health and the role of nursing through ecological thinking, environmental and health awareness, and changes in behaviors and lifestyles. These actions were promoted by the community's involvement, health institutions, universities, and health professionals. Conclusion: Nursing professionals should encourage social participation, decision making towards the care service, and the implementation of public policies, then promoting public awareness


Objetivo: Estudo com objetivo de identificar os elementos do modelo ecológico na análise da produção científica acerca da participação social na saúde e o papel da enfermagem. Métodos: revisão integrativa realizada em junho de 2017, os artigos foram selecionados por meio de critérios de inclusão e exclusão pré-estabelecidos, obtendo-se 19 estudos para síntese. Resultados: evidenciaram-se elementos individuais, organizacionais e ambientais do Modelo Ecológico, possibilitando a identificação da participação social na saúde e o papel da enfermagem, por meio do pensamento ecológico, conscientização ambiental e de saúde, mudanças de comportamentos e estilos de vida, além do envolvimento da comunidade, instituições de saúde, universidades e profissionais de saúde nessa promoção. Conclusão: a Enfermagem deve incentivar a participação social, tomada de decisões de cuidados e implementação de políticas públicas, promovendo a conscientização


Objetivo: Estudio con el objetivo de identificar los elementos del modelo ecológico en el análisis de la producción científica acerca de la participación social en la salud y el papel de la enfermería. Métodos: la revisión integrativa realizada en junio de 2017, los artículos fueron seleccionados por medio de criterios de inclusión y exclusión preestablecidos, obteniéndose 19 estudios para síntesis. Resultados: se evidenciaron elementos individuales, organizacionales y ambientales del Modelo Ecológico, posibilitando la identificación de la participación social en la salud y el papel de la enfermería, por medio del pensamiento ecológico, concientización ambiental y de salud, cambios de comportamientos y estilos de vida, además de la participación de la comunidad, instituciones de salud, universidades y profesionales de la salud en esta promoción. Conclusión: la Enfermería debe incentivar la participación social, la toma de decisiones de cuidados y la implementación de políticas públicas, promoviendo la concientización


Assuntos
Humanos , Enfermagem/tendências , Ecossistema , Participação Social , Meio Ambiente , Política Ambiental
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-fiocruz-SI | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46800

RESUMO

Dia da Amazônia.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Meio Ambiente
3.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e47, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531625

RESUMO

Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects between 6 and 12 million people in Latin America, with an incidence rate of 12 thousand cases per year. In the Ceara State, the predominance of the caatinga biome, coupled with a large rural area with precarious human habitations, provides several s shelters for these insects. In this study, we determined the spatiotemporal distribution of triatomine dispersion rates in the Cariri region, Southern Ceara and ascertained the possible association between these rates with socioeconomic and environmental factors. Dispersion rates (number of positive localities/number of searched localities × 100) were analyzed regarding 13 municipalities from the Ceara State, from 2009 to 2013. Socioeconomic and environmental variables collected from national research institutes were associated with the dispersion rates and their local empirical Bayesian estimates. All the municipalities recorded dispersion rates over 10% in all years, and 11 municipalities had average rates over 40% for the period of study. Significant differences were observed among the municipality means. The highest rates were observed in Antonina do Norte and Potengi. According to the correlation analysis, the proportion between the occupied population and the total population showed a significant negative correlation, as well as the percentage of the population who lives under adequate sanitary conditions. Both, the percentage of revenues from external sources and the percentage of urban households in reforested blocks had a significant positive correlation. Our results show that socioeconomic and environmental variables can be factors that contribute to both, the maintenance and the reduction of the elevated dispersion rates observed in the study area. Similar researches that encompass more municipalities from that region may reinforce Chagas disease surveillance and control in the Northeast of Brazil.


Assuntos
Habitação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Triatominae/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3046-3056, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529880

RESUMO

This study evaluated the changes of spatial distribution of the constructive species Stipa breviflora in the desert steppe under different grazing intensities (control, light, moderate, and heavy grazing) in Siziwang, Inner Mongolia. The small-scale spatial distribution of S. breviflora was measured. Results showed that population density of S. breviflora was following the order: heavy grazing (27.81 individuals·m-2) > moderate grazing (22.17 individuals·m-2) > control (11.31 individuals·m-2) > light grazing (10.76 individuals·m-2). The moderate and heavy grazing significantly increased population density of S. breviflora. According to the model fitting by semi-variance function, the population density of S. breviflora under the control, light, moderate and heavy gra-zing treatments were consistent with the exponential model, spherical model, exponential model and spherical model, respectively. Results from spatial distribution pattern analysis showed that structural ratio of S. breviflora population was control (99.7%) > heavy grazing (94.7%) > light grazing (92.7%) > moderate grazing (87.9%). Such a result indicated that the spatial autocorrelation of the four treatments was high, which were mainly affected by structural factors. In comparison, S. breviflora population structure ratio under moderate grazing treatment was the smallest, and partly affected by random factors. Based on fractal dimension analysis, spatial structure of the four treatments was good with simple spatial distribution. With the increases of grazing intensity, the spatial distribution was simpler and more homogeneous. Combined with 2D and 3D views, both light and heavy grazing changed spatial distribution of S. breviflora population from gradient distribution to patch distribution and resulted in the reduction of spatial heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Herbivoria , Poaceae/fisiologia , China , Análise Espacial
5.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 409-414, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559795

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Employees performing work underground in coal mines are exposed to the effect of many hazardous factors in their work environment which negatively affect their health. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to recognize the opinions of employes working underground in one of the coal mines concerning the occurrence of factors hazardous for health in their work environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in a group of 700 persons working underground in the 'Bogdanka' coal mine in Leczna (Eastern Poland). The study was carried out using a questionnaire. The results were statistically analyzed using software STATISTICA v. 7.1. RESULTS: The vast majority of respondents (approximately 80%) reported that noise and dustiness at their workplace create risk for their health. More than a half of them mentioned that the microclimate in the mine threatens their health (high humidity and high temperature), and a half of respondents indicated vibration and poor lighting. The greatest differences of opinions concerning the effect of hazardous factors on health of persons employed in the mine were observed in the sub-groups distinguished according to the work position. Health risk at a workplace was most often identified by those employed as miners. CONCLUSIONS: Among actions reducing the negative effect of the work environment on health is the introduction of new, safer technologies of coal mining. Also, the human factor is very important for work safety in mining, including the proper preparation of employees who undertake work in a mine. It is recommended that new, more effective educational programmes are implemented in the area of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) at workplaces.


Assuntos
Minas de Carvão , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Adulto , Atitude , Poeira/análise , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Microclima , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 439-444, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: An important role in the pathogenesis of asthma in children is played by individual parameters and environmental factors, in particular, those related to the place of residence. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the living environment on the basic demographic and clinical parameters of preschool children with IgE-dependent asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 176 children (126 from urban and 52 from rural areas) aged 5.22±0.34 years, with newly-diagnosed IgE-dependent asthma, hospitalised at the Clinic for Lung Diseases and Paediatric Rheumatology of the Prof. Antoni Gebala Children's Hospital of Lublin, were qualified for the study. Medical documentation of the children was analysed, including the implementation of vaccinations. Due to the clinical form of the disease, patients were separated into groups with mild, moderate and severe asthma. RESULTS: No statistically significant differentiation was observed between age and current body weight and height of the children. Similarly, gender and the clinical form of asthma were not significantly correlated with the place of residence. Children with asthma, at the time of exacerbation symptoms of the disease, living in a city, significantly more often (p <0.05) were treated with antibiotics in the hospital during hospitalization, while the value of OR (5.08) indicated that the rural environment enforces more frequent use of OGCs during asthma exacerbation therapy. In children from the urban environment, there was a significant correlation between the current body weight and serum calcium concentration, as well as a negative statistically significant correlation between the current body weight and serum selenium concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Residence does not determine the clinical course of IgE-dependent asthma in preschool children.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Meio Ambiente , Habitação , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Asma/sangue , Asma/imunologia , Asma/terapia , Peso Corporal , Cálcio/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Selênio/sangue
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 71-89, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471795

RESUMO

The ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions is critical for any species to survive. Many environmental changes occur too rapidly for an organism's genome to adapt in time. Accordingly, being able to modify either its own phenotype, or the phenotype of its offspring to better suit future anticipated environmental conditions could afford an organism a significant advantage. However, a range of animal models and human epidemiological data sets are now showing that environmental factors such as changes in the quality or quantity of an individual's diet, temperature, stress or exposure to pollutants can all adversely affect the quality of parental gametes, the development of the preimplantation embryo and the health and wellbeing of offspring over multiple generations. This chapter will examine transgenerational effects of both maternal and paternal environmental factors on offspring development and wellbeing in both human and animal model studies. Changes in the epigenetic status of either parental or grand-parental gametes provide one candidate mechanism through which the impacts of environmental experience can be passed from one generation to another. This chapter will therefore also focus on the impact of parental and grand-parental diet on epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and offspring phenotype.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Epigênese Genética , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Fenótipo
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-fiocruz-SI | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46736

RESUMO

Exposição.


Assuntos
Arte , Cultura Indígena , Meio Ambiente
10.
Zoology (Jena) ; 135: 125689, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383298

RESUMO

Heterorhabditis nematodes are parasites of a wide range of soil-dwelling insect species. Although these nematodes have been exploited as biological control agents since the last half of the 20th century, much research remains to be done to understand how these organisms function in agricultural and other ecosystems. In this study, we present some ecological traits of Heterorhabditis sonorensis, a natural parasite of the cicada Diceroprocta ornea, from the Sonoran Desert. Specifically, we evaluated its infectivity across a diverse panel of insect groups and assessed its fitness (infectivity and reproduction) considering different temperatures, and soil moisture levels. Three other Heterorhabditis species served as points of comparison for temperature and soil moisture assays. Host range experiments indicate that H. sonorensis, although isolated from seasonal cicada nymphs, is more virulent and reproductively fit in the lepidopteran hosts tested. This nematode has an optimum temperature range at 25-30 °C but can also successfully reproduce at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 °C. Additionally, this nematode is adapted to a variety of soil moisture conditions with successful infections across the tested moisture range (3%-20%). Finally, we demonstrate that H. sonorensis infective juveniles have a high survival rate (over 80%) at various storage temperatures (10-25 °C) after 24 weeks of storage and remain infective as revealed by the post-storage infection assays.


Assuntos
Clima Desértico , Meio Ambiente , Nematoides , Animais , Hemípteros/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Lepidópteros/parasitologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Solo/química , Solo/parasitologia , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012573, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overconsumption of food, alcohol, and tobacco products increases the risk of non-communicable diseases. Interventions to change characteristics of physical micro-environments where people may select or consume these products - including shops, restaurants, workplaces, and schools - are of considerable public health policy and research interest. This review addresses two types of intervention within such environments: altering the availability (the range and/or amount of options) of these products, or their proximity (the distance at which they are positioned) to potential consumers. OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the impact on selection and consumption of altering the availability or proximity of (a) food (including non-alcoholic beverages), (b) alcohol, and (c) tobacco products.2. To assess the extent to which the impact of these interventions is modified by characteristics of: i. studies, ii. interventions, and iii. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and seven other published or grey literature databases, as well as trial registries and key websites, up to 23 July 2018, followed by citation searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials with between-participants (parallel group) or within-participants (cross-over) designs. Eligible studies compared effects of exposure to at least two different levels of availability of a product or its proximity, and included a measure of selection or consumption of the manipulated product. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used a novel semi-automated screening workflow and applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies, collect data, and assess risk of bias. In separate analyses for availability interventions and proximity interventions, we combined results using random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression models to estimate summary effect sizes (as standardised mean differences (SMDs)) and to investigate associations between summary effect sizes and selected study, intervention, or participant characteristics. We rated the certainty of evidence for each outcome using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 24 studies, with the majority (20/24) giving concerns about risk of bias. All of the included studies investigated food products; none investigated alcohol or tobacco. The majority were conducted in laboratory settings (14/24), with adult participants (17/24), and used between-participants designs (19/24). All studies were conducted in high-income countries, predominantly in the USA (14/24).Six studies investigated availability interventions, of which two changed the absolute number of different options available, and four altered the relative proportion of less-healthy (to healthier) options. Most studies (4/6) manipulated snack foods or drinks. For selection outcomes, meta-analysis of three comparisons from three studies (n = 154) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a large reduction in selection of the targeted food(s): SMD -1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.90 to -0.37) (low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta-analysis of three comparisons from two studies (n = 150) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a moderate reduction in consumption of those foods, but with considerable uncertainty: SMD -0.55 (95% CI -1.27 to 0.18) (low certainty evidence).Eighteen studies investigated proximity interventions. Most (14/18) changed the distance at which a snack food or drink was placed from the participants, whilst four studies changed the order of meal components encountered along a line. For selection outcomes, only one study with one comparison (n = 41) was identified, which found that food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its selection: SMD -0.65 (95% CI -1.29 to -0.01) (very low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta-analysis of 15 comparisons from 12 studies (n = 1098) found that exposure to food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its consumption: SMD -0.60 (95% CI -0.84 to -0.36) (low certainty evidence). Meta-regression analyses indicated that this effect was greater: the farther away the product was placed; when only the targeted product(s) was available; when participants were of low deprivation status; and when the study was at high risk of bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests that changing the number of available food options or altering the positioning of foods could contribute to meaningful changes in behaviour, justifying policy actions to promote such changes within food environments. However, the certainty of this evidence as assessed by GRADE is low or very low. To enable more certain and generalisable conclusions about these potentially important effects, further research is warranted in real-world settings, intervening across a wider range of foods - as well as alcohol and tobacco products - and over sustained time periods.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Meio Ambiente , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Restaurantes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Local de Trabalho
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 536, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377907

RESUMO

San Jorge Bay (23° S) is characterised by a permanent coastal upwelling front and a thermal front that influence water circulation into the bay. This bay constantly receives effluents from different mining activities. Several studies have demonstrated different levels of heavy metals in waters and sediments within the bay. The clam Protothaca thaca is a bivalve with sedentary habits, which is distributed along the Peruvian and Chilean coasts and is exploited commercially. During 2010, clams were collected inside the bay: north (La Chimba), centre (Paraíso) and south (Llacolén), as well as from a site outside the bay (Bolsico). Haematological parameters, condition factor index, lesions, parasites and pathogens and heavy metal concentrations in clam tissues were determined. The health indicators of clams inhabiting the bay varied between sites. Clams inside the bay showed higher prevalence and intensity of parasites and lesions than those clams inhabiting the site outside the bay, which could be indicating the presence of some environmental stressor (e.g. heavy metals). This study is the first to evaluate the health status of organisms from San Jorge Bay, and our results support the hypothesis that clams P. thaca can be used to evaluate environmental quality.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Frutos do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Baías , Chile , Meio Ambiente , Brânquias/parasitologia , Brânquias/patologia , Mineração , Parasitos
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2531-2540, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418175

RESUMO

Soil salinization is a global problem. Afforestation is a major improvement practice for desert saline-alkali land. To examine ecological improvement effects and spatial distribution of soil moisture and salinity in Tamarix ramosissima plantation with the age of 10 years in desert saline-alkali land, soil moisture and salt content between rows and under shrubs with row distance of 2, 4, 6, and 8 m were measured. The structural equation model was used to quantify the effects of soil water and salt changes on plant growth. The results indicated that soluble salt in shallow soil (0-40 cm) of T. ramosissima plantation was significantly lower than that outside the plantation, but soil moisture under shrubs was higher than that between rows. Among different row distances, the maximum values of height and canopy size of T. ramosissima and coverage and biomass of vegetation under the shrubs were found in row distance of 6 m. The enrichment degree of soil cations around taproot was in order of Na+>K+>Ca2+>Mg2+ and anions were enriched with Cl->HCO3->SO42-. There were five kinds of salts in soil, with MgSO4 being the most abundant, followed by CaCl2, NaCl and MgCl2, and the lowest being KHCO3. Soil moisture had the strongest effects on vegetation, followed by soil salinity, and the lowest was soil pH, with values of 50.6%,29.5% and 19.9%, respectively.


Assuntos
Solo/química , Tamaricaceae , Agricultura , Álcalis , China , Clima , Meio Ambiente
15.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109332, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394473

RESUMO

The presence of anthropic activity in the coastal or riverine environment modifies the wave as well as the water and sediment current regime. In particular, the body of water around ports is an area where intense currents and sediment transport rates are usually present and can be affected by low water velocities that take place close to the entrance and inside the port basin. Consequently, sediment can be entrained and accumulated in such areas, creating problems to navigation. Ports and moorings are filled with fine sediments due to deposition resulting from solid transport. In particular, silt particles settle because of the weak vertical and lateral shearing of the velocity field. The result is that harbours frequently require ordinary maintenance dredging. The dredging process involves the removal of sediment in its natural deposited condition by using either mechanical or hydraulic equipment. Dredging is a consolidated and proven technology, but involves considerable drawbacks. In particular, dredging has a notable environmental impact on marine flora and fauna, contributes to the mobility and diffusion of contaminants and pollutants already present in the silted sediments, obstructs navigation and is characterized by relatively high and low predictable costs. This paper aims to provide an original structured overview of technologies alternative to dredging that have been tested in the past 50 years. More than 150 articles have been analysed to compare standard dredging technologies with market-ready competitors from techno-economic and environmental perspectives. In particular, the paper focuses on anti-sedimentation infrastructures and on innovative plant solutions characterized by low maintenance costs and by a very limited environmental impact. The final aim of the paper is to describe the currently available technologies that prevent port inlet and channel siltation and to classify them through a techno-economic and environmental impact assessment. The comparison shows that dredging has both the higher costs and environmental impact, while fixed sand by-passing plants are characterized by the lowest environmental impact and operation costs that are competitive with dredging.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Sedimentos Geológicos , Baías , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental
16.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109111, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466184

RESUMO

Fruits are indispensable for a balanced and healthy diet. However, their environmental impacts remain largely unknown. Using a life cycle approach, this work estimates for the first time the impacts of fruits consumed in the UK. What makes the UK a particularly interesting case is that only 7% of fruits are produced domestically, with the rest imported, largely (70%) from outside of Europe. In total, 21 types of fruit and 46 fresh and processed products produced in the UK and abroad are considered to estimate the impacts at both the product and the national levels. The findings at the product level suggest that melons have the lowest and mangoes and avocados the highest impacts as a significant portion of the last two is air-freighted. Processing leads to high impacts of fruit juices, dried and frozen products. Storage has a considerable contribution to the impacts for fruits stored over a long period, such as apples. Packaging used for canned fruits and juices is also a significant contributor to the impacts. Taking the annual consumption into account, the whole UK fruit sector generates 7.9 Mt CO2 eq. and consumes 94 PJ of primary energy. This is equivalent to 4% of the annual GHG emissions and 9% of energy demand of the whole UK food sector. Moreover, fruits require 0.35 Mha of agricultural land and 315 Mm3 eq. of water per year. Oranges, bananas and apples are responsible for more than half of the impacts at the national level as they account for 64% of the total fruit consumption in the UK. It is expected that the results of this study will be of interest to different supply chain actors, including farmers, food processors and consumers, aiding them in reducing the environmental impacts of fruits.


Assuntos
Frutas , Malus , Meio Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Reino Unido
17.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(2): 439-443, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005728

RESUMO

O documentário 'Mulheres das águas' retrata a vida e as lutas de pescadoras nos manguezais do Nordeste do Brasil. O modo de vida e a sobrevivência de suas famílias estão ameaçados pela poluição provocada pelas grandes indústrias e pelo turismo predatório que causam danos ao ecossistema dos manguezais, onde inúmeras espécies marinhas se reproduzem. Nesta resenha, a produção é analisada na perspectiva dos debates sobre relações raciais, gênero, senso de comunidade e condições de trabalho. No bojo do documentário, há o engajamento de trabalhadoras em prol da preservação dos territórios pesqueiros, onde se concentra a principal atividade econômica das comunidades a que pertencem.


The documentary 'Women of the waters' tells the life and struggles of fishers in the mangrove swamps of northeastern Brazil. The way of life and the survival of their families are threatened by pollution caused by large industries and the predatory tourism that cause damage to the mangrove ecosystem, where numerous marine species reproduce. In this review, the production is analyzed from the perspective of the debates about race relations, gender, sense of community and working conditions. Furthermore, the documentary shows the engagement of theses workers for the sake of preservation of fishery territories, where the main economic activity in the communities to which they belong is concentrated.


El documental 'Mujeres de las aguas' retrata la vida y la lucha de las pescadoras en los manglares del nordeste de Brasil. La forma de vida y la supervivencia de sus familias son amenazadas por la contaminación causada por las grandes industrias y el turismo depredador que dañan el ecosistema de manglar, donde se reproducen numerosas especies marinas. En esta reseña, la producción se analiza en la perspectiva de los debates sobre relaciones de raza, género, sentido de comunidad y de las condiciones de trabajo. En el seno del documental, hay el compromiso de las trabajadoras con la preservación de los territorios de pesca, donde se concentra la principal actividad económica de las comunidades a las que pertenecen.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Comunicação , Meio Ambiente , Áreas Alagadas , Identidade de Gênero , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Brasil , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Ecologia , Direitos Socioeconômicos , Direitos Humanos
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 411-424, jul. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008180

RESUMO

Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is an aromatic monoterpene found in essential oils extracted from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family, such as Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, Satureja, Thymbra and Monarda genera. Growth and biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes CLIP 74902 were evaluate using three carbon sources in the presence of thymol. Specific growth rate (h-1) values at 37o with glucose, trehalose and cellobiose with the addition of thymol (µg/mL) 0 (control) and 750, were respectively: 0.22, 0.07; 0.14, 0.04; 0.11, 0.04. Lag periods obtained under the same conditions were (h): 8.19, 13.2; 22.5, 27.5; 23.1, 28.1. A marked antibiofilm activity was observed against the exposure with 750 µg/mL of thymol, showing a high percentage of inhibition: glucose (99 %), trehalose (97 %) and cellobiose (98%), compared to the control. The results suggest that thymol could be used to inhibit the growth and production of biofilms by L. monocytogenes in the food industry.


Timol (2-isopropil-5-metilfenol) es un monoterpeno aromático presente en los aceites esenciales extraídos de plantas pertenecientes a la familia Lamiaceae, como los géneros Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, Satureja, Thymbra y Monarda. El crecimiento y formación de biopelícula por Listeria monocytogenes CLIP 74902 fueron evaluados utilizando tres fuentes de carbono en presencia de timol. La velocidad específica de crecimiento (h-1) a 37o con glucosa, trehalosa y celobiosa con la adición de timol (µg/mL) 0 (control) y 750, fueron respectivamente: 0.22, 0.07; 0.14, 0.04, 0.11, 0,04. Los períodos lag obtenidos en las mismas condiciones fueron (h): 8.19, 13.2; 22.5, 27.5; 23.1, 28.1. Una marcada actividad antibiofilm fue obtenida con 750 µg/mL de timol, mostrando un alto porcentaje de inhibición con glucosa (99%), trehalosa (97%) y celobiosa (98%), respecto al control. Los resultados sugieren que timol podría ser usado para inhibir el crecimiento y producción de biopelículas por L. monocytogenes en la industria alimentaria.


Assuntos
Timol/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/farmacologia , Cinética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Global Health ; 15(1): 47, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent work in international relations theory argues that international regimes do not develop in isolation, as previously assumed, but evolve as open systems that interact with other regimes. The implications of this insight's for sustainable development remains underexplored. Even thought environmental protection and health promotion are clearly interconnected at the impact level, it remains unclear how global environmental governance interacts with global health governance at the institutional level. In order to fill this gap, this article aims to assess how environmental treaties contribute to global health governance. METHODS AND RESULTS: To assess how environmental treaties contribute to global health governance, we conducted a content analysis of 2280 international environmental treaties. For each of these treaties, we measure the type and number of health-related provisions in these treaties. The result is the Health and Environment Interplay Database (HEIDI), which we make public with the publication of this article. This new database reveals that more than 300 environmental treaties have health-related provisions. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the global environmental regime contributes significantly to the institutionalization of the global health regime, considering that the health regime includes itself very few treaties focusing primarily on health. When reflecting on how global governance can improve population health, decision makers should not only consider the instruments available to them within the realm of global health institutions. They should broaden their perspectives to integrate the contribution of other global regimes, such as the global environmental regime.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Humanos
20.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(10): 1966-1976, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294713

RESUMO

New and alternative sanitation systems are increasingly discussed and find their way into implementation. However, discussions on sanitation concepts often are held in a rather emotional way. Furthermore, not all the available sanitation concepts might be known to the decision maker. The work presented here attempts to contribute to a good discussion and decision making process by compiling available technologies, by defining easy-to-implement criteria for a sustainability assessment method and by integrating these results into a simulation tool which allows to visualize the related resource fluxes (e.g. those on nutrients, such as N, P and K) and to analyse different sanitation options with regard to their capital and operational costs and with regard to environmental impact criteria such as greenhouse gas emissions. Whilst the calculations are to be considered as being approximate in their nature (due to uncertainties or lack of suitable input data), this tool allows the planners, with sometimes little modelling experience, to consider the characteristics of sanitation systems. Whilst starting from earlier work, such as Eawag's Sanitation Compendium and work on material flow analysis, work described in this contribution merges resource flux modelling, easy-to-use simulation and visualization and methods of life cycle assessment and life cycle costing. The simulation tool is freely available on https://www.ifak.eu/en/products/sampsons.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Saneamento , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Tomada de Decisões , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Tecnologia
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