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1.
Zootaxa ; 4819(3): zootaxa.4819.3.8, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056097

RESUMO

A new species of Alfieriella Wittmer, 1935 (Coleoptera, Cryptophagidae), Alfieriella senguptai sp. n. from China and India, is described. This is the first formal record of the genus Alfieriella and the tribe Hypocoprini from the Himalayan region. Alfieriella senguptai is the largest member of Alfieriella, and its presence in a cold, high-altitude environment conforms to Bergmann's rule. The distribution of the genus Alfieriella may be associated with the breakup of the Tethys Ocean and the origin of A. senguptai influenced by the Himalayan orogeny. A distribution map and a key to species of Alfieriella are also provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Meio Ambiente
2.
Zootaxa ; 4860(2): zootaxa.4860.2.8, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056167

RESUMO

A new species of the natricine snake genus Smithophis Giri et al. 2019 is described based on three specimens collected from Arunachal Pradesh, India. An additional three referred specimens are documented. Smithophis arunachalensis sp. nov. differs from all known congeners by a combination of 4-5 (rarely 6) small scales around the eye (excluding labial scales), presence of temporal scales, and a distinctive colour pattern of a blackish dorsum and bright yellow venter that form a sharply-defined zigzag border. The new species is known only from ca. 100 km2 in Lower Dibang Valley and Changlang Districts in eastern Arunachal Pradesh. A revised key to the identification of the species of Smithophis is presented.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Cor , Meio Ambiente , Índia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4768(1): zootaxa.4768.1.8, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056539

RESUMO

A new genus and species of the subfamily Cossoninae, Omanocossonus sabulosus gen. et sp. nov. is described from Oman. All specimens including larvae were found on sand dunes on the seashore in roots of Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton. The crucial features, including male and female terminalia, are illustrated, and the taxonomic position of the new genus within Cossoninae is briefly discussed. The generic status of Lindbergius Roudier, 1957 is resurrected. The mature larva of the new species is described, larval morphology is discussed and the current state of knowledge about immature stages of Cossoninae is summarized.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gorgulhos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , Omã
4.
Zootaxa ; 4838(4): zootaxa.4838.4.5, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056804

RESUMO

The species Melanotettix dibelonius Bruner, 1904 was previously recorded from Michoacán and Guerrero states in Mexico. This species is characterized by its tegmina, which are always shorter than head and pronotum together and sometimes shorter than the pronotum. After recent field expeditions (2015-2019) and an extensive review of museum specimens from the most important Orthoptera collections in Mexico and USA (291 specimens), we discovered a long-winged form of this species south of its previous known range, which effectively expanded its distribution range into Oaxaca state. We discuss some aspects regarding the patterns of geographic distribution and morphological variation among the long-winged and short-winged morphs. We conduct statistical analyses and observed that on average, the tegmina of long-winged individuals (both females and males) are slightly longer than twice the length of pronotum; whereas in short-winged individuals the tegmina are nearly as long or slightly longer than the length of the pronotum. Moreover, on average, females appear to have longer tegmina than males in both morphotypes. We provide photographic records of both forms live and mounted, the most comprehensive distribution map to date and a discussion of evolutionarily interesting patterns found in this species.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Masculino , México , Polimorfismo Genético
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013700

RESUMO

The origin of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is zoonotic. The circadian day-night is the rhythmic clue to organisms for their synchronized body functions. The "development for mankind" escalated the use of artificial light at night (ALAN). In this article, we tried to focus on the possible influence of this anthropogenic factor in human coronavirus (HCoV) outbreak. The relationship between the occurrences of coronavirus and the ascending curve of the night-light has also been delivered. The ALAN influences the physiology and behavior of bat, a known nocturnal natural reservoir of many Coronaviridae. The "threatened" and "endangered" status of the majority of bat species is mainly because of the destruction of their proper habit and habitat predominantly through artificial illumination. The stress exerted by ALAN leads to the impaired body functions, especially endocrine, immune, genomic integration, and overall rhythm features of different physiological variables and behaviors in nocturnal animals. Night-light disturbs "virus-host" synchronization and may lead to mutation in the genomic part of the virus and excessive virus shedding. We also proposed some future strategies to mitigate the repercussions of ALAN and for the protection of the living system in the earth as well.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Iluminação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Luz , Melatonina/fisiologia , Pandemias
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 698, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044609

RESUMO

Environmental monitoring guides conservation and is particularly important for aquatic habitats which are heavily impacted by human activities. Underwater cameras and uncrewed devices monitor aquatic wildlife, but manual processing of footage is a significant bottleneck to rapid data processing and dissemination of results. Deep learning has emerged as a solution, but its ability to accurately detect animals across habitat types and locations is largely untested for coastal environments. Here, we produce five deep learning models using an object detection framework to detect an ecologically important fish, luderick (Girella tricuspidata). We trained two models on footage from single habitats (seagrass or reef) and three on footage from both habitats. All models were subjected to tests from both habitat types. Models performed well on test data from the same habitat type (object detection measure: mAP50: 91.7 and 86.9% performance for seagrass and reef, respectively) but poorly on test sets from a different habitat type (73.3 and 58.4%, respectively). The model trained on a combination of both habitats produced the highest object detection results for both tests (an average of 92.4 and 87.8%, respectively). The ability of the combination trained models to correctly estimate the ecological abundance metric, MaxN, showed similar patterns. The findings demonstrate that deep learning models extract ecologically useful information from video footage accurately and consistently and can perform across habitat types when trained on footage from the variety of habitat types.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Peixes , Humanos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805179

RESUMO

The origin of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is zoonotic. The circadian day-night is the rhythmic clue to organisms for their synchronized body functions. The "development for mankind" escalated the use of artificial light at night (ALAN). In this article, we tried to focus on the possible influence of this anthropogenic factor in human coronavirus (HCoV) outbreak. The relationship between the occurrences of coronavirus and the ascending curve of the night-light has also been delivered. The ALAN influences the physiology and behavior of bat, a known nocturnal natural reservoir of many Coronaviridae. The "threatened" and "endangered" status of the majority of bat species is mainly because of the destruction of their proper habit and habitat predominantly through artificial illumination. The stress exerted by ALAN leads to the impaired body functions, especially endocrine, immune, genomic integration, and overall rhythm features of different physiological variables and behaviors in nocturnal animals. Night-light disturbs "virus-host" synchronization and may lead to mutation in the genomic part of the virus and excessive virus shedding. We also proposed some future strategies to mitigate the repercussions of ALAN and for the protection of the living system in the earth as well.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Iluminação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Luz , Melatonina/fisiologia , Pandemias
9.
Zootaxa ; 4810(3): zootaxa.4810.3.5, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055733

RESUMO

Cryptopontius is the most species-rich genus in the family Artotrogidae with 25 species, being recorded in almost all oceans, except in the Arctic. However only three species of this genus have been recorded from the Brazilian coast, all of them along the coast of Pernambuco state. This study describes two new species of the genus. Cryptopontius phyllogorgius sp. nov. differs from other species by having 9-segmented antennule, and nine elements on the third exopodal segment of leg 4. Cryptopontius pentadikos sp. nov. differs from its congeners by having five expressed antennulary segments proximal to fused ancestral IX-XII, two setae on second endopodal segment of leg 1, eight elements on third exopodal segment of leg 1 and the free segment of leg 5 with two setae. A key to species of the genus Cryptopontius is provided.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Animais , Brasil , Meio Ambiente
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 163-169, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087607

RESUMO

The demographic change is no longer a prognosis, but a reality seen in everyday life situations and requires mechanisms to make the public and private space elderly-adequate. These required mechanisms need to consider the varying aging process for each individual as well as adapt to the dynamic daily life of individuals characterized by spatial, temporal and activity variance. Developing assistance systems that are user-adaptive within dynamic environments is a challenging task. AI-based cyber-physical assistance systems enable such adaptive, flexible and individual assistance by processing acquired data from the physical environment using cyber resources and delivering intelligent assistance as well as interfaces to further medical services. This contribution discusses a flexible, reusable, and user-specific concept for AI-based assistance systems. Relying on distributed and heterogeneous data, the user's context is continuously modeled and reasoned over to infer actionable knowledge within a middleware between the data layer and the application layer. To demonstrate the applicability of the concept, the use case of intelligently supporting patients' medication adherence is shown.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Meio Ambiente , Idoso , Humanos
11.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105025, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907735

RESUMO

Disturbance is a key factor in most natural environments and, globally, disturbance regimes are changing, driven by increased anthropogenic influences, including climate change. There is, however, still a lack of understanding about how disturbance interacts with species dispersal capacity to shape marine assemblage structure. We examined the impact of ice scour disturbance history (2009-2016) on the nearshore seafloor in a highly disturbed region of the Western Antarctic Peninsula by contrasting the response of two groups with different dispersal capacities: one consisting of high-dispersal species (mobile with pelagic larvae) and one of low-dispersal species (sessile with benthic larvae). Piecewise Structural Equation Models were constructed to test multi-factorial predictions of the underlying mechanisms, based on hypothesised responses to disturbance for the two groups. At least two or three disturbance factors, acting at different spatial scales, drove assemblage composition. A comparison between both high- and low-dispersal models demonstrated that these mechanisms are dispersal dependent. Disturbance should not be treated as a single metric, but should incorporate remote and direct disturbance events with consideration of taxa-dispersal and disturbance legacy. These modelling approaches can provide insights into how disturbance shapes assemblages in other disturbance regimes, such as fire-prone forests and trawl fisheries.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Meio Ambiente , Larva , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Oceanos e Mares , Movimentos da Água
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 87, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To estimate the magnitude and identify patterns of change in prostate cancer mortality in the state of São Paulo and in the 17 regional health care networks, according to age groups from 50 years onwards, in the period between 2000 to 2015. METHODS Age-adjusted mortality rates (per 100,000 men) were calculated by the direct method using the Segi world population as standard. Joinpoint regression was used to calculate the average annual percent change (AAPC), with a confidence interval of 95% (95%CI), by regional network and age group (50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80 years or more). RESULTS For the state of São Paulo, age-adjusted mortality rates were 15.2, 13.3 and 11.9 per 100,000 men, respectively, in the periods between 2000 to 2005, 2006 to 2010 and 2011 to 2015, with a significant decrease trend (AAPC = -2.10%; 95%CI -2.42 - -1.79) each year. Among the 17 networks, 11 presented significant mean annual reductions, ranging from -1.72% to -3.05%. From the age of 50 onwards, there was a sharper reduction in the groups from 50 to 59 (AAPC = -2.33%; 95%CI -3.04 - -1.62) and 60 to 69 years (AAPC = -2.84%; 95%CI - 3.25 - -2.43). CONCLUSION Although reductions in mortality are still slight, they indicate progress in prostate cancer control actions. Screening actions and changes in therapeutic behaviors in recent decades may be modifying incidence and survival, resulting in changes in the mortality profile. More detailed studies will be useful in understanding the factors that lead to the interregional variations found.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237891, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881888

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A pterygium is a wing-shaped fibro-vascular growth of conjunctiva on the superficial cornea/conjunctiva. It is an elastotic degeneration of conjunctival stroma mainly due to Ultraviolet light exposure. The prevalence of pterygium varies in different environmental conditions. Its magnitude varies widely from 1.1% to 53% globally and in Ethiopia, it reaches from 8.8% to 38.7%. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of pterygium and its associated factors among adults aged 18 years and above in Gambella town, Southwest Ethiopia, 2019. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 15 to May 3, 2019, in Gambella town. A total of 402 study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire, torch, and magnifying loops were used to collect data. The data was entered into epidemiological information 7.1 and exported to statistical package for social science version 20 for analysis. The binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis model was fitted to identify factors associated with pterygium. Odds ratio with respected 95% CI was used to identify the direction and strength of association. RESULTS: A total of 400 participants were examined with a response rate of 99.50%. The mean age of the study participants was 39.9±9.8years. The prevalence of pterygium among adults aged 18 years and above in Gambella town was 127(31.80%), (95% CI: 27.3, 36.3). male sex (AOR = 2.10 (95% CI: 1.26, 3.45), sunlight exposure (AOR = 6.86 (95% CI: 4.00, 11.79) and outdoor works (AOR = 2.10 (95% CI: 1.21, 3.60) were positively associated with pterygium whereas wearing sunglass/hat was a protective factor. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pterygium was high among adults living in Gambella town. Wearing sunglass/hat and reducing exposure time to the sun was important to reduce the development of pterygium in adults.


Assuntos
Pterígio/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento , Meio Ambiente , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Waste Manag ; 118: 313-322, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919350

RESUMO

Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in waste management for the last two decades and hundreds of journal papers have been published. The use of LCA in waste management has provided a much-improved holistic view of waste management including waste flows and potential environmental impacts. Although much knowledge has been obtained from LCA studies, there is still a need to use LCA models in integrated waste management. This paper describes six areas where LCA is expected to play a role in waste management in the future: 1) understanding an existing waste management system; 2) improving existing waste management systems; 3) comparing alternative technologies/ technology performance; 4) technology development/prospective technologies; 5) policy development/strategic development; and 6) reporting. Illustrative examples are provided for each application area.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Meio Ambiente , Formulação de Políticas , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Waste Manag ; 118: 510-520, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980730

RESUMO

The extensive exploitation of natural resources, together with an inefficient use of end-of-life materials, results in the generation of vast amounts of waste. The current material streams are to be reconsidered to mitigate the environmental burdens and achieve the sustainability goals. However, these intentions usually lead to material downcycling, which does not provide significant environmental benefits. In this paper, the potential of waste brick recycling is assessed from the environmental point of view as the recycling options of waste bricks attract an eminent attention due to rationalization and optimization of material streams, including transformation to the circular economy model according to the EU commitments. Three different scenarios are taken into account in that respect: replacement of natural aggregate, partial replacement of cement binder, and alkaline activation. The life cycle methodology is used at the assessment and the obtained results are presented on both midpoint and endpoint levels. The analysis of environmental impacts shows only minor improvements resulting from the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled waste bricks. The partial replacement of cement by waste bricks in powdered form can provide the most substantial benefits including decarbonization of the construction sector. The application of alkaline activators can harm the potential of alkali-activated materials considerably due to their negative effects on human health. A complex assessment of recycling scenarios is found to preferable to one-sided analyses aimed at carbon dioxide emission reduction only if a real sustainability without any hidden risks is to be achieved.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais , Reciclagem
16.
Sports Biomech ; 19(6): 723-737, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942954

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to understand if and how surface-induced vibrations and road bike damping affect short-term neuromuscular performance in cycling. Thirty cyclists (mass 75.9 ± 8.9 kg, height 1.82 ± 0.05 m, Vo2max 63.0 ± 6.8 ml/min/kg) performed steady-state and maximum effort tests with and without vibration exposure (front dropout: 44 Hz, 4.1 mm; rear dropout: 38 Hz, 3.5 mm) on a damped and a nondamped bike. Transmitted accelerations to the musculoskeletal system, activation of lower extremity muscles (gast. med., soleus, vast. med., rec. fem.) and upper body muscles (erec. spinae, deltoideus, tric. brachii), oxygen uptake, heart rate and crank power output were measured. The main findings indicate a transmission of vibration to the whole body, but since no major propulsive muscles increase their activation with vibration, the systemic energy demand increases only marginally with vibration. Damping reduces vibrations at the upper body, which indicates an increase in comfort, but has no effect on the vibration transfer to the lower extremities. Therefore, road bike damping does not affect neuromuscular response of the propulsive muscle groups and energy demand. Consequently, short-term power output does not increase with damping.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Vibração , Aceleração , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935739

RESUMO

An extensive field survey was conducted to evaluate the spreading of the invasive estuarine bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeata into the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), in which the single invaded site so far recorded is Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon. A novel record is made to the Marapendi coastal lagoon, where M. leucophaeata mainly colonizes mangrove roots. A reef composed of druses above the unconsolidated substratum is recorded for the first time for this species. The fauna associated to agglomerates of M. leucophaeata was composed of eight taxa: polychaetes Alitta succinea and Polydora sp., amphipods Melita mangrovi and Elasmopus sp., barnacles Amphibalanus eburneus and A. improvisus, the crab Eurypanopeus cf. dissimilis and the gastropod Heleobia spp. Based on COI sequences, the haplotype diversity of M. leucophaeata invasion in Marapendi Lagoon is high, like that previously recorded in Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon. The expansion of M. leucophaeata demands a continuous investigation, including the knowledge of its impacts on the biota.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Estuários , Animais , Brasil , Meio Ambiente
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967093

RESUMO

Digital nature can provide a substitute for real nature for those who have limited access to green space, or are confined to their homes, for example during the worldwide COVID-19 lockdown. In a large-scale online survey, respondents (N = 1203) watched videos of digital nature, varying in terms of type of nature (wild versus tended nature) and spaciousness. Results show a significant increase of feelings of connectedness to the community after watching digital nature. Furthermore, tended nature scenes elicited more social aspirations than wild nature scenes. A multiple regression model further shows that living further away from nature was a significant predictor for loneliness scores, while number of nature interactions during a week was not. Results of this study confirm the importance of nature interaction for mental and social wellbeing for the general population and stress the potential of digital nature as a complementary strategy. These findings are of particular relevance to those who lack access to nature due to old age and related mobility constraints or a lockdown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Meio Ambiente , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Solidão , Natureza , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 335-342, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955211

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis isa quite common, chronic and immune-mediated skin disorder. The prevalence of psoriasis differs in various countries, but it is said to affect 2% of the world's population in general. Psoriasis has many different clinical features but all lesions have the same characteristic: erythema, thickening and scale, although other clinical features are also connected, such as psoriatic arthritis, obesity and metabolic syndrome. All of these may lead to conditions impairing the quality of life. This review is an attempt to summarize recent data regarding environmental factors, together with epigenetic markers and processes playing an important role in psoriasis. STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: Many different environmental factors play a role in genetically predisposed patients. This is causes epigenetic alternations which may be a linking part in the whole process. Many studies have indicated a connection between psoriasis and various genes and antigens. The presence of HLA-Cw6 is common as well a strong link between its presence and the onset of psoriasis being observed. The main alternations are DNA methylation, histone's modifications and the role of microRNA. Excessive reaction is usually not present without a triggering factor. Environmental factors are mostly rated, such as drugs, life style and habits (smoking, alcohol), diet, physical trauma (skin injury provoking Koebner phenomenon), stress, microorganism and infections. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between pathogenesis of psoriasis and environmental risk factors, together with epigenetic alternations still require more investigation. Education about diet habits, nutrition, weight loss and healthy lifestyle seems to be important during the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Psoríase/genética , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4451, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934202

RESUMO

Large brains and behavioural innovation are positively correlated, species-specific traits, associated with the behavioural flexibility animals need for adapting to seasonal and unpredictable habitats. Similar ecological challenges would have been important drivers throughout human evolution. However, studies examining the influence of environmental variability on within-species behavioural diversity are lacking despite the critical assumption that population diversification precedes genetic divergence and speciation. Here, using a dataset of 144 wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities, we show that chimpanzees exhibit greater behavioural diversity in environments with more variability - in both recent and historical timescales. Notably, distance from Pleistocene forest refugia is associated with the presence of a larger number of behavioural traits, including both tool and non-tool use behaviours. Since more than half of the behaviours investigated are also likely to be cultural, we suggest that environmental variability was a critical evolutionary force promoting the behavioural, as well as cultural diversification of great apes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas
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