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1.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 725-734, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher resting parasympathetic nervous system activity, as indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has been considered a marker of emotion regulatory capacity and is consistently related to better mental health. However, it remains unclear how resting RSA relates to emotion reactivity to acute social-evaluative stress, a potent predictor of depression and other negative outcomes. METHOD: A sample of 89 participants (Mage = 18.36, SD = 0.51; 58.43 % female) provided measures of RSA at rest and then completed the Trier Social Stress Test, a standardized laboratory-based social-evaluative stress task that involves public speaking and mental arithmetic while being evaluated by two confederate judges. Participants reported a variety of emotions (e.g., negative emotion, positive emotion) at baseline and immediately after the stress task. RESULTS: Participants with higher resting RSA showed greater increases in negative emotion, guilt, depressive emotion, and anger, as well as greater decreases in positive emotion after the task. LIMITATION: Data were limited to a relatively small sample of late adolescents, who may be particularly responsive to social-evaluative stress compared to adults. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that higher resting RSA may enhance emotion responses to social-evaluative stress in adolescents, potentially due to active engagement and responding to rather than passively viewing stimuli. Higher resting RSA may promote flexible emotion responses to the social environment, which may account for associations between higher RSA and better mental health.


Assuntos
Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória , Humanos , Adulto , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Meio Social
2.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP772-NP795, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343282

RESUMO

Status and affection are both goals related to social needs. The imbalanced needs theory of aggression proposes that although aggression can be used to realize status, this strategy is detrimental for realizing affection in the same social context. Thus, to the degree that the social circles overlap in which status and affection needs are realized, it becomes more costly (in terms of affection) to achieve status via aggression. This theory was tested for different forms of aggression, in different contexts, in a sample of adults from the general population (N = 253, M age = 29.95, SD = 2.60, 78% female). Participants reported on social needs with the Interpersonal Goals Inventory and reported on general measures of physical and social aggression, as well as rule breaking, and aggression at the workplace and in intimate partner relationships. As hypothesized, status needs were associated with physical aggression when affection needs were weak. This interaction, though to a lesser degree, also extended to social forms of aggression and rule breaking. At the workplace, aggression was only related to weak affection needs, whereas aggression in intimate partner relationships was, as expected, unrelated to both social needs. Together, these findings support the results of an earlier test of the imbalanced needs theory of aggression in adolescence, and encourage more research into the link between aggression and the satisfaction of social needs.


Assuntos
Agressão , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais , Meio Social
3.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1163-NP1186, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481775

RESUMO

The recent attention focused on child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure pathways has highlighted complex psychological processes that influence disclosure both for children and adults. Some authors have suggested that such processes may differ between children and adults yet few studies have examined distinct samples within the same study. This paper addresses this gap by exploring adolescent (n = 20) and adult (n = 10) experiences of disclosure of childhood sexual abuse. Interviews were conducted with both samples, using the same interview schedule and a comparative analysis was conducted of the key themes identified from a grounded theory analysis. Those themes that were found to be common to both samples included pressure cooker effect, telling would make it worse, and self-blame. Themes that were found to be more prevalent in the adolescent sample included police/court involvement, concern for other children, being asked, and peer influence. It is suggested that such potential differences reflect the changing social context over the past few decades which is characterised by increased awareness of sexual abuse as a crime and the risks of recidivism of offenders.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criminosos , Criança , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Revelação , Autorrevelação , Meio Social
4.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105564, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265238

RESUMO

In social groups, some individuals have more influence than others, for example, because they are learned from or because they coordinate collective actions. Identifying these influential individuals is crucial to learn about one's social environment. Here, we tested whether infants represent asymmetric social influence among individuals from observing the imitation of movements in the absence of any observable coercion or order. We defined social influence in terms of Granger causality; that is, if A influences B, then past behaviors of A contain information that predicts the behaviors and mental states of B above and beyond the information contained in the past behaviors and mental states of B alone. Infants (12-, 15-, and 18-month-olds) were familiarized with agents (imitators) influenced by the actions of another one (target). During the test, the infants observed either an imitator who was no longer influenced by the target (incongruent test) or the target who was not influenced by an imitator (neutral test). The participants looked significantly longer at the incongruent test than at the neutral test. This result shows that infants represent and generalize individuals' potential to influence others' actions and that they are sensitive to the asymmetric nature of social influence; upon learning that A influences B, they expect that the influence of A over B will remain stronger than the influence of B over A in a novel context. Because of the pervasiveness of social influence in many social interactions and relationships, its representation during infancy is fundamental to understand and predict others' behaviors.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Meio Social , Lactente , Humanos
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1986): 20221602, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350218

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that individuals actively assess the match between their phenotype and their environment when making habitat choice decisions (so-called matching habitat choice). However, to our knowledge, no studies have considered how the social environment may interact with social phenotype in determining habitat choice, despite habitat choice being an inherently social process and growing evidence for individual variation in sociability. We conducted an experiment using wild great and blue tits to understand how birds integrate their social phenotype and social environment when choosing where and how to feed. We used programmable feeders to (i) record social interactions and estimate social phenotype, and (ii) experimentally manipulate the local density experienced by birds of differing social phenotype. By tracking feeder usage, we estimated how social environment and social phenotype predicted feeder choice and feeding behaviour. Both social environment and social phenotype predicted feeder usage, but a bird's decision to remain in a particular social environment did not depend on their social phenotype. By contrast, for feeding behaviour, responses to the social environment depended on social phenotype. Our results provide rare evidence of matching habitat choice and shed light on the dependence of habitat choice on between-individual differences in social phenotype.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras , Animais , Fenótipo , Meio Social , Territorialidade , Comportamento Alimentar
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 165, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401246

RESUMO

Vacant housing can produce many issues that affect residents' quality of life, especially in historically segregated communities of color. To address these challenges, local governments invest in strategic, place-based revitalization initiatives focused on the regeneration of vacant housing. Yet, the outcomes of these efforts remain contested. To maximize health benefits of revitalization investments, a more nuanced understanding of pathways between neighborhood changes and residents' responses, adaptations, and ability to thrive is necessary, though, remains largely absent in the literature. Using the Vacants to Value initiative in Baltimore, MD as a case study, we explore (1) how health manifests among certain groups in the context of vacant housing revitalization; (2) how vacant housing and its regeneration engender social and cultural environmental change i.e., gentrification; and (3) what structural determinants (cultural norms, policies, institutions, and practices) contribute to the distribution of material resources and benefits of revitalization. Results suggest that vacant housing revitalization requires more than just physical remedies to maximize health. Our findings demonstrate how vacant housing revitalization influences the physical environment, social environment, and structural determinants of material resources and community engagement that can ultimately impact residents' physical, mental, and social health. This study recommends that because housing disparities are rooted in structural inequalities, how policies, practices, and processes moderate pathways for residents to adapt and benefit from neighborhood changes is consequential for health and health equity. Establishing shared governance structures is a promising approach to foster equitable decision-making and outcomes. Going forward in urban regeneration, pathways to retain and strengthen the social environment while revitalizing the physical environment may be promising to achieve healthy communities.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência , Humanos , Habitação , Meio Social , Meio Ambiente
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1005323, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36407975

RESUMO

Objective: This study investigated adolescents' social-environmental exposure to e-cigarettes in association with e-cigarette use in Shanghai, China. We also explored these differences by gender and school type. Methods: Sixteen thousand one hundred twenty-three students were included by a stratified random cluster sampling, and the number was weighted according to selection probability. Association between social environment exposure and e-cigarette use was examined by multivariate logistic regressions. Results: There were 35.07, 63.49, 75.19, 9.44, and 18.99% students exposed to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol (SHA), e-cigarette sales, e-cigarette information, parents' and friends' e-cigarette use. Students exposed to SHA (aOR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.40-2.14), e-cigarette sales from ≥2 sources (aOR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.18-2.03), e-cigarette information exposure from ≥2 sources (aOR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.83), and having a social e-smoking environment (friends' e-cigarette use: aOR = 2.56, 95% CI 2.07-3.16; parents' e-cigarette use: aOR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.17-2.02) were significantly associated with their intention to use e-cigarettes. More girls were exposed to e-cigarette sales in the malls, e-cigarette information at points of sale and on social media (P < 0.01), and exposure to sales from ≥2 sources were associated with girls' intention to use e-cigarettes (aOR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.22-2.78). However, boys were more likely to be exposed to friends' e-cigarette use (P < 0.001), and having friends using e-cigarettes was associated with greater intention to use them in boys (aOR = 2.64, 95% CI 1.97-3.55). Less vocational high school students were exposed to parents' e-cigarette use (P < 0.001), but they were more likely to use e-cigarettes in the future after being exposed (aOR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.50-3.43). A similar phenomenon was observed between junior high students and their exposure to SHA. Conclusions: This study reported adolescents' high exposure rates to the social environment of e-cigarettes. Exposure to SHA, e-cigarette sales from ≥2 sources, e-cigarette information from ≥2 sources and having a social e-smoking environment were related to adolescents' intention to use e-cigarettes. Differences in gender and school type were observed. More attention should be paid to girls, and different interventions should be designed for different types of school students. Additionally, comprehensive tobacco control policies are needed.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , China/epidemiologia , Meio Social
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115462, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327634

RESUMO

Increased lethality and availability of addictive substances has strained US addiction treatment services, further exacerbating workforce shortages in these settings. The emotional and physical health toll of providing treatment may contribute to shortages. This community-initiated qualitative study aimed to identify conditions that affect provider health and turnover in residential addiction treatment from a Total Worker Health® perspective. Providers (direct service, supervisors, leaders) working in nonprofit residential treatment facilities in Massachusetts were recruited by role and geography to participate in interviews and focus groups. NVivo12 facilitated coding and analysis. 25% of transcripts were double coded to assess interrater reliability and coding consistency (mean Kappa = 0.82). Providers (N = 49) participated in 33 interviews and 4 focus groups. Many participants reported personal addiction histories. Analysis revealed how socio-contextual factors originating outside of residential facilities were dominant influences on "downstream" working conditions, worker health, staff turnover, and by extension, client care. Four primary socio-contextual themes surfaced:1) Changes in type and potency of substances and client need not reliably accompanied by shifts in treatment practices; 2) challenges balancing state requirements and state-provided resources; 3) influence of structural discrimination and addiction stigma on pay and professional advancement; and 4) geographic location of facilities shape work and quality of life. Results were used to develop a conceptual model for residential addiction treatment to illustrate pathways by which ecological factors interact to affect provider health and turnover. Findings indicate that protecting health and wellbeing of providers-many of whom are in addiction recovery themselves- is integral to improving addiction treatment. From this workforce's perspective, recent changes in socio-contextual factors have intensified already challenging working conditions (job demands, pay, advancement), negatively impacting worker health, turnover, and client care. Any interventions to improve treatment outcomes or working conditions in nonprofit addiction facilities must consider larger socio-contextual factors influencing these organizations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Tratamento Domiciliar , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Meio Social
9.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(11): 1493-1502, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385182

RESUMO

Climate change and other challenges to the stability and functioning of natural and managed environmental systems are driven by increasing anthropogenic domination of the Earth. Models to forecast the trajectory of climate change and to identify pathways to sustainability require representation of human behaviour and its feedbacks with the climate system. Social climate models (SCMs) are an emerging class of models that embed human behaviour in climate models. We survey existing SCMs and make recommendations for how to integrate models of human behaviour and climate. We suggest a framework for representing human behaviour that consists of cognition, contagion and a behavioural response. Cognition represents the human processing of information around climate change; contagion represents the spread of information, beliefs and behaviour through social networks; and response is the resultant behaviour or action. This framework allows for biases, habituation and other cognitive processes that shape human perception of climate change as well as the influence of social norms, social learning and other social processes on the spread of information and factors that shape decision-making and behaviour. SCMs move beyond the inclusion of human activities in climate models to the representation of human behaviour that determines the magnitude, sign and character of these activities. The development of SCMs is a challenging but important next step in the evolution of Earth system models.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Meio Social , Humanos , Cognição , Viés , Previsões
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360647

RESUMO

The quality of the environment should be measured by the satisfaction of the public and guided by the issues of public concern. With the development of the internet, social media as the main platform for people to exchange information has become a data source for planning and management analysis. Nowadays, the rural catering industry is becoming increasingly competitive, especially after the pandemic. How to further enhance the competitiveness of the rural catering industry has become a hot topic in the industry. From the perspective of consumers, we explored consumers' preferences in a rural outdoor dining environment through social media data. The research analyzed the social media data through manual collection and object detection, divided the landscape of the rural outdoor dining environment into eight categories with 35 landscape elements, and then used BP (Back Propagation) neural network nonlinear fitting and least square linear fitting to analyze the 11,410 effective review pictures from eight rural restaurants' social media comments in Chengdu. We derived the degree of consumer preference for the landscape quality of the rural outdoor dining environment and analyzed the differences in preference among three different groups (regular customers, customers with children, and customers with the elderly). The study found that agricultural resources are an important factor in the competitiveness of rural restaurant environments; that children's emotions when using activity facilities can positively influence consumers' dining experiences; that safety and hygiene environment are important factors influencing the decisions of parent-child dining; and that older people are more interested in outdoor nature, etc. The research results provide suggestions and knowledge for rural restaurant managers and designers through human-oriented needs from the perspective of consumers, and clarify the preferences and expectations of different consumer groups for rural restaurant landscapes while achieving the goal of rural landscape protection.


Assuntos
Restaurantes , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Idoso , Comportamento do Consumidor , Meio Social
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277223, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350898

RESUMO

Credibly estimating social-ecological relationships requires data with broad coverage and fine geographic resolutions that are not typically available from standard ecological surveys. Open and unstructured data from crowdsourced platforms offer an opportunity for collecting large quantities of user-submitted ecological data. However, the representativeness of the areas sampled by these data portals is not well known. We investigate how data availability in eBird, one of the largest and most popular crowdsourced science platforms, correlates with race and income of census tracts in two cities: Boston, MA and Phoenix, AZ. We find that checklist submissions vary greatly across census tracts, with similar patterns within both metropolitan regions. In particular, census tracts with high income and high proportions of white residents are most likely to be represented in the data in both cities, which indicates selection bias in eBird coverage. Our results illustrate the non-representativeness of eBird data, and they also raise deeper questions about the validity of statistical inferences regarding disparities that can be drawn from such datasets. We discuss these challenges and illustrate how sample selection problems in unstructured or semi-structured crowdsourced data can lead to spurious conclusions regarding the relationships between race, income, and access to urban bird biodiversity. While crowdsourced data are indispensable and complementary to more traditional approaches for collecting ecological data, we conclude that unstructured or semi-structured data may not be well-suited for all lines of inquiry, particularly those requiring consistent data coverage, and should thus be handled with appropriate care.


Assuntos
Crowdsourcing , Biodiversidade , Cidades , Meio Social , Boston
12.
Health Promot Pract ; 23(1_suppl): 44S-54S, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374593

RESUMO

The benefits of physical activity to health and obesity prevention are well established. However, attributes of the built environment influence participation in physical activity. The purpose of this study is to assess differences in perceptions of neighborhood walkability across demographic characteristics and social environment factors among rural residents. In a telephone survey, adult respondents (N = 448) across nine rural counties in a southeastern state answered questions about perceived neighborhood walkability, demographic characteristics, and their neighborhood social environment. Study recruitment for a convenience sample occurred through collaborations with local community organizations. Prevalence of destinations and barriers were estimated according to demographic and neighborhood social environment characteristics. Multiple logistic regression models assessed the association of demographic and neighborhood social environment characteristics with neighborhood walkability and calculated adjusted prevalence. Relaxing places to walk were the most often reported destinations (62.0%), followed by retail destinations (45.7%), and communal destinations (42.6%). Traffic was the most reported barrier to safe walking (40.4%), followed by animals (37.5%), and crime (30.5%). Perceptions of retail and communal destinations varied by age and race. Perceptions of traffic and crime as barriers varied by race, weight status, and income. Community belonging and social cohesion were associated with lower perceptions of barriers. Study findings present demographic characteristics and social environment attributes as key factors that shape perceived neighborhood walkability. Findings can help inform programmatic efforts and environmental change strategies to improve walking in rural areas.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Planejamento Ambiental , Características de Residência , Meio Social , Caminhada
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361258

RESUMO

In recent years, the impact of the urban environment on residents' physical activity (PA) has received extensive attention, but whether this impact has differences in the jogging preferences of residents in different footpath environments and different genders requires further research. Therefore, based on jogging trajectory data, this paper uses the grouping multiple linear regression model to study the different influencing factors of different footpath environments on the jogging of residents of different genders. The results show that (1) jogging activities (JA) were mainly concentrated in the community footpath environment, and its peak was reached at night; (2) the rise and fall of elements in built environments, social environments, and natural environments significantly affected the relative jogging distance of residents; (3) Residential land density (RLD) has a positive impact on the JA of community and green land footpaths and has a negative impact on the JA of urban footpaths. However, arterial road density (ARD) and bus distance density (BDD) have opposite significant effects on the JA of communities and green land footpaths; (4) ARD has the significant opposite effect on the JA for residents of different genders on urban footpaths and community footpaths. Facilities diversity (FD), population density (PD), and bus stop density (BSD) also had significant opposite effects on the JA of residents of different genders on green land footpaths. In general, we put forward a method theory to identify the footpath environment and provide references for improving the layout and construction of different gender residents for different footpath environment elements.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Corrida Moderada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exercício Físico , Meio Social , Pesquisa Empírica
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361349

RESUMO

Social homogeneity, understood as the similarity of perceptions and attitudes that individuals display toward the environment around them, is explained by the relational context in which they are immersed. However, there is no consensus about which relational mechanism best explains social homogeneity. The purpose of this research is to find out which of the three classical relational processes most studied in network analysis (structural cohesion, role equivalence, or homophily) is more determinant in explaining social homogeneity. To achieve the research objective, 110 professionals (psychologists, social workers, and community facilitators) implementing a psychosocial care program in three regions of Northwest Colombia were interviewed. Different types of relationships among professionals were analyzed using network analysis techniques. To examine the structural cohesion hypothesis, interveners were categorized according to the level of structural cohesion by performing core-periphery analysis in the networks evaluated; to test the role equivalence hypothesis, participants were categorized according to their level of degree centrality in the networks examined; to test the homophily hypothesis, participants were grouped according to the level of homophily in terms of professional profile. The non-parametric tests showed that role equivalence was the most powerful mechanism for explaining social homogeneity in the sample of psychosocial interveners evaluated.


Assuntos
Meio Social , Humanos , Colômbia
15.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 202, 2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The establishment of the gut microbiota in early life is a critical process that influences the development and fitness of vertebrates. However, the relative influence of transmission from the early social environment and host selection throughout host ontogeny remains understudied, particularly in avian species. We conducted conspecific and heterospecific cross-fostering experiments in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) under controlled conditions and repeatedly sampled the faecal microbiota of these birds over the first 3 months of life. We thus documented the development of the gut microbiota and characterised the relative impacts of the early social environment and host selection due to species-specific characteristics and individual genetic backgrounds across ontogeny by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: The taxonomic composition and community structure of the gut microbiota changed across ontogenetic stages; juvenile zebra finches exhibited higher alpha diversity than adults at the post-breeding stage. Furthermore, in early development, the microbial communities of juveniles raised by conspecific and heterospecific foster parents resembled those of their foster family, emphasising the importance of the social environment. In later stages, the social environment continued to influence the gut microbiota, but host selection increased in importance. CONCLUSIONS: We provided a baseline description of the developmental succession of gut microbiota in zebra finches and Bengalese finches, which is a necessary first step for understanding the impact of the early gut microbiota on host fitness. Furthermore, for the first time in avian species, we showed that the relative strengths of the two forces that shape the establishment and maintenance of the gut microbiota (i.e. host selection and dispersal from the social environment) change during development, with host selection increasing in importance. This finding should be considered when experimentally manipulating the early-life gut microbiota. Our findings also provide new insights into the mechanisms of host selection. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Meio Social , Especificidade da Espécie , Aves
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429735

RESUMO

Urban blue spaces are defined as all natural and manmade surface water in urban environments. This paper draws on how the concepts of experienced, symbolic, social, and activity space combine to position urban blue spaces as therapeutic landscapes. We conducted 203 intercept interviews between 12 October 2019 and 10 November 2019. Although safety concerns had health-limiting impacts, interacting with the Glasgow Canal and surrounding landscape was predominantly perceived as health-enhancing. Our findings build on current evidence, which has suggested that urban blue spaces, particularly canals, may foster therapeutic properties, contributing to healthier city environments. Further research is required to understand better the interconnectedness of urban blue spaces and health and how such spaces can be best developed and managed to improve the health outcomes of local populations.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Nível de Saúde , Cidades , Meio Social , Agricultura
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20252, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424400

RESUMO

Human cooperation (paying a cost to benefit others) is puzzling from a Darwinian perspective, particularly in groups with strangers who cannot repay nor are family members. The beneficial effects of cooperation typically increase nonlinearly with the number of cooperators, e.g., increasing returns when cooperation is low and diminishing returns when cooperation is high. Such nonlinearity can allow cooperation between strangers to persist evolutionarily if a large enough proportion of the population are already cooperators. However, if a lone cooperator faces a conflict between the group's and its own interests (a social dilemma), that raises the question of how cooperation arose in the first place. We use a mathematically tractable evolutionary model to formalise a chronological narrative that has previously only been investigated verbally: given that ancient humans interacted mostly with family members (genetic homophily), cooperation evolved first by kin selection, and then persisted in situations with nonlinear benefits as homophily declined or even if interactions with strangers became the norm. The model also predicts the coexistence of cooperators and defectors observed in the human population (polymorphism), and may explain why cooperators in behavioural experiments prefer to condition their contribution on the contributions of others (conditional cooperation in public goods games).


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Evolução Biológica , Meio Social
18.
Lancet ; 400 Suppl 1: S8, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A supportive urban environment can prevent or delay the progress of cognitive decline. There is evidence for the existence of mechanistic pathways between the urban environment and cognitive decline, but the interrelations between these pathways are unclear. In this study, we aimed to map the mechanistic pathways by which urban environment factors affect cognitive decline in adults older than 50 years. METHODS: This group model building study was part of the Supportive environments for Physical and social Activity, healthy ageing, and CognitivE health (SPACE) project. We held a 2-day workshop with theSPACE investigators based on the Group Model Building (GMB) methodology. The workshop aimed to create a causal-loop diagram (CLD) that identifies established and potential urban environment, lifestyle, health, and physiological determinants of cognitive decline in adults older than 50 years, and the dynamic interrelations between these factors. A facilitation team guided the activities (IA-P, LG, CM, and RFH). The workshop was held online following appropriately adapted scripts. After the workshop, the modelling team reviewed the CLD to ensure that main potential causal pathways and mechanisms were captured. FINDINGS: The workshop ran from Dec 6-7, 2021, and 12 experts from ten different disciplines identified 83 factors and 221 connections between them. After review, the CLD presented 45 factors and 110 connections. All factors were classified in ten main domains: urban design (eg, walkability), social environment (eg, social relationships), travel behaviours (eg, active travel), by-products (eg, air pollution), lifestyle (eg, recreational physical activity), mental health (eg, stress), disease or physiology (eg, molecular risk), exogenous factors (eg, industrial pollution sources), and cognitive decline outcomes (eg, dementia). The main output was a CLD of the complex system of how the urban environment can influence cognitive decline in older adults, created by, and agreed with, the SPACE investigators. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggested that GMB can engage experts and help them view problems, such as the determinants of cognitive decline in adults, through the lens of complex systems. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Meio Social , Estilo de Vida , Comportamento Social , Saúde Mental
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276897, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378642

RESUMO

Several studies using mice have examined the effects of aging on cognitive tasks, as well as sensory and motor functions. However, few studies have examined the influence of aging on social behavior. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a socially monogamous and biparental rodent that live in small family groups and are now among the most popular rodent models for studies examining social behavior. Although the social behavioral trajectories of early-life development in prairie voles have been well-studied, how social behavior may change throughout adulthood remains unknown. Here we examined behavior in virgin male and female prairie voles in four different age groups: postnatal day (PND) 60-80, 140-160, 220-240, and 300-320. All animals underwent testing in a novel object task, a dominance test, a resident-intruder test, and several iterations of social approach and social interaction tests with varying types of social stimuli (i.e., novel same-sex conspecific, novel opposite-sex conspecific, familiar same-sex sibling/cagemate, small group of novel same-sex conspecifics). We found that age influenced neophobia and dominance, but not social approach behavior. Further, we found that young adult, but not older adult, prairie voles adapt prosocial and aggressive behavior relative to social context, and that selective aggression occurs in relation to age even in the absence of a pair bond. Our results suggest that prairie voles calibrate social phenotype in a context-dependent manner in young adulthood and stop adjusting behavior to social context in advanced age, demonstrating that social behavior is plastic not only throughout early development, but also well into adulthood. Together, this study provides insight into age-related changes in social behavior in prairie voles and shows that prairie voles may be a viable model for studying the cognitive and physiological benefits of social relationships and social engagement in advanced age.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Pradaria , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Ligação do Par , Comportamento Social , Meio Social , Envelhecimento
20.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(4): 378-386, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346723

RESUMO

This study explores differences on health status transitions based on functional health and dead records among older population in Europe. We also study the influence of residence pattern on health changes over time. METHOD: Data used came from EU-SILC registers on individuals aged 50 + from 19 countries. Fixed and Mixed effect Cox Proportional Hazards Models are used to ascertain any country differences on health outcomes and then by co-residence pattern. RESULTS: There are remarkable country heterogeneity among older people to experience changes on their health status, specially, for health improvements and mortality risk. As expected, Baltic and Eastern European countries have a higher propensity for health deterioration and Southern European countries for health improvements on their functional capacities. However, there are exceptions as Bulgaria and Romania, which have a lower risk of deterioration and death transition than average. Overall, living with partner and adult children-rather than living only with a couple shown positive effects for older European to experience health improvements with notably differences in Southern countries as in Italy and Spain. DISCUSSION: country framework differences play a fundamental role to understand changes on health status at older ages, in particular, how health care support toward older people is managed by health systems within European countries and the availability of close relatives among older adult population.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Meio Social , Humanos , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Itália , Espanha
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