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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential support of schools for oral health promotion and associated factors in Brazilian capitals. METHODS: Data from 1,339 public and private schools of the 27 Brazilian capitals were obtained from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) 2015. Data from the capitals were obtained from the United Nations Development Program and the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Datasus). The indicator " ambiente escolar promotor de saúde bucal " (AEPSB - oral health promoting school environment) was designed from 21 variables of the school environment with possible influence on students' oral health employing the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA). Associations between the AEPSB and characteristics of schools, capitals and regions were tested (bivariate analysis). RESULTS: Ten variables comprised CAPTCA, after excluding those with low correlation or high multicollinearity. The analysis resulted in a model with three dimensions: D1. Within-school aspects (sales of food with added sugar in the canteen and health promotion actions), D2. Aspects of the area around the school (sales of food with added sugar in alternative points) and D3. prohibitive policies at school (prohibition of alcohol and tobacco consumption). The sum of the scores of the dimensions generated the AEPSB indicator, dichotomized by the median. From the total of schools studied, 51.2% (95%CI 48.5-53.8) presented a more favorable environment for oral health (higher AEPSB). In the capitals, this percentage ranged from 36.6% (95%CI 23.4-52.2) in Rio Branco to 80.4% (95%CI 67.2-89.1) in Florianópolis. Among the Brazilian regions, it ranged from 45.5% (95%CI 40.0-51.2) in the North to 67.6% (95%CI 59.4-74.9) in the South. Higher percentages of schools with higher AEPSB were found in public schools [58.1% (95%CI 54.9-61.2)] and in capitals and regions with higher Human Development Index [61.0% (95%IC 55.8-66.0) and 57.4% (95%CI 53.2-61.4), respectively] and lower Gini index [55.7% (95%CI 51.2-60.0) and 52.8 (95%CI 49.8-55.8), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: The potential to support oral health promotion in schools in Brazilian capitals, assessed by the AEPSB indicator, was associated with contextual factors of schools, capitals and Brazilian regions.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
2.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e096, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664359

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of environmental and socioeconomic characteristics with the use of dental floss in preschool children. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 402 preschool children aged 1-5 years, from Santa Cruz do Sul, a Southern city in Brazil. Mothers answered questions about environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Behavior variables as use of dental floss (study outcome) and dental attendance were also evaluated. Poisson regression analysis with robust variance through a hierarchical approach was used to investigate the association of explanatory variables for use of dental floss. Prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated. The mean sample age was 3.32 years (standard deviation [SD] 1.10). Of the included children, 291 (73.12%) did not use dental floss. The environmental model indicated that children who attended daycare (PR 2.53; 95%CI 1.39-4.60) and those whose parents were members of volunteer networks (RP 1.58; 95%CI 1.02-2.46) were more likely to use dental floss. Children from families with higher income (PR 1.55; 95%CI 1.07-2.24) and maternal schooling (PR 2.21; 95%CI 1.31-3.74) presented a higher prevalence of dental floss use. Older children and those who attended dental services were also related to higher dental floss use. Our findings suggest that children who live in a supporting environment and those with a higher socioeconomic status are more likely to use dental floss.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição de Poisson , Valores de Referência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Nurs Adm ; 49(11): 569-573, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine 1st-line managers' (FLMs') experiences in managing the workplace social environment (WSE). BACKGROUND: FLMs are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of supportive WSE essential for effective teamwork. Poorly managed WSE and dysfunctional teams hold negative implications for patients, teams, and organizations. METHODS: This was a qualitative descriptive study, using content analysis of individual and focus group interviews with FLMs and directors. RESULTS: FLMs play a critical role in the management of the WSE; however, the task is fraught with constraints and challenges including competing demands, lack of support, and insufficient training. Findings explicate how competing demands and communication challenges impede the successful management of the WSE. CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of a healthy WSE to patient, professional, and organizational outcomes, FLMs need support, training, and resources to assist them in managing the social environment alongside other competing priorities.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Liderança , Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Cultura Organizacional , Meio Social , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1182, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An adolescent's perceptions of their family's and friends' smoking attitudes and behaviour can influence their own uptake of smoking. There are two broad sources of such social influence: observing the behaviour directly, and assimilating attitudes. METHODS: We analysed data collected for the evaluation of Dead Cool, a school based smoking prevention intervention in Northern Ireland (n=480 in 20 clusters). The main analysis fits three nested logistic regression models predicting pre-intervention susceptibility to taking up smoking, as reflected in responses to three attitudinal questions. Model 1 includes only personal characteristics as explanatory factors. Model 2 adds the behaviour of friends and family that would provide an opportunity for social influence through observational learning. Model 3 adds the susceptibility of friends. RESULTS: Each additional group of variables improved the model fit (with reduced AIC and BIC). However, in the final model, only three variables were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) in predicting susceptibility to smoking initiation: rebelliousness (OR [1.1,1.3]) from the personal characteristics group; and, in the observational learning group, being friends with a smoker (OR [1.0,2.9]) and frequency of being in the same room or car with someone smoking (OR [2.0,9.0] for most frequent). Adding the two measures of diffusion of susceptibility through the friendship network improved the model fit, but neither was found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis provides additional evidence to support policies that could reduce children's exposure to smoking behaviour, and potential subsequent smoking initiation. No conclusions could be drawn about the diffusion of smoking attitudes through the school friendship networks of children.


Assuntos
Atitude , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/psicologia , Meio Social , Adolescente , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Irlanda do Norte , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 120, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early childhood social and emotional development underpins later social, emotional, academic and other outcomes. The first aim of this study was to explore the association between child, family and area-level characteristics associated with developmental vulnerability, amongst Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in their first year of school. The second aim was to quantify the magnitude of the social and emotional developmental inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children and the extent to which differences in socioeconomic disadvantage and perinatal characteristics explained this inequality. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used cross-sectoral data linkage to identify and follow participants from birth to school age. In this way, social and emotional development was examined in 7,384 Aboriginal and 95,104 non-Aboriginal children who were included in the Australian Early Development Census in their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW) in 2009 or 2012 and had a birth registration and/or perinatal record in NSW. The primary outcome measures were teacher-reported social competence and emotional maturity as measured using the Australian version of the Early Development Instrument. RESULTS: The mean age at the start of the school year for children in the study sample was 5.2 years (SD = 0.36 years). While 84% of Aboriginal children scored favourably - above the vulnerability threshold - for social competence and 88% for emotional maturity, Aboriginal children were twice as likely as non-Aboriginal children to be vulnerable on measures of social development (RR = 2.00; 95%CI, 1.89-2.12) and had 89% more risk of emotional vulnerability (RR = 1.89; 95%CI, 1.77-2.02). The inequality between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children was largely explained by differences in the socioeconomic and perinatal health characteristics of children and families. Thus, after adjusting for differences in measures of socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage (Model 2), the relative risk was attenuated to 1.31 (95% CI: 1.23-1.40) on the social competence domain and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.15-1.33) on the emotional maturity domain. Child, family and area-level characteristics associated with vulnerability were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the gap in early childhood social and emotional development between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children can be attributed to socioeconomic and early life health disadvantage. Culturally safe health and social policies addressing the socioeconomic and health inequalities experienced by Aboriginal children are urgently required.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ajustamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Meio Social , Isolamento Social
6.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(6): 452-467, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450996

RESUMO

Executive functions are compromised in children with sickle cell anemia. There is limited research on the development of executive functions in preschool children with sickle cell anemia and the factors that contribute to executive dysfunction. We looked at the relation between biomedical and environmental factors, including family functioning and socioeconomic status, and executive functions in 22 preschool children with sickle cell anemia. We found that family functioning was the strongest predictor of executive outcomes in young children with sickle cell anemia with no evidence for an influence of disease severity at this early stage.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Família/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Anemia Falciforme/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1093, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban green open space is a valuable resource for physical activities of urban inhabitants and has the potential to reduce chronic illness and improve health. Research on the relationships between green open space and physical activity is incomplete and limited in China. Thus, the study examines how the urban green open space contributes to physical activity. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed based on the social ecology theory to investigate the physical activity of 513 residents in urban green open space. We use the time and frequency of residents exercising in urban green space to measure physical activity, and use the factor analysis to synthesize a large number of original factors (i.e., infrastructure, safety, accessibility, landscape quality, and space environment) into relatively few composite indicators. Based on the collected data of the cross-sectional population, the Order Probit regression model was constructed to analyze how urban green open space affects the residents' physical activity from the perspective of social ecology. RESULTS: ① in community factors: accessibility is significantly positive correlation with residents' physical activity, and there is no significant correlation between safety and physical activity; ②in natural factors: space environment and landscape quality are not significantly correlated with residents' physical activity; ③ in built environmental factors: infrastructures, the area of green space, the size of open space, and entertainment facilities are significantly correlated to residents' activity. Basketball courts, volleyball courts, swimming pools, and sports equipment will promote physical activity; ④ apart from the attributes of green open space, other factors are significantly correlated to physical activity in the green open space, e.g. having a companion. CONCLUSIONS: Urban green open space plays an important role in promoting physical activity especially among the women and the old, and improving the attributes (such as accessibility, infrastructures, the area of green space, the size of open space and entertainment facilities) of the urban green open space and trying to set up group sports proper to play with companion (like "square dancing" and "Tai Chi") can promote Chinese residents' physical activity so as to improve public health. The results are significant to facilitate environment health.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio Social , Teoria Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 28(2): 204-206, 2019.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384911

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the degree of satisfaction with educational environment among dental students in College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University. METHODS: In 2017, students' perceptions of the educational environment were evaluated using the 50-item DREEM. SPSS 24.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 260 valid questionnaires were recovered. The total Cronbach's α coefficient of DREEM was 0.915, and the total score of the DREEM was 164.99±19.53. CONCLUSIONS: The DREEM showed excellent internal consistency for the overall scores, and the education environment of dental education in our college is at a very good level.


Assuntos
Educação em Odontologia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Medicina Bucal , Estudantes de Medicina , China , Humanos , Meio Social , Estudantes de Odontologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 887, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has become a severe societal problem in China. Although many studies have analyzed how environmental characteristics within neighborhoods affect depression, only a few have dealt with developing countries, and even fewer have considered built, natural, and social environments concurrently. METHODS: Based on a sample of 20,533 Chinese residents assessed in 2016, the present study examined associations between depressive symptoms and respondents' built, natural, and social environments. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and multilevel regression models were fitted accounting for potential covariates. RESULTS: Results indicated that living in neighborhoods with more green spaces and a higher population density were negatively associated with CES-D scores. Living in neighborhoods with more social capital was protective against depression. Furthermore, results showed that the social environment moderated the association between the built environment and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Social environments moderate the relationship between the built environment and depression. As environments seem to interact with each other, we advise against relying on a single environment when examining associations with depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Fatores de Risco
10.
Zoo Biol ; 38(5): 448-457, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271671

RESUMO

Population-level analyses suggest that habitat complexity, but not necessarily space availability, has important welfare outcomes for elephants in human care. At the Dallas Zoo, the opening of a new exhibit complex allowed us to measure the behavior of two female African elephants across three treatments to evaluate the independent effects of complexity and space. Preoccupancy observations were conducted in the elephants' older exhibit, which consisted of a smaller, more simple yard (630 m2 ). Subsequent postoccupancy observations measured behavior in two different spaces in the new exhibit: a larger, complex yard (15,000 m2 ), and a smaller, but complex yard (1,520 m2 ). The elephants' overall activity levels were greater in complex habitats, regardless of their size. Similar effects of habitat complexity oversize were observed with greater rates of foraging and lower rates of being stationary. Furthermore, elephants were out of view of visitors significantly more in the small, simple yard compared to either of the more complex habitats. However, exhibit size affected the incidence of stereotypic behavior (with lower rates of stereotypy in the larger exhibit compared to the smaller yards) and investigatory behavior (elephants investigated their environments more with increasing size and complexity). Behavioral diversity also increased with exhibit size and complexity. These results indicate that space availability alone is not sufficient to enhance the behavioral welfare of zoo elephants. Therefore, facilities with limited space can still encourage species-appropriate behaviors and improved welfare for the elephants in their care by converting a small, simple area into a more complex habitat.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais de Zoológico , Elefantes/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Meio Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Humanos
11.
Exp Psychol ; 66(3): 177-186, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266433

RESUMO

Previous research has suggested that power undermines cooperation in social dilemmas. However, the story may not be so simple. Guided by recent findings that power heightens sensitivity to unfairness, we examined the moderating effect of distributive justice on the association between power and cooperation. Across two experiments, when treated unfairly, high-power (vs. low-power) participants perceived greater unfairness. Moreover, high-power (vs. low-power) participants behaved less cooperatively not only when they interacted with the offender who treated them unfairly (Experiment 1), but also when they interacted with innocent third parties (Experiment 2). However, high-power and low-power participants showed no difference in perceived fairness and cooperation when treated fairly. These findings shed light on the association between power and cooperation by suggesting the modulating role of distributive justice, and they remind us that researchers should take participants' personal sense of power into account when manipulating fairness.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder (Psicologia) , Meio Social , Justiça Social , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(9): 766-777, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the compensatory profile in autism; that is, people with autism spectrum disorder who show few symptoms in their behavioural presentation, despite continuing to report autism-related cognitive difficulties or differences. Even less is known about the specific compensatory strategies that these individuals use to disguise autism at the behavioural surface, both in the clinic and everyday life. It is also currently unclear whether individuals without a formal autism diagnosis, but experiencing autistic-like difficulties, use similar compensatory strategies, potentially enabling them to sit below the diagnostic threshold. This study aimed to investigate social compensatory strategies, and their effect on diagnosis and clinical outcome, in adults with and without autism. METHODS: In this study, individuals aged 18 years or older who responded to a study advert that was distributed worldwide via social media and the UK National Autistic Society formed a convenience sample. Participants self-reported their use and experiences of compensatory strategies using an online platform. Novel analyses, including a qualitative thematic approach, were used to interpret their responses and gain insight into compensatory strategies in autism. FINDINGS: Between Oct 19, 2017, and Jan 2, 2018, 136 adults (58 had a clinical diagnosis of autism, 19 self-identified but were not formally diagnosed as autistic, and 59 were not diagnosed or self-identified, but nevertheless reported social difficulties) completed the online study questions. The findings suggested that there are multiple compensatory strategies with distinct characteristics, individual and environmental factors that modulate compensatory strategy use and success, positive (social relationships, independence, employment) and negative (poor mental health, late diagnosis) outcomes associated with compensatory strategy use, and that individuals without a diagnosis use compensatory strategies that are qualitatively similar to individuals with a diagnosis. INTERPRETATION: Increased awareness and measurement of compensatory strategy use in autism should guide future diagnostic guidelines, towards improved diagnostic accuracy and support for people with autism spectrum disorder whose cognitive difficulties are not immediately evident in observable behaviour. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council and UK National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Conscientização , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Social , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(9): 997-1007, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264140

RESUMO

Non-Hispanic black (NHB) men experience higher risk of prostate cancer than other racial/ethnic groups, and it is possible that socioenvironmental (SE) adversity and resulting stress may contribute to this disparity. Data from the Southern Community Cohort Study were used to evaluate associations between SE adversity and perceived stress in relation to prostate cancer risk, overall and by race/ethnicity and grade. Between 2002 and 2009, 26,741 men completed a questionnaire, from which an 8-item SE adversity composite was created (covering socioeconomic status, residential environment, and social support/buffers). Two items from the Perceived Stress Scale were assessed. With follow-up through 2011, 527 prostate cancer cases were diagnosed. In multivariable models, each one-unit increase in the SE adversity composite was associated with increased prostate cancer risk among non-Hispanic white (NHW) men (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.02-1.48) and reduced risk among NHB men (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.82-0.95) (p interaction: 0.001). This pattern held for low grade, but not high grade, cancers although power was limited for the latter. Perceived stress variables were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among NHW men, but not among NHB men. Results do not support the hypothesis that SE adversity my underlay the racial disparity in prostate cancer, over and above that of covariates, including healthcare utilization.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Meio Social
15.
Br J Sociol ; 70(3): 867-881, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190386

Assuntos
Meio Social , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251860

RESUMO

The article considers social and ethno-cultural risk factors of suicidal behavior in Buryat adolescents. The analysis of life-style of children and adolescents in actual conditions was implemented. The immediate family and external social environment were characterized. The system of vital values was analyzed. The study demonstrated that in Buryat population the is a leading one. The system of relationship of adolescents with parents, school teachers and peers was analyzed. It is established that only 62.35 of adolescents are satisfied with these relationships. It is established that Buryat adolescents changing of life-style resulted in transformation of family and decreasing of its fostering function can be considered as risk factor of suicidal behavior. The frustration of affiliation needs i.e. need in the relationship most important for Buryat ethnos is considered as the ethno-cultural factor. The risk of suicidal behavior increases when such factors as rudeness or hardheartedness of teacher, school community turning down are added.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Adolescente , Humanos , Pais , Professores Escolares
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 830, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aim of this study is to determine if peer group risk behaviors and neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) would ecologically affect injury incidence according to place and gender among adolescents (aged 13-15) in South Korea. METHODS: Three variables from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2014) were used to represent peer group risk behaviours; current alcohol consumption (cAlc), the experience of violence or bullying (VicVB), and having undergone education for injury prevention (Edu-IP). The Korea Census Data (2010) was used for neighborhood SES; the degree of urbanization, the proportion of high educational attainment, and the proportion of low residential environment. The nationwide and regional Incidence-Rates of Injury assessed by EMS (IRI-EMS) were calculated according to age and gender based on the number of injuries from EMS record (2014). A linear regression model was used to examine associations. RESULTS: The nationwide total and inside-school IRI-EMS were 623.8 and 139.3 per 100,000 population, respectively. The range of the regional IRI-EMS showed a maximum of about 4 times the difference from 345 to 1281 per 100,000 population depending on the region. The low residential environment had a significant effect on the increase of total IRI-EMS (ß = 7.5, 95% CI 0.78-14.21). In the case of boys, the IRI-EMS inside-school was increased as the percentage of VicVB was higher (ß = 17.0, 95% CI 1.09-32.91). In the case of girls, the IRI-EMS outside-school was increased in rural compared to urban location (ß = 211.3, 95% CI 19.12-403.57). CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of outside-school was higher than that of inside-school, and incidence rate of boys was higher than that of girls. Peer group risk behaviors were significant only in the injury of boys. Among the SES factors, rural area was a significant factor in girls, especially outside-school injury. Moreover, the rate of households not in an apartment was significant in all outside-school injury and outside-school injury of boys. Our study suggests that among native South Korean adolescents, neighbourhood SES and peer group risk behavior have different effects depending on the injury context such as place of occurrence or gender.


Assuntos
Bullying , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Assunção de Riscos , Classe Social , Meio Social , Violência , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Grupo Associado , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
18.
Maturitas ; 125: 11-16, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133210

RESUMO

This is a scoping review of the notions of authenticity and citizenship in the context of understanding dementia. Authenticity suggests being true to yourself. Social citizenship suggests engagement, relationships and rights. The literature which links authenticity to dementia is scanty, albeit the notion suggests numerous possibilities. The literature on citizenship and dementia is more extensive. After some conceptual discussion, the literature is reviewed. The authenticity literature focuses on people being themselves, on partnerships and on decision-making. There is also literature on how carers of people living with dementia might be more authentic or genuine. Over against the possibility that the demands of citizenship might swamp the drive to individual authenticity, the review shows that, in line with authenticity being a social virtue, it is implied or conveyed by much of the literature on citizenship, in particular by the characterization of citizenship in terms of coherence (and thus narrative), vitality, maturity and depth.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Tomada de Decisões , Demência/epidemiologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Pessoalidade , Demência/fisiopatologia , Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Social , Distância Social , Meio Social , Apoio Social
19.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 31, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are leading contributors to the global disease burden in adolescents. This study aims to highlight (1) salient context-specific factors that influence stress and coping among school-going adolescents across two urban sites in India; and (2) potential targets for preventing mental health difficulties. METHODS: Focus group discussions were undertaken with a large sample of 191 school-going adolescent boys and girls aged 11-17 years (mean = 14 years), recruited from low- and middle-income communities in the predominantly urban states of Goa and Delhi. Framework analysis was used to identify themes related to causes of stress, stress reactions, impacts and coping strategies. RESULTS: Proximal social environments (home, school, peers and neighborhood) played a major role in causing stress in adolescents' daily lives. Salient social stressors included academic pressure, difficulties in romantic relationships, negotiating parental and peer influences, and exposure to violence and other threats to personal safety. Additionally, girls highlighted stress from having to conform to normative gender roles and in managing the risk of sexual harassment, especially in Delhi. Anger, rumination and loss of concentration were commonly experienced stress reactions. Adolescents primarily used emotion-focused coping strategies (e.g., distraction, escape-avoidance, emotional support seeking). Problem-focused coping (e.g., instrumental support seeking) was less common. Examples of harmful coping (e.g., substance use) were also reported. CONCLUSIONS: The development of culturally sensitive and age-appropriate psychosocial interventions for distressed adolescents should attend to the challenges posed by home, school, peer and neighborhood environments. Enhancements to problem- and emotion-focused strategies are needed in order to bolster adolescents' repertoire of adaptive coping skills in stressful social environments.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Ira , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 635, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of the adult homeless population use tobacco, and smoking cessation programs could offer an important opportunity to address preventable mortality and morbidity for this population. This population faces serious challenges to smoking cessation, including the impact of the social environment. METHODS: Forty participants (11 female; 29 male) from an ongoing smoking cessation randomized clinical trial conducted at 2 urban homeless shelters in the Upper Midwest were invited to take part in semi-structured interviews in 2016-2017. An interviewer used a semi-structured interview guide asking participants to describe their experience of how the social environment impacted their attempt to quit smoking. RESULTS: Participants described feeling pressure to smoke and drink in and around shelters, and that this pressure had led some to start smoking or resume smoking, along with making it very challenging to quit. Participants described being motivated to quit, and seeing smoking cessation as positively impacting the time and focus they felt they had for finding housing. However many felt more interested in reducing their smoking, rather than quitting. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing smoking cessation for people experiencing homelessness is both an important public health opportunity, and a challenge. There is a need to consider cessation in the context of the social and environmental factors impacting smokers who are experiencing homelessness. In particular, there is a need to address the collective value placed on smoking in social interactions. Despite these challenges, there are high levels of motivation and interest in addressing smoking. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01932996 . Date of registration 30th August 2013. Prospectively registered.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana
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