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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20201026, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043865

RESUMO

Social complexity reflects the intricate patterns of social interactions in societies. Understanding social complexity is fundamental for studying the evolution of diverse social systems and the cognitive innovations used to cope with the demands of social life. Social complexity has been predominantly quantified by social unit size, but newer measures of social complexity reflect the diversity of relationships. However, the association between these two sets of measures remains unclear. We used 12 years of data on 13 gorilla groups to investigate how measures of social complexity relate to each other. We found that group size was a poor proxy for relationship diversity and that the social complexity individuals experienced within the same group varied greatly. Our findings demonstrate two fundamental takeaways: first, that the number of relationships and the diversity of those relationships represent separate components of social complexity, both of which should be accounted for; and second, that social complexity measured at the group level may not represent the social complexity experienced by individuals in those groups. These findings suggest that comprehensive studies of social complexity, particularly those relating to the social demands faced by individuals, may require fine-scale social data to allow accurate comparisons across populations and species.


Assuntos
Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Meio Social
2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 811-817, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867523

RESUMO

Causal pathways to disruptive behavior disorders, even within the same diagnostic category, are varied. Both equifinality and multifinality pose considerable challenges to uncovering underlying mechanisms and understanding varied developmental trajectories associated with disruptive behavior disorders. Uncovering genetic causes requires improved granularity in how we operationalize presentation and developmental trajectories associated with disruptive behavior disorders. If we want to integrate the study of genetic, environmental, and neurocognitive factors within a longitudinal framework, we need to improve measurement. Furthermore, brain changes associated with disruptive behavior disorders should not simply be understood as outcomes of genetic and environmental influences, but also as factors that reciprocally influence future social environments over time in ways that are important in contributing to risk and resilience. Advancing the field with regard to these challenges will result in more truly integrated investigation of disruptive behavior disorders, which holds the promise of improving our ability to develop more effective preventive and intervention approaches.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Encéfalo , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/tendências , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003283, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2011, the protracted Syrian war has had tragic consequences on the lives of the Syrian people, threatening their stability, health, and well-being. The most vulnerable are children, who face interruption of schooling and child labor. This study explored the relationship between social capital and the physical health and emotional well-being of Syrian refugee working children in rural areas of Lebanon. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed 4,090 Syrian refugee children working in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon in 2017. Children (8-18 years) gave direct testimony on their living and social environment in face-to-face interviews. Logistic regressions assessed the association of social capital and social cohesion with the health and emotional well-being of Syrian refugee working children; specifically, poor self-rated health, reporting a health problem, engaging in risky health behavior, feeling lonely, feeling optimistic, and being satisfied with life. Of the 4,090 working children in the study, 11% reported poor health, 16% reported having a health problem, and 13% were engaged in risky behaviors. The majority (67.5%) reported feeling lonely, while around 53% were optimistic and 59% were satisfied with life. The study findings suggest that positive social capital constructs were associated with better health. Lower levels of social cohesion (e.g., not spending time with friends) were significantly associated with poor self-rated health, reporting a physical health problem, and feeling more lonely ([adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.4; CI 1.76-3.36, p < 0.001], [AOR, 1.9; CI 1.44-2.55, p < 0.001], and [AOR, 0.5; CI 0.38-0.76, p < 0.001], respectively). Higher levels of social support (e.g., having good social relations), family social capital (e.g., discussing personal issues with parents), and neighborhood attachment (e.g., having a close friend) were all significantly associated with being more optimistic ([AOR, 1.5; CI 1.2-1.75, p < 0.001], [AOR, 1.3; CI 1.11-1.52, p < 0.001], and [AOR, 1.9; CI 1.58-2.29, p < 0.001], respectively) and more satisfied with life ([AOR, 1.3; CI 1.01-1.54, p = 0.04], [AOR, 1.2; CI 1.01-1.4, p = 0.04], and [AOR, 1.3; CI 1.08-1.6, p = 0.006], respectively). The main limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design, as well as other design issues (using self-reported health measures, using a questionnaire that was not subject to a validation study, and giving equal weighting to all the components of the health and emotional well-being indicators). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the association between social capital, social cohesion, and refugee working children's physical and emotional health. In spite of the poor living and working conditions that Syrian refugee children experience, having a close-knit network of family and friends was associated with better health. Interventions that consider social capital dimensions might contribute to improving the health of Syrian refugee children in informal tented settlements (ITSs).


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Trabalho Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano/etnologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Capital Social , Meio Social , Apoio Social , Síria
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237332, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood socioeconomic (nSES) factors have been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) disparities. In line with the Precision Medicine Initiative that suggests clinical and socioenvironmental factors can impact PCa outcomes, we determined whether nSES variables are associated with time to PCa diagnosis and could inform PCa clinical risk assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included 358 high risk men (PCa family history and/or Black race), aged 35-69 years, enrolled in an early detection program. Patient variables were linked to 78 nSES variables (employment, income, etc.) from previous literature via geocoding. Patient-level models, including baseline age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal exam, as well as combined models (patient plus nSES variables) by race/PCa family history subgroups were built after variable reduction methods using Cox regression and LASSO machine-learning. Model fit of patient and combined models (AIC) were compared; p-values<0.05 were significant. Model-based high/low nSES exposure scores were calculated and the 5-year predicted probability of PCa was plotted against PSA by high/low neighborhood score to preliminarily assess clinical relevance. RESULTS: In combined models, nSES variables were significantly associated with time to PCa diagnosis. Workers mode of transportation and low income were significant in White men with a PCa family history. Homeownership (%owner-occupied houses with >3 bedrooms) and unemployment were significant in Black men with and without a PCa family history, respectively. The 5-year predicted probability of PCa was higher in men with a high neighborhood score (weighted combination of significant nSES variables) compared to a low score (e.g., Baseline PSA level of 4ng/mL for men with PCa family history: White-26.7% vs 7.7%; Black-56.2% vs 29.7%). DISCUSSION: Utilizing neighborhood data during patient risk assessment may be useful for high risk men affected by disparities. However, future studies with larger samples and validation/replication steps are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 48(10): 969-976, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826151

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to describe the attractiveness of a newborn with CL/P and the maternal reaction in relation to the child. Another purpose was to explore and describe the experience and subjectively perceived reaction of the mother and the social environment to the child before and after cleft lip surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study to describe and evaluate mothers' experiences, feelings and emotions (n = 84) regarding having a child with CL/P was performed. Therefore mothers were asked to complete a self-reported, standardized Likert-scale questionnaire. The questions were focused on the mother's own experiences, and the reaction of close family members and the social environment (friends, unknown people) to the child. Therefore two essential situations during the first year of life were analyzed: the first contact with the child, and a second one after lip surgery. The influence of lip reconstruction on the attractiveness of the child and the following reactions were analyzed. The timeline includes surveys from 01/2014 to 12/2016. RESULTS: 84 mothers of affected children (CL/P) replied to the questionnaire (84/103). Most mothers (n = 64) described the attractiveness of their child at birth as "very good" (n = 37) and "good" (n = 27). After lip reconstruction the subjective attractiveness in the mothers' opinions increased to 90.5% (n = 76): 24 "good" (p = 0.23) and 52 "very good" (p = 0.73). 50 mothers defined the postoperative surgical result as "very good", 21 did not see any improvement (p = 0.001). Poor postoperative evaluations like "very poor" (n = 0), "insufficient" (n = 1) or "sufficient" (n = 1) were found two times. The majority of mothers (n = 78) reported negative reactions of the social environment to the child before lip surgery. Friends reacted in general more positively to the child with the visible deformity than did the social environment. 41 mothers described that their life partner or husband reacted "always" more positively to the child (p = 0.018). After surgical lip closure, strangers (n = 22) and even friends (n = 27) did not change their reactions obviously. CONCLUSION: For the mother, the attractiveness of a child with CL/P is not significantly affected by the visible facial malformation. Even if the lip reconstruction increases the child's attractiveness from the mother's perspective, the often negative reactions of the family and social environment did not change.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Meio Social
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237597, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853232

RESUMO

Several factors influence the environmental performance simultaneously but ethnic fractionalization, political freedom, financial development and institutional quality have a substantial impact to explain the environmental performance across economies. This study focuses to explore that how environmental performance is affected by these economic, political and social indicators by using the annual data of 163 developed and developing countries covering the time period of 1996-2016.The data is collected from World Development Indicators, World Governance Indicators, Freedom House and Cline Centre. The stationarity of variables is analyzed through LLC, IPS and ADF Fisher Chi-square test. Before applying panel ARDL approach to find out the long run relationship among variables, order of integration is determined through Pedroni's cointegration test. The findings of study highlight that ethnic diversity; institutional quality and political freedom play a significant role to decrease CO2emissions while energy consumption, GDP growth and financial development are increasing the environmental degradation. Ethnic diversity is a source of creative and innovative approaches about problem solving of environmental degradation. Political freedom allows people to participate in decision making that posits much compliance with environmental agreements. The foreign direct investment is attracted by good quality institutions which cause to advent of more environment friendly technology along with attractions for further innovations that may helpful to reduce CO2 emissions. Contrary, GDP growth, financial development and energy consumption enhance the industrialization and urbanization leading to increase the level of CO2 emissions. It is suggested for policy makers that cohesion among different ethnic groups; improving institutional quality; providing political freedom to people and inclusive financial sector will acknowledge the less pollutant environment.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Meio Social , Urbanização , Humanos
8.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(5): 7405205140p1-7405205140p17, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804632

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Autistic adults face decreased community participation for employment, education, and social activities plus barriers to driving and transportation. However, little is known about their experiences of moving around community environments. OBJECTIVE: To explore contextual issues and experiences of independent community mobility and driving for autistic adults and to determine the modes of community mobility, regions studied, and methodologies used. DATA SOURCES: Seven databases were searched from 2000 to 2019. All empirical research relating to autism, community mobility, and driving for people older than age 5 yr was mapped. Studies examining experiences of community mobility and driving were selected for scoping review. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA COLLECTION: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews methodology was used. Thirteen studies reporting specifically on autistic adults' experiences with public transportation, driving, and pedestrian navigation of community environments were included. These studies were analyzed using concepts from the Person-Environment-Occupation-Performance Model. FINDINGS: Nine studies examined experiences of autistic adults. Seven studies explored proxy perspectives. Those studies examining driving primarily focused on learner driver experiences. Although most studies reported on personal and environmental factors, some studies reported on broader social communication and personal narrative factors. None used inclusive methodology involving autistic adults. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A broader focus on the contextual experiences of community mobility and driving is needed to support participation of autistic adults in their communities. Linking community mobility experiences with participation outcomes and expanding research to include experienced drivers and nonurban populations is an important component of this work. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Occupational therapy interventions should address community mobility and driving skills before school transition. Autistic adults' skill development may be affected by person factors such as motivation, anxiety, social skills, communication, and occupational performance desires. Environmental factors such as parental concerns, community safety, pedestrian environments, traffic volume, and public transportation design are important. Further research partnering with autistic adults could better inform future occupational therapy interventions for community mobility and driving.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Condução de Veículo , Terapia Ocupacional , Adulto , Humanos , Meio Social , Transportes
9.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e155, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787989

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate behavioural problems throughout childhood and adolescent, and its relationship with socioeconomic position (SEP) and early parenting environment. METHODS: Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study conducted in the UK, behavioural problems of 14 452 children were analysed using a growth curve model. The children were followed from birth to adolescence, and their behavioural problems were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ was sub-scaled into externalising and internalising problems. After assessing the general trajectory of children's behavioural problems, variables representing SEP and parenting environments were introduced to the model to analyse the association with children's outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, children's trajectories in externalising problems showed a decreasing trend while internalising problems increased as they aged. Household income and maternal education in early childhood were independently associated with children's behavioural problems, while the association for maternal occupation was significantly weaker. Positive early parenting environments attenuated the association between SEP and children's behavioural problems. Also, with regards to children's behavioural problems, positive parenting explained more variance between children compared to SEP. Favourable parent-child relationship buffered the income gradient in children's behavioural problems during early childhood, and although this buffering effect did not last until adolescence, those who had good parent-child relationships developed better outcomes regardless of their SEP. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study emphasise the importance of a positive early parenting environment for improving and reducing the socioeconomic gap in children's behavioural problems and encourages policies to promote better parenting circumstances.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Classe Social , Meio Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233906, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687501

RESUMO

After more than four decades of research and almost 100 attachment studies, the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of attachment still remain unclear. To better understand the mechanisms moderating the associations of attachment orientations from one generation to the next, this empirical study examined the roles of 1) shared and non-shared environmental factors that characterize critical events in adulthood such as career choice, income and child care; 2) gender differences in attachment between parents (Generation 1, G1) and their adult offspring (Generation 2, G2) and their possible interactions. A sample of 321 families with G2 adults aged 18 and over and two G1 parents up to the age of 81 took part in this study. Both generations completed the Experiences in Close Relationships attachment measure as well as a comprehensive detailed measure of current core characteristics in adulthood (e.g. employment status, income, whether they had children) and demographic variables (gender, age). The findings suggest that the associations between the attachment orientations of G1 and the attachment orientations of G2 were moderated by G2's income, their G1 paternal income and employment status, whether G2 had children (G3) of their own, and their family status after controlling for the age of G2, and the age of both paternal and maternal G1. When the associations for both paternal and maternal G1attachment orientation with both their male and female G2 was analyzed separately, this accounted for 35% of the variance of males' G2 attachment orientation. The discussion focuses on the contribution of these findings to attachment theory and draws clinical conclusions.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Catexia , Identidade de Gênero , Avós/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Meio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Criança , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20200976, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673552

RESUMO

Several studies have implicated testosterone in the modulation of altruistic behaviours instrumental to advancing social status. Independent studies have also shown that people tend to behave more altruistically when being watched (i.e. audience effect). To date, little is known about whether testosterone could modulate the audience effect. In the current study, we tested the effect of testosterone on altruistic behaviour using a donation task, wherein participants were asked to either accept or reject a monetary transfer to a charity organization accompanying a personal cost either in the presence or absence of an observer. We administered testosterone gel or placebo to healthy young men (n = 140) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, mixed design. Our results showed that participants were more likely to accept the monetary transfer to the charity when being observed compared to when they completed the task alone. More importantly, this audience effect was amplified among people receiving testosterone versus placebo. Our findings suggest that testosterone administration increases the audience effect and further buttress the social status hypothesis, according to which testosterone promotes status-seeking behaviour in a context-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Androgênios/farmacologia , Testosterona/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20200025, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693730

RESUMO

Many social interactions are characterized by dynamic interplay, such that individuals exert reciprocal influence over each other's behaviours and beliefs. The present study investigated how the dynamics of reciprocal influence affect individual beliefs in a social context, over and above the information communicated in an interaction. To this end, we developed a simple social decision-making paradigm in which two people are asked to make perceptual judgments while receiving information about each other's decisions. In a Static condition, information about the partner only conveyed their initial, independent judgment. However, in a Dynamic condition, each individual saw the evolving belief of their partner as they learnt about and responded to the individual's own judgment. The results indicated that in both conditions, the majority of confidence adjustments were characterized by an abrupt change followed by smaller adjustments around an equilibrium, and that participants' confidence was used to arbitrate conflict (although deviating from Bayesian norm). Crucially, recursive interaction had systematic effects on belief change relative to the static baseline, magnifying confidence change when partners agreed and reducing confidence change when they disagreed. These findings indicate that during dynamic interactions-often a characteristic of real-life and online social contexts-information is collectively transformed rather than acted upon by individuals in isolation. Consequently, the output of social events is not only influenced by what the dyad knows but also by predictable recursive and self-reinforcing dynamics.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Julgamento , Meio Social
13.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 53(5): 382-388, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though the effects of cultural activities on active and positive ageing have been extensively examined, spatial aspects have hardly been considered by research in this field. OBJECTIVES: Instead of understanding active ageing as a result of cultural education, this article focuses on practices of (active) ageing in cultural education programs for older adults. We examined the meanings of space and spatial arrangements in which cultural education takes place and how these spatial aspects limit or enable active ageing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The article is based on six qualitative case studies of programs for cultural education for older adults. In programs, such as a yodel seminar or a theater workshop, data were collated by participatory observation and qualitative interviews with the participants and trainers of each program. All data were analyzed using situational analysis. RESULTS: We found that the spaces where the programs took place had a special meaning to the older participants. This was mainly because these spaces where not exclusively designed for target groups of older adults. The experience of the program was not only characterized by these meanings but also by how these spaces were used within the program. Active ageing was realized through the appropriation of new spaces and specific spatial arrangements. CONCLUSION: This article shows how spatial arrangements and the experience of (active) ageing are intertwined. To foster active ageing, cultural education programs need to provide spaces which can be used accordingly. For environmental gerontology, this paper highlights the necessity to consider the symbolic dimension of spaces and environments in research.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Educação/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Geriatria/educação , Vida Independente/psicologia , Comportamento Espacial , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Meio Social
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663217

RESUMO

The increasing denormalization of smoking by tobacco control policies and a normative smoke-free climate may shift power towards adolescent non-smokers. It is unclear, however, how common stigmatization of smokers is among adolescents or how stigmatization relates to the denormalization of smoking in their school and social environment. This paper aims to measure (1) whether stigmatization among European adolescents varies according to smoking status and socioeconomic position (SES), and (2) whether stigmatization is greater in school environments in which smoking is denormalized (i.e. those with low smoking rates and strong school tobacco policies). Data on 12,991 adolescents were collected in 55 schools in seven European countries (SILNE R-survey, 2016/17). We applied Stuber's adapted scale of perceived stereotyping and discrimination towards smokers to smoking status and five variables indicating a power shift towards non-smokers: the school's tobacco control policy (STP) score, the percentage of adolescents in the school who smoke, parents' level of education, students' academic performance, and the percentage of their friends who smoke. Multilevel regressions were applied to the global score for perceived stigmatization. Discrimination against smokers and stereotyping of smokers were frequently reported. Smokers reported less 'perceived stigmatization of smoking' than non-smokers (Beta = -0.146, p < 0.001). High-SES students reported stereotyping and discrimination more frequently than lower-SES students. The perception of stigmatization was lower among students whose academic performance was poor (Beta = -0.070, p < 0.001) and among those who had friends who smoked (Beta = -0.141, p < 0.001). Stigmatization was lower in schools with greater exposure to smoking and was not associated with the school's STP score. Perceived stigmatization of smoking is common among European adolescents. Smokers themselves, however, perceive stigmatization less often than non-smokers. Strong school tobacco policies do not increase stigmatization, but a social environment that is permissive of smoking decreases perceived stigmatization.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Política Antifumo , Estereotipagem , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio Social , Estudantes
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235467, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug use during sex, 'chemsex', is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) and related to sexual and mental health harms. This study assessed associations between chemsex and a wide range of determinants among MSM visiting STI clinics to increase understanding of characteristics and beliefs of MSM practicing chemsex. METHODS: In 2018, 785 MSM were recruited at nine Dutch STI clinics; 368 (47%) fully completed the online questionnaire. All participants reported to have had sex in the past six months. Chemsex was defined as using cocaine, crystal meth, designer drugs, GHB/GBL, ketamine, speed or XTC/MDMA during sex in the past six months. Associations between chemsex and psychosocial determinants, socio-demographics, sexual behaviour and using tobacco or alcohol were assessed by multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Chemsex was reported by 44% of MSM (161/368) and was not associated with socio-demographics. Independent determinants were 'believing that the majority of friends/sex partners use drugs during sex' (descriptive norm) (aOR: 1.95, 95%CI: 1.43-2.65), 'believing that sex is more fun when using drugs' (attitude) (aOR: 2.06, 95%CI: 1.50-2.84), using tobacco (aOR: 2.65, 95%CI: 1.32-5.32), multiple sex partners (aOR: 2.69, 95%CI: 1.21-6.00), group sex (aOR: 4.65, 95%CI: 1.54-14.05) and using online dating platforms (aOR: 2.73, 95%CI: 1.13-6.62). CONCLUSION: MSM are likely to find themselves in distinct social networks where it is the norm to use drugs when having sex and pleasure is linked to chemsex. Health services should acknowledge the social influence and pleasurable experiences to increase acceptability of strategies aimed at minimizing the possible harms of chemsex.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Meio Social
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235172, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614849

RESUMO

Relational mobility is a socio-ecological construct quantifying how much freedom and opportunity a society affords individuals to choose and dispose of interpersonal relationships. Past research has confirmed that relational mobility varies across nations, but no large-scale study has examined the degree to which relational mobility may vary within a single nation. We report two studies (Study 1, N = 647; Study 2, N = 7343) exploring within-country similarity or variability in relational mobility across all 27 states and five geo-socio-political regions in the continent-size country of Brazil. Results confirmed the measurement equivalence of the Relational Mobility Scale across respondents from all Brazilian states. Notably, relational mobility scores were uniform across Brazilian regions and states, indicating a common national culture regarding the amount of opportunities Brazilians have in selecting new relationship partners within their social context. Replicating existing findings, relational mobility was positively associated with pro-active tendencies that help people retain relationships-levels of intimacy and self-disclosure toward a close friend-indicating that friends tend to feel closer intimacy to their close friends, and reveal serious personal information to a larger degree in social contexts where opportunities to find and retain relationships with like-minded others are greater.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrevelação , Parceiros Sexuais , Meio Social
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730312

RESUMO

Environmental adversity is associated with a wide range of biological outcomes and behaviors that seem to fulfill a need to favor immediate over long-term benefits. Adversity is also associated with decreased investment in cooperation, which is defined as a long-term strategy. Beyond establishing the correlation between adversity and cooperation, the channel through which this relationship arises remains unclear. We propose that this relationship is mediated by a present bias at the psychological level, which is embodied in the reproduction-maintenance trade-off at the biological level. We report two pre-registered studies applying structural equation models to test this relationship on large-scale datasets (the European Values Study and the World Values Survey). The present study replicates existing research linking adverse environments (both in childhood and in adulthood) with decreased investment in adult cooperation and finds that this association is indeed mediated by variations in individuals' reproduction-maintenance trade-off.


Assuntos
Processos Grupais , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicopatologia , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008399, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598390

RESUMO

The present study aims to investigate how the social context contributes to the prognosis of Chagas disease (CD). This is a multilevel study that considered individual and contextual data. Individual data came from a Brazilian cohort study that followed 1,637 patients who lived in 21 municipalities to which CD is endemic, over two years. Contextual data were collected from official Brazilian government databases. The dependent variable was the occurrence of cardiovascular events in CD during the two-year follow-up, defined from the grouping of three possible combined events: death, development of atrial fibrillation, or pacemaker implantation. Analysis was performed using multilevel binary logistic regression. Among the individuals evaluated, 205 (12.5%) manifested cardiovascular events in CD during two years of follow-up. Individuals living in municipalities with a larger rural population had protection for these events (OR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.4-0.7), while those residing in municipalities with fewer physicians per thousand inhabitants (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2-2.5) and those living in municipalities with lower Primary Health Care (PHC) coverage (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1) had higher chances of experiencing cardiovascular events. Among the individual variables, the probability of experiencing cardiovascular events was higher for individuals aged over 60 years (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.01-2.2), with no stable relationship (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.98-2.1), without previous treatment with Benznidazole (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.98-2.9), with functional class limitation (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.9), with a QRS complex duration longer than 120 ms (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.3), and in individuals with high NT-proBNP levels (OR = 6.4; 95% CI = 4.3-9.6). CONCLUSION: The present study showed that the occurrence of cardiovascular events in individuals with CD is determined by individual conditions that express the severity of cardiovascular involvement. However, these individual characteristics are not isolated protagonists of this outcome, and the context in which individuals live, are also determining factors for a worse clinical prognosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Meio Social , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Prognóstico , População Rural
20.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 30(6): 951-954, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591913
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