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1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 186, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduction in ideal number of children has been suggested as a necessary precursor for fertility decline especially in high fertility countries of Western and Central Africa. In this study, we explored the social contexts of fertility desires by documenting the effects of individual, household as well as contextual characteristics among young men and women in Nigeria. METHODS: Data source was the male and female recode file of 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Analytical sample comprised 2674 males and 9637 females aged 15-24 years. The main outcome variable was desire for large family size (DLFS) defined as ideal number of children greater than four. Analysis involved use of descriptive statistics and random-effect logit models fitted in four stages. RESULTS: DLFS was 71% among young men and 53% in women. Individual-level factors associated with DLFS among men includes Islam religion (OR = 3.95, CI 2.68-5.83), household size (OR = 1.05) and richer (OR = 0.47, CI 0.29-0.75) or richest wealth index (OR = 0.28, CI 0.16-0.75). Geo-political region and high level of negative attitude to family planning (OR = 1.72, CI 1.23-2.40) were the main contextual factors associated with DLFS. For women, individual-level correlates were education, religion, ethnicity, marital status, household size, and wealth index. Contextual factors include geo-political region, community education (OR = 0.68, CI 0.52-0.89), child mortality experience (OR = 1.29, CI 1.11-1.51) and negative attitude to family planning (OR = 1.36, CI 1.13-1.65). The influence of religion, household wealth and attitude to family planning differ between young men and women. CONCLUSION: Active communication and programmatic interventions are needed so that desire for large family size by young men and women do not become a clog for fertility transition in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Fertilidade , Países em Desenvolvimento , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Dinâmica Populacional , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 575-581, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410735

RESUMO

In 1992, the United States government expanded a 1978 decision to observe Asian Pacific American Heritage Week to a month-long recognition of the contributions of Asian Americans to the country's history and ongoing cultural milieu. Since 2000, the Asian population in the United States has grown by 72%-the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the country. Today, the Census reports that Asians comprise 22 million United States residents. Despite this unprecedented growth, Asian Americans remain largely invisible in the national dialogue and in scientific research. This special issue features theoretical, empirical, and policy articles that highlight Asian Americans in psychology. Asian Americans remain marginalized and invisible in scientific endeavors for several reasons. For example, consolidating many ethnic groups under an "Asian American" pan-ethnic umbrella masks meaningful cultural, linguistic, ethnic, migration, gender, sexual/gender identity/expression, and socioeconomic differences. These intersectional identities result in experiences that are multiply marginalized, contributing to invisibility. The model minority stereotype highlights high-achieving and successful individuals, rendering the segment of the Asian American population that is struggling irrelevant and unworthy of attention. This special issue directly interrogates sources of invisibility to synthesize theory, research, and policy focused on Asian Americans. The articles in this special issue focus on the intersectional spaces that Asian Americans occupy, unpacking the diversity behind the "Asian American" pan-ethnic label, experiences of identity and discrimination across a range of Asian American groups, and areas of theory/research/policy where Asian American experiences have been overlooked. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Psicologia/tendências , Marginalização Social , Estereotipagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio Social , Estados Unidos
3.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 582-595, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410736

RESUMO

In this paper, we articulate a conceptual model for the process of ethnic identity development and integration among Asian American children and youth that offers potential explanations for their marginalization as they negotiate multiple facets of their identities and locate themselves in local and national contexts. The conceptual model is based on an integration of theory and empirical research on the intertwined processes of ethnic identity development and socialization of children and youth in Asian American families and is anchored in the developmental domain of identity formation and integration. We present the conceptual model as three overlapping circles to represent salient features of physical and social contexts, prevalent metanarratives that have been empirically established as salient meaning-making frames pertinent to the lived experience of Asian Americans in the United States, and the dynamic individual-context interplay and mutual adjustment that is part of developmental process. We then build on the work of scholars who have advanced the theoretical and empirical literature on the Asian American experience in the United States, to illustrate how the three components (features of context, master narratives, and developmental processes) intersect in the overlapping spaces of the model to foreground the dialectic processes whereby identity is constructed as contextualized in place. The primary contribution of the model is to facilitate generating research questions that can unravel the complexities of how specific ethnic backgrounds (e.g., immigration and settlement histories), developmental status, individual position on societal racial/ethnic hierarchy, and prevalent societal metanarratives contextualize the development of an Asian American ethnic-racial identity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Marginalização Social/psicologia , Socialização , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Humanos , Meio Social , Estados Unidos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444130

RESUMO

(1) Objectives: Using cross-sectional datasets, we investigated whether better self-perceived physical and social neighborhood environment was associated with perceived health status and health-related behaviors among Chinese rural residents. (2) Study Design: The study was based on the 2016 China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) survey. The sample consisted of 7191 rural residents over 18 in China. (3) Methods: The article measured physical neighborhood environment from the two aspects of dwelling environment (DE) and public facilities convenience (PFC), and social neighborhood environment from public security (PS) and neighborhood relationship (NR). Associations between health status/health-related behaviors and self-perceived physical/social neighborhood environment were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. (4) Results: The results suggested that rural residents who live in a good neighborhood environment reported having a better health status. Specifically, rural residents who reported living in good DE were less likely to have a depressive mood and poor health conditions. Those who reported good PFC were less likely to have depressive mood, poor self-rated health and chronic diseases. Rural residents who reported having good PS were less likely to have a depressive mood. Those who reported good NR were less likely to have a depressive mood, poor self-rated health, chronic diseases and obesity. Regarding neighborhood environment and health-related behaviors, the results showed that rural residents who reported good PFC were more likely to do physical exercise. Notably, the regression results of the education level variable showed that education level significantly promoted the health-related behaviors (time sleeping weekday, physical exercise and smoking) of rural residents. (5) Conclusions: This article suggested that there was strong evidence for a relationship between physical and social neighborhood environment and the general health of rural residents due to all causes. According to the conclusion of this article, in order to improve the health of rural residents, policy interventions should give priority to improving the neighborhood environment. In addition, the improvement in the degree that rural residents are exposed to education is of the same importance, which helps more rural residents to maintain good health-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Meio Social , China , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360319

RESUMO

This study analyzed the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Age-Friendly Cities Guide to observe its role in embodying social inclusion of older adults in attempts to prevent social exclusion. Social exclusion refers to the marginalization of individuals and groups from important economic and social opportunities in the society. Many aging societies are implementing social inclusion of older adults as one of their key policy agendas to create a more sustainable and healthy society, in recognition that age functions as one of the essential factors accelerating social exclusion and declining physical and mental health of those affected. In order to explore the pertinence of the WHO guidelines to social inclusion of older adults, content analysis was conducted on each checklist item in the WHO guideline to identify its relation to the four dimensions of social exclusion, which are social interaction, production, consumption, and political engagement. The results showed comprehensive coverage of each dimension by the guideline, although the relative importance of each dimension was unequal. Additional insights were suggested to promote further social inclusion of older adults in the context of an age-friendly environment.


Assuntos
Meio Social , Isolamento Social , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Cidades , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360377

RESUMO

Depression has become a major social issue of global concern, which has seriously threatened the quality of an individual's life. Although the relationship between community environment and depression has aroused heated debate, the empirical research on the relationship between community environment perception and public depression is still relatively insufficient. Data for this study are from China Family Panel Studies in 2016, which were conducted by the institute of Social Science Survey, Peking University. This paper has tested group differences in the influence of community environment on public depression, as well as the mediating role of subjective social class between community environment perception and depression, so as to further explore the social psychological effect of community environment. The empirical study found that there are group differences in the impacts of community environment perception on depression. Specifically, men, rural residents, and people aged 60 and under are more likely to be depressed which were affected by the perception of community environment. Furthermore, we have found that the subjective social class can partly mediate community environment perception and depression. That is to say, the perception of community environment can induce depression by influencing the individual's subjective social class. Among them, community living environment and community public facilities have the greatest impact, community emotional attachment and community security situation have the second impact, and neighborhood mutual aid and neighborhood relationship have the least impact. In other words, the community environment is deeply endowed with a social psychological effect. To ameliorate the public's depression, it is necessary to consider the construction of community physical environment and the cultivation of harmonious community culture as powerful measures not to be ignored. In short, the important role of community environmental intervention in alleviating the public's depression caused by social class cognition deserves attention.


Assuntos
Depressão , Meio Social , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Classe Social
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The analysis has involved social interactions in a multicultural environment. The social context has been defined by the Vilnius region (Lithuania), where national, religious, and cultural differences exist across generations (multicultural community). The space of "social relationships", as one of the modules of the WHO quality of life assessment, has been studied. An innovation of the research has been related to the analysis of the phenomenon of community of nationalities and cultures as a predictor of quality of life (QoL). The social motive of the research has been the historical continuity (for centuries) of the construction of the Vilnius cultural borderland. Here, the local community evolves from a group of many cultures to an intercultural community. Interpreting the data, therefore, requires a long perspective (a few generations) to understand the quality of relationships. We see social interactions and strategies for building them as a potential for social QoL in multicultural environments. METHODS: The research has been conducted on a sample of 374 respondents, including Poles (172), Lithuanians (133), and Russians (69). A diagnostic poll has been used. The respondents were adolescents (15-16 years). The research answers the question: What variables form the interaction strategies of adolescents in a multicultural environment? The findings relate to interpreting the social interactions of adolescents within the boundaries of their living environment. The description of the social relations of adolescents provides an opportunity to implement the findings for further research on QoL. RESULTS: An innovative outcome of the research is the analysis of 3 interaction strategies (attachment to national identification, intercultural dialogue, and multicultural community building) as a background for interpreting QoL in a multicultural environment. Their understanding is a useful knowledge for QoL researchers. The data analysis has taken into account cultural and generational (historical) sensitivities. Therefore, the team studying the data has consisted of researchers and residents of the Vilnius region. We used the interaction strategies of adolescents to describe the category of "social relationships" in nationally and culturally diverse settings.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Interação Social , Adolescente , Diversidade Cultural , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Meio Social
9.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1276-1281, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432665

RESUMO

The clinical learning environment (CLE) encompasses the learner's personal characteristics and experiences, social relationships, organizational culture, and the institution's physical and virtual infrastructure. During the COVID-19 pandemic, all 4 of these parts of the CLE have undergone a massive and rapid disruption. Personal and social communications have been limited to virtual interactions or shifted to unfamiliar clinical spaces because of redeployment. Rapid changes to the organizational culture required prompt adaptations from learners and educators in their complex organizational systems yet caused increased confusion and anxiety among them. A traditional reliance on a physical infrastructure for classical educational practices in the CLE was challenged when all institutions had to undergo a major transition to a virtual learning environment. However, disruptions spurred exciting innovations in the CLE. An entire cohort of physicians and learners underwent swift adjustments in their personal and professional development and identity as they rose to meet the clinical and educational challenges they faced due to COVID-19. Social networks and collaborations were expanded beyond traditional institutional walls and previously held international boundaries within multiple specialties. Specific aspects of the organizational and educational culture, including epidemiology, public health, and medical ethics, were brought to the forefront in health professions education, while the physical learning environment underwent a rapid transition to a virtual learning space. As health professions education continues in the era of COVID-19 and into a new era, educators must take advantage of these dynamic systems to identify additional gaps and implement meaningful change. In this article, health professions educators and learners from multiple institutions and specialties discuss the gaps and weaknesses exposed, opportunities revealed, and strategies developed for optimizing the CLE in the post-COVID-19 world.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação Médica/métodos , Aprendizagem , Distanciamento Físico , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Educação à Distância/organização & administração , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Humanos , Práticas Interdisciplinares , Cultura Organizacional , Meio Social , Rede Social , Estados Unidos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299967

RESUMO

Motor performance during childhood is important for prosperity in life, and the social environment may contain potentially important and modifiable factors associated with motor performance. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify social environmental factors associated with motor performance in 3- to 12-year-old typically developing children. Four electronic databases were searched, which resulted in 31 included studies. The methodological quality was determined using the Quality of Prognosis Studies in Systematic Reviews tool. Most studies were conducted in 3-6-year-old children. In the home environment, parental beliefs in the importance of physical activity and parental behaviors matching these beliefs were related to better motor performance of children, although these relationships were often sex-dependent. The school and sports environments were investigated much less, but some preliminary evidence was found that being better liked by peers, attending a classroom with a smaller age range, having more interaction with the teacher and classmates, and having a higher educated teacher was related to better motor performance. Further research is required to further unravel the relationship between the social environment and motor skills, with a specific focus on 6-12-year-old children and environments outside of the home environment.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Esportes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Meio Social , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
11.
eNeuro ; 8(4)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272258

RESUMO

Mutations in the X-linked cell adhesion protein PCDH19 lead to seizures, cognitive impairment, and other behavioral comorbidities when present in a mosaic pattern. Neither the molecular mechanisms underpinning this disorder nor the function of PCDH19 itself are well understood. By combining RNA in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry and analyzing single-cell RNA sequencing datasets, we reveal Pcdh19 expression in cortical interneurons and provide a first account of the subtypes of neurons expressing Pcdh19/PCDH19, both in the mouse and the human cortex. Our quantitative analysis of the Pcdh19 mutant mouse exposes subtle changes in cortical layer composition, with no major alterations of the main axonal tracts. In addition, Pcdh19 mutant animals, particularly females, display preweaning behavioral changes, including reduced anxiety and increased exploratory behavior. Importantly, our experiments also reveal an effect of the social environment on the behavior of wild-type littermates of Pcdh19 mutant mice, which show alterations when compared with wild-type animals not housed with mutants.


Assuntos
Caderinas , Comportamento Exploratório , Animais , Caderinas/genética , Feminino , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Neurônios , Convulsões , Meio Social
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social environments are a contributing determinant of health and disparities. This scoping review details how social environments have been operationalized in observational studies of cognitive aging and dementia. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed and Web of Science identified studies of social environment exposures and late-life cognition/dementia outcomes. Data were extracted on (1) study design; (2) population; (3) social environment(s); (4) cognitive outcome(s); (5) analytic approach; and (6) theorized causal pathways. Studies were organized using a 3-tiered social ecological model at interpersonal, community, or policy levels. RESULTS: Of 7802 non-duplicated articles, 123 studies met inclusion criteria. Eighty-four studies were longitudinal (range 1-28 years) and 16 examined time-varying social environments. When sorted into social ecological levels, 91 studies examined the interpersonal level; 37 examined the community/neighborhood level; 3 examined policy level social environments; and 7 studies examined more than one level. CONCLUSIONS: Most studies of social environments and cognitive aging and dementia examined interpersonal factors measured at a single point in time. Few assessed time-varying social environmental factors or considered multiple social ecological levels. Future studies can help clarify opportunities for intervention by delineating if, when, and how social environments shape late-life cognitive aging and dementia outcomes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Demência , Cognição , Humanos , Características de Residência , Meio Social
13.
Nature ; 595(7866): 214-222, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194037

RESUMO

The ability to 'sense' the social environment and thereby to understand the thoughts and actions of others allows humans to fit into their social worlds, communicate and cooperate, and learn from others' experiences. Here we argue that, through the lens of computational social science, this ability can be used to advance research into human sociality. When strategically selected to represent a specific population of interest, human social sensors can help to describe and predict societal trends. In addition, their reports of how they experience their social worlds can help to build models of social dynamics that are constrained by the empirical reality of human social systems.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Modelos Teóricos , Meio Social , Ciências Sociais/métodos , Habilidades Sociais , Teoria da Mente , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais
14.
J Affect Disord ; 293: 197-204, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217138

RESUMO

Mindfulness could benefit elementary school students' mental health, but little is known about the mechanisms of mindfulness in the elementary school context. The current studies explored mindfulness's relationship to stress and anxiety in elementary school students and potential mediators in the connections from proximal and distal perspectives. DESIGN: In Study 1, a daily diary approach was used to examine the mediating role of cognitive flexibility on mindfulness's dynamic association to stress and anxiety. In Study 2, we examined the longitudinal relationships between mindfulness at baseline and stress and anxiety at 6-month follow-up and the mediating roles of self-awareness (i.e., self-esteem and self-identity) and social environment (i.e., student-teacher relationship and peer relationship). MAIN OUTCOMES: From a proximal perspective, cognitive flexibility mediated the negative relationship of state mindfulness to stress and anxiety. From a distal standpoint, self-esteem mediated the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and anxiety. Perceived peer relationship mediated the association of dispositional mindfulness to stress and anxiety. CONCLUSION: For elementary school students, state mindfulness showed immediate effects, and dispositional mindfulness showed long-term effects on reducing anxiety and stress through different mechanisms. Limitations and implications were discussed.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Ansiedade , China , Cognição , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Estudantes
15.
J Adolesc Health ; 69(1S): S5-S15, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This paper used data from the Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) to provide a descriptive analysis of how early adolescents' social environments vary by sex across diverse cultural settings. METHODS: The analyses were based on baseline data among 10-14-year old adolescents living in disadvantaged urban areas in seven sites: Kinshasa (DRC), Shanghai (China), Cuenca (Ecuador), Lampung, Semarang and Denpasar (Indonesia), and Flanders (Belgium). Except in Kinshasa where face-to face interviews were used, data were collected using self-administered surveys on mobile tablets. Social environments were measured by examining factors within five main domains, including the household and family, school, peers, neighborhoods, and the media. Site-specific descriptive analyses were performed, using Chi square tests and Student T-tests to identify sex-differences in each site. RESULTS: The majority of early adolescents lived in two-parent households, perceived their parents/guardians cared and monitored them, had at least one friend, reported high educational aspirations, and perceived their neighborhoods as safe, socially cohesive, with a high level of social control. Yet, large gender and site differences were also observed. More girls reported same-sex friends and high levels of parental monitoring, while boys were more likely to have mixed-sex friends and spend greater amounts of time with friends. Adolescents in Kinshasa and Semarang watched the most TV per day, while higher proportions of adolescents in Flanders used social media on a daily basis. Significant gender differences in media use were also observed but varied according to site. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding how social contexts differ between boys and girls across sites has relevance for how we might examine gender attitude formations and subsequent health behaviors. Given the increased attention on the importance of early adolescence for shaping gender attitudes and norms, implementing approaches that consider the differences in boys' and girls' lives may hold the most promise for creating sustained and improve change.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Adolescente , Bélgica , Criança , China , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Meio Social
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299936

RESUMO

Most studies have focused on factors associated with depression at the individual level, and evidence on ecological models linking social-economic features with depression is rare in Taiwan. This study aimed to use multi-level analysis to explore the effects of social-economic environments on depressive symptoms among Taiwanese adults. The 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Age-Friendly Environments database were linked in this study. A total of 6602 adults aged 20 years and older were included in the analysis. A Chinese version of the 10-item CESD was used as the outcome measure. Three social indicators (population density, divorce rate, and crime rate) and three economic indicators (unemployment rate, per capita disposable income, and per capita government expenditures) at the ecological level were examined. Results showed that two social environments and two economic features were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. However, the effects of these factors were different by gender and age groups. The economic environments were critical for males and young adults aged 20-44 years old, whereas the social environments were significant for females and middle-aged and older adults. Intervention efforts for depression prevention should integrate ecological approaches into the effects of social-economic environments on depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão , Vida Independente , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio Social , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281008

RESUMO

Social disadvantage-a state of low-income, limited education, poor living conditions, or limited social support-mediates chronic health conditions, including cerebrovascular disease. Social disadvantage is a key component in several health impact frameworks, providing explanations for how individual-level factors interact with interpersonal and environmental factors to create health disparities. Understanding the association between social disadvantage and vascular neuropathology, brain lesions identified by neuroimaging and autopsy, could provide insight into how one's social context interacts with biological processes to produce disease. The goal of this scoping review was to evaluate the scientific literature on the relationship between social disadvantage and cerebrovascular disease, confirmed through assessment of vascular neuropathology. We reviewed 4049 titles and abstracts returned from our search and included records for full-text review that evaluated a measure of social disadvantage as an exposure variable and cerebrovascular disease, confirmed through assessment of vascular neuropathology, as an outcome measure. We extracted exposures and outcomes from 20 articles meeting the criteria after full-text review, and described the study findings and populations sampled. An improved understanding of the link between social factors and cerebrovascular disease will be an important step in moving the field closer to addressing the fundamental causes of disease and towards more equitable brain health.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares , Neuroimagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Grupos Populacionais , Meio Social
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 686, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between community-level risk factors and COVID-19 incidence have been used to identify vulnerable subpopulations and target interventions, but the variability of these associations over time remains largely unknown. We evaluated variability in the associations between community-level predictors and COVID-19 case incidence in 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts from March to October 2020. METHODS: Using publicly available sociodemographic, occupational, environmental, and mobility datasets, we developed mixed-effect, adjusted Poisson regression models to depict associations between these variables and town-level COVID-19 case incidence data across five distinct time periods from March to October 2020. We examined town-level demographic variables, including population proportions by race, ethnicity, and age, as well as factors related to occupation, housing density, economic vulnerability, air pollution (PM2.5), and institutional facilities. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) associated with these predictors and compared these values across the multiple time periods to assess variability in the observed associations over time. RESULTS: Associations between key predictor variables and town-level incidence varied across the five time periods. We observed reductions over time in the association with percentage of Black residents (IRR = 1.12 [95%CI: 1.12-1.13]) in early spring, IRR = 1.01 [95%CI: 1.00-1.01] in early fall) and COVID-19 incidence. The association with number of long-term care facility beds per capita also decreased over time (IRR = 1.28 [95%CI: 1.26-1.31] in spring, IRR = 1.07 [95%CI: 1.05-1.09] in fall). Controlling for other factors, towns with higher percentages of essential workers experienced elevated incidences of COVID-19 throughout the pandemic (e.g., IRR = 1.30 [95%CI: 1.27-1.33] in spring, IRR = 1.20 [95%CI: 1.17-1.22] in fall). Towns with higher proportions of Latinx residents also had sustained elevated incidence over time (IRR = 1.19 [95%CI: 1.18-1.21] in spring, IRR = 1.14 [95%CI: 1.13-1.15] in fall). CONCLUSIONS: Town-level COVID-19 risk factors varied with time in this study. In Massachusetts, racial (but not ethnic) disparities in COVID-19 incidence may have decreased across the first 8 months of the pandemic, perhaps indicating greater success in risk mitigation in selected communities. Our approach can be used to evaluate effectiveness of public health interventions and target specific mitigation efforts on the community level.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Pandemias , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Populações Vulneráveis/etnologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12248, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study identifies the ecological (ie, policy, environment, intrapersonal, and interpersonal) factors affecting the implementation of an Infant at Work program in a university setting. METHODS: Data were collected among faculty, staff, and graduate students at a large Midwestern university from February to July 2020 via focus group (FG) discussions with university employees (n = 22) and semistructured interviews with university administrators (n = 10). We used techniques from expanded grounded theory, allowing for a constant comparative approach to data contextualization and theme identification. RESULTS: Three themes emerged from the FG data: (i) program and policy scope, (ii) employee and employer benefits, and (iii) workplace concerns. Onsite daycares, flexible schedules and participation, and expanded childcare options were some of the programs and policies employees desired. However, barriers to implementing these types of programs include cost, safety, and structure of the work environment. CONCLUSIONS: Findings offer practical recommendations and strategies to improve work/life balance among parents transitioning back to work in a university environment. Findings also provide insight into the feasibility of family-friendly workplace policies and environments. Additionally, findings provide a framework for other organizations to implement similar Infant at Work programs to improve employee work/life balance.


Assuntos
Docentes/psicologia , Cuidado do Lactente/psicologia , Política Organizacional , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Docentes/organização & administração , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Organizacional , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Meio Social , Universidades , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4398, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285226

RESUMO

Studies in rodents and captive primates suggest that the early-life social environment affects future phenotype, potentially through alterations to DNA methylation. Little is known of these associations in wild animals. In a wild population of spotted hyenas, we test the hypothesis that maternal care during the first year of life and social connectedness during two periods of early development leads to differences in DNA methylation and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) later in life. Here we report that although maternal care and social connectedness during the den-dependent life stage are not associated with fGCMs, greater social connectedness during the subadult den-independent life stage is associated with lower adult fGCMs. Additionally, more maternal care and social connectedness after den independence correspond with higher global (%CCGG) DNA methylation. We also note differential DNA methylation near 5 genes involved in inflammation, immune response, and aging that may link maternal care with stress phenotype.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Hyaenidae/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Meio Social , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Animais , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/análise , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Hyaenidae/genética , Hyaenidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
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