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1.
Soc Sci Med ; 272: 113743, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592395

RESUMO

Community responses to the SARS-CoV-2, or "coronavirus" outbreaks of 2020 reveal a great deal about society. In the absence of government mandates, debates over issues such as mask mandates and social distancing activated conflicting moral beliefs, dividing communities. Policy scholars argue that such controversies represent fundamental frame conflicts, which arise from incommensurable worldviews, such as contested notions of "liberty" versus "equity". This article investigates frames people constructed to make sense of coronavirus and how this affected social behavior in 2020. We conducted an interpretive framing analysis using ethnographic data from a predominately white, conservative, and rural midwestern tourist town in the United States from June to August 2020. We collected semi-structured interviews with 87 community members, observed meetings, events, and daily life. We identified four frames that individuals constructed to make sense of coronavirus: Concern, Crisis, Constraint, and Conspiracy. Concern frames illustrated how some individuals are uniquely affected and thus protect themselves. Crisis frames recognized coronavirus as a pervasive and profound threat requiring unprecedented action. Constraint frames emphasized the coronavirus response as a threat to financial stability and personal growth that should be resisted. Conspiracy frames denied its biological basis and did not compel action. These four conflicting frames demonstrate how social fragmentation, based on conflicting values, led to an incomplete pandemic response in the absence of government mandates at the national, state, and local levels in rural America. These findings provide a social rationale for public health mandates, such as masking, school/business closures, and social distancing, when contested beliefs impede collective action.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , População Rural , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos
2.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(3): 128-134, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to explore nurses' fatigue levels and sleep measures during two 12-hour consecutive day shifts and examine the relationships between nurses' fatigue levels within shifts and their previous-night sleep characteristics. BACKGROUND: Monitoring changes in fatigue and sleep is important to enable effective fatigue management. METHODS: This was a descriptive, repeated-measures study. Data were collected using surveys and actigraphy 4 times during each consecutive shift (7:00 am-7:30 pm). RESULTS: General fatigue levels started trending up 4 hours after the start of work; highest levels were reported at 7:30 pm. Fatigue levels accumulated across consecutive shifts. Subjective sleep quality was higher the night before the 2nd shift than the night before the 1st shift. Nurses' poor sleep the night before a shift was related to increased fatigue levels during the next shift. CONCLUSION: It is important to consider when fatigue management interventions will be most effective and to consider previous-night's sleep when monitoring fatigue.


Assuntos
Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(3): 141-148, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate nurses' perceptions of decisional involvement (DI). BACKGROUND: Decisional involvement is a measure or gauge of nurses' perceived shared leadership. There has been limited research examining factors associated with actual and preferred DI. METHODS: A descriptive, observational study design was used. A total of 189 RNs completed the Decisional Involvement Scale and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation Scale. Nurses' preferred DI (DI-P) and actual DI (DI-A) were analyzed, and DI total and subscale scores were compared based on nurses' demographic and clinical practice characteristics. RESULTS: The DI-A and DI-P total scores were significantly different, including subscales for DI-A compared with DI-P score. Dissonance scores by subscale were highest for recruitment, governance, and support. Unit-based council (UBC) participants had significantly higher actual DI, compared with non-UBC participants. Nurses' perceptions of implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) was not significantly different by low versus high EBP implementation; nor were the scores significantly correlated with their DI-A or DI-P scores. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate nurses' perceptions of DI-A and DI-P. This study provided further examination of the differences and interrelationships between DI and nurses' demographic and clinical practice characteristics. Dissonance DI scores provide opportunities for targeting interventions to engage nurses in shared leadership.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Liderança , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Cuidados de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): 277-285, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351663

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine the dual disproportionality that individuals with serious mental illness and people of color (PoC) occupy in the criminal-legal system.Methods. This study follows a cohort of 623 individuals who screened positive for mental health issues at booking in 8 Midwestern jails in 2017. We followed individuals through the jails' practices of jail-based mental health treatment, and we used Medicaid billing data to assess community-based behavioral health treatment engagement in the postyear period after jail release. The aim was to examine if an individual's race/ethnicity was associated with their access to jail- and community-based mental health treatment.Results. We did not find any racial disparities in jail-based treatment, although 3 community-based outcomes significantly differed. Compared with PoC, White people had 1.9 times greater odds of receiving community-based mental health and substance use treatment and 4.5 times greater odds of receiving co-occurring disorder treatment.Conclusions. Barriers that individuals released from jail face adversely affect PoC, resulting in reduced access to treatment. Critical race theory can expose the assumptions and functions of systems of care and the possible reproduction of implicit bias in potential solutions.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nurs Res ; 70(1): 15-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia can be a common occurrence in hospitalized patients, both those with and without diabetes. Hypoglycemia poses significant risks to hospitalized patients, including increased mortality. OBJECTIVES: This was a retrospective pre-post study of hypoglycemic patients in an academic medical center of an intervention to improve timely staff nurse adherence to a hypoglycemia protocol. The number of mild and severe hypoglycemia events pre- and postintervention, timeliness of adherence to the hypoglycemia protocol, the number of treatment interventions, and time to return patients to euglycemia were analyzed. METHODS: Data from hospitalizations of patients who experienced hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dl) and met inclusion criteria 1 year prior to intervention and 3 years postintervention were extracted, including demographics, glycemic control medications, diagnostic-related group, length of stay, and Charlson comorbidity index. For clarity and to determine if any significant change was sustained, the analysis compared data from 1 year prior to intervention to the second-year postintervention. RESULTS: A total of 7,895 unique hypoglycemic events in 3,819 patients experiencing 20,094 hypoglycemic measures were included in the analysis. Patients were primarily adult, female, and White. Only 58.7% of the sample had diabetes; the median Charlson comorbidity index was 6. Results demonstrated improvement postintervention to registered nurse hypoglycemia protocol adherence regardless of age category or hypoglycemia severity. There was a significant reduction in median time from the first hypoglycemia measure to the second measure. In addition, there was a significant difference in the number of treatment interventions and reduction in time from the first hypoglycemia measure to return of patient to a blood glucose of ≥70 mg/dl. DISCUSSION: These study results support that the use of a standardized hypoglycemia protocol and appropriate nurse workflows enables nurses to manage hypoglycemia promptly and effectively in most acute and critically ill hospitalized patients. Results also supported a differentiation in nurse workflow for patients with mild versus severe hypoglycemia. Implementing these interventions may result in avoidance or mitigation of the potential consequences of severe and/or sustained hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Environ Manage ; 279: 111758, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321352

RESUMO

Agricultural decision support tools (DSTs) with weather or climate information can provide useful information to help stakeholders make operational farming decisions and adapt to increasingly variable weather or climate in the context of climate change. However, many of these DSTs are still not fully utilized. Understanding the use of DSTs can help identify strategies to promote their usage to more end-users. This study surveyed farmers (n = 2,633) and advisors (n = 2,719) across 12 states in the Midwest to draw comparisons on their usage of DSTs and factors influencing the usage. The advisors are more likely to take advantage of free and publicly available sources than farmers. Advisors are also more likely to agree on the usefulness of DSTs, feel social pressure to use DSTs, be concerned and perceive risks from variable weather, believe in climate change, and show positive attitudes towards climate change adaptation than farmers. Concerns about weather or climate, descriptive social norms, greater farm size, and general propensity to adopt a new technology are positively associated with higher adoption rate of DSTs for both farmers and advisors. Higher level of perceived behavioral control to deal with weather-related risks, injunctive social norms, gender (male), and age are positively associated with higher adoption rate of DSTs for only advisors. Positive adaptation attitude towards climate change and higher education level are positively associated with higher adoption rate of DSTs for only farmers. Unlike advisors, age is negatively associated with higher adoption rate of DSTs for farmers. Implications of our findings include DST educators leveraging social networks and reinforcing social norms to promote usage among current non-users, building up both farmers' and advisors' confidence and knowledge in using DSTs, understanding the role of advisors as "change agents" to promote DST usage among farmers, and connecting networks of "innovators" and "early adopters." With more and more DSTs developed, future scholarship can draw upon our findings to understand how to encourage DSTs adoption among current non-users and extend to other regions.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Mudança Climática , Fazendas , Humanos , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348870

RESUMO

Adolescent sexting is a serious public health concern and is associated with adverse psychosocial outcomes, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, declining academic performance, and health problems. Effective prevention of sexting requires a comprehensive and deep understanding of the multiple contexts whereby sexting is likely to occur. The present study explores individual and contextual risk and protective factors that are associated with sexting behavior among a large sample of adolescents. Participants were high school students in midwestern U.S. (N = 2501; LGB n = 309, 76.4% female; non-LGB n = 2192, 47.4% female) who completed self-report measures of sexting and risk (e.g., pornography exposure, impulsivity) and protective (e.g., social support) factors. Path analysis models were conducted with the sexting outcome for groups of LGB and non-LGB students. Among LGB students, results indicated a significant association between sexting and parental monitoring (b = -0.08, p < 0.01); pornography exposure (b = 0.13, p < 0.05); dating partners (b = 0.01, p < 0.01); bullying perpetration (b = 0.17, p < 0.001); and delinquency (b = 0.13; p < 0.001). Among non-LGB students, significant associations were found between sexting and alcohol/substance use (b = 0.05, p < 0.001); bullying (b = 0.08, p < 0.001); and delinquency (b = 0.06, p < 0.001). Moderation analyses suggest that parental monitoring may have a buffering effect between sexting and several risk factors. Recommendations for practitioners include considering the protective factors of sexting perpetration and encouraging appropriate levels of parental monitoring and the continued importance of bullying and alcohol and drug prevention programming to decrease risk factors of sexting perpetration.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores
8.
J Environ Qual ; 49(1): 210-219, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016351

RESUMO

Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) is an invasive, cool-season grass commonly dominating wetlands with high nutrient loads. Its impact on nitrogen removal via denitrification in wetlands is unknown. Most studies of denitrification in treatment wetlands have focused on the effects of physical or chemical variables and not on the effects of plant roots on the soil environment. The purpose of this study was to measure effects of plant type on denitrification rates in typical wetland soils of the midwestern United States by comparing wet prairie mix, switchgrass-dominated, and reed canary grass plant communities. Nitrate (NO3 - ) removal and other parameters were measured in miniature wetlands, or mesocosms, containing each plant community transplanted from a small agricultural treatment wetland in southern Minnesota. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to quantify the total bacteria population (measured with 16S rRNA genes) and denitrifying gene abundance (measured with nosZ genes) from the rhizosphere of each plant community. The wet prairie mix mesocosms on average removed the most NO3 - in each test (p = .01 and .08). Whereas the wet prairie mix removed the most NO3 - from the surface water (p < .01), reed canary grass removed more from the subsurface (p < .01). Ratios of denitrifying to total bacteria were higher in the wet prairie mix than in the other communities' root zones (p < .05). Results suggest that reed canary grass invasion could reduce denitrification in wetlands, especially during the spring and fall when it is growing but other plants are dormant.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Áreas Alagadas , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Minnesota , RNA Ribossômico 16S
9.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(11): 590-597, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if there is a relationship between the use of a patient discharge hospitality center (DHC) and hospital readmissions. BACKGROUND: Hospital discharge lounges or DHCs have been developed to improve patient throughput. No studies have been conducted to determine if a discharge location influences hospital readmission. METHODS: Data were extracted for adults discharged to home or self-care. Patients were stratified by discharge/last department and admitting/discharge service lines. Readmission rates between groups in the stratified data were compared. DHC and control patients were matched on gender, marital status, age at admission, type, discharging/last department before the DHC, discharging service line, and readmission risk category. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the readmission rate of the control group (9.74%) compared with the DHC group (9.93%), χ1 (n = 3204) = 0.031, P = .86. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this analysis do not indicate that being discharged from a DHC has an impact on readmission rates.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059413

RESUMO

Knowledge of treatment regimens and outcomes for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is evolving. Recent studies have reported mortality rates ranging from 39-50% among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We report our experience ofmanagement and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at a large tertiary-care center in Midwestern United States. Of 658 patients presenting to our tertiary care center, 217 needed hospitalization, majority (77%) of whom were severely sick requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). All received corticosteroids, and 78% of the patients received tocilizumab. More than two-thirds of the patients received anticoagulation and 80% of patients in the ICU had prone-positioning. The median duration of hospitalization was 12 days (interquartile range, 8 to16), median duration of intensive care unit stay was 7 days (interquartile range, 5 to 9) and requirement of mechanical ventilation was 6 days (interquartile range, 5 to 8) in our cohort. Of the 217 patients, 27 died (12% mortality). The majority of our patients received corticosteroids, tocilizumab, anticoagulation and prone positioning. While higher mortality rates of >30% have been reported in various studies among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the majority of hospitalized patients in our cohort survived with a low mortality rate. The majority of our patients received corticosteroids, tocilizumab, anticoagulation and prone positioning. While higher mortality rates of >30% have been reported in various studies among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the majority of hospitalized patients in our cohort survived with a low mortality rate.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
11.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 17(5): 576-592, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594864

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined a serial mediation model testing the effects of STS on turnover intention through executive leaders' use of transformational leadership as perceived by child welfare workers and then organizational commitment while controlling for age, gender, and social work degrees. METHOD: Survey data were collected from 264 child welfare workers at one Midwestern state. RESULTS: The results supported the serial mediation model, corroborated by the finding that the impact of STS on turnover intention has disappeared as a result of transformational leadership and organizational commitment between the two variables. DISCUSSION: The findings of the study provide practical implications for training transformational leadership styles to leaders training at the middle manager and executive leadership levels in child welfare agencies.


Assuntos
Serviços de Proteção Infantil/organização & administração , Satisfação no Emprego , Liderança , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Assistentes Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Modelos Organizacionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Insect Sci ; 20(3)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365174

RESUMO

Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are agricultural pests of increasing significance in the North Central Region of the United States, posing a threat to major crops such as soybean. Biological control can reduce the need for insecticides to manage these pests, but the parasitism of stink bugs by Tachinidae (Diptera) is poorly characterized in this region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of parasitism of stink bugs by tachinids over 2 yr from nine states across the North Central Region. Parasitism was assessed by quantifying tachinid eggs on the integument of stink bug adults. Parasitism rates (i.e., percent of adult stink bugs with tachinid eggs) were compared across stink bug species, states, stink bug sex, and years. The mean percent parasitism of stink bugs by tachinids was about 6% across the region and did not differ among stink bug species. Mean percent parasitism was significantly higher in Missouri than in northern and western states. In addition, male stink bugs had significantly higher mean percent parasitism than females. Stink bug species commonly found in soybean in the region showed some parasitism and are therefore potentially vulnerable to oviposition by these parasitoids. This is the first study to characterize the level of parasitism of stink bugs by tachinids across the North Central Region.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Heterópteros/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Controle de Insetos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(3): 7403205020p1-7403205020p12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365308

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Jail officers are an underserved population of public safety workers at high risk for developing chronic mental health conditions. OBJECTIVE: In response to national calls for the examination of stressors related to the unique work contexts of correctional facilities, we implemented a pilot study informed by the Total Worker Health® (TWH) strategy at two urban and two rural jails. DESIGN: Participatory teams guided areas of interest for a mixed-data needs assessment, including surveys with 320 jail officers to inform focus groups (N = 40). SETTING: Urban and rural jails in the midwestern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Jail correctional officers and sheriff's deputies employed at participating jails. MEASURES: We measured mental health characteristics using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Mental Health scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and the two-item Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. Constructs to identify workplace characteristics included emotional support, work-family conflict, dangerousness, health climate, organizational operations, effectiveness of training, quality of supervision, and organizational fairness. RESULTS: On the basis of general population estimates, we found that jail officers were at higher risk for mental health disorders, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Jail officers identified workplace health interventions to address individual-, interpersonal-, institutional-, and community-level needs. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a TWH needs assessment in urban and rural jails to identify evidence-informed, multilevel interventions was found to be feasible. Using this assessment, we identified specific workplace health protection and promotion solutions. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Results from this study support the profession's vision to influence policies, environments, and systems through collaborative work. This TWH study has implications for practice and research by addressing mental health needs among jail officers and by providing practical applications to create evidence-informed, tailored interventions to promote workplace health in rural and urban jails.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Prisões , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Projetos Piloto
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443415

RESUMO

Stone, sand and gravel mining (SSGM) constitutes the vast majority of mining operations in the United States. Despite musculoskeletal disorders being one of the most common occupational health problems across several industries, limited research has examined the extent of reported musculoskeletal symptoms or disorders among actively employed SSGM workers. To address this knowledge gap, cross sectional data were collected from 459 SSGM workers in the Midwestern United States to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms. Sociodemographic and job-related factors were examined to identify possible risk factors in SSGM. Musculoskeletal symptoms of the low back (57%), neck (38%), shoulder (38%) and knee (39%) were highly prevalent among SSGM employees. The results, among other findings, showed that working more than 60 h a week increased the likelihood of musculoskeletal symptoms at the low back (OR: 4.7 95% CI: 1.9-11.5), neck (OR: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.2-11.8) and knee (OR: 4.5, 95% CI: 2.0-10.3). Working as a mechanic/maintenance worker increased the likelihood of low back (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.2) and knee (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.6) musculoskeletal symptoms. Intervention measures aimed at improving ergonomic hazard identification for various job tasks as well as administrative controls limiting hours worked may help reduce the burden of musculoskeletal problems in the SSGM industry.


Assuntos
Mineradores , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/complicações , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Areia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469925

RESUMO

The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, one of the most destructive arthropod pests of bread wheat worldwide, inflicts significant annual reductions in grain yields. Moreover, A. tosichella is the only vector for several economically important wheat viruses in the Americas, Australia and Europe. To date, mite-resistant wheat genotypes have proven to be one of the most effective methods of controlling the A. tosichella-virus complex. Thus, it is important to elucidate A. tosichella population genetic structure, in order to better predict improved mite and virus management. Two genetically distinct A. tosichella lineages occur as pests of wheat in Australia, Europe, North America, South America and the Middle East. These lineages are known as type 1 and type 2 in Australia and North America and in Europe and South America as MT-8 and MT-1, respectively. Type 1 and type 2 mites in Australia and North America are delineated by internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) and cytochrome oxidase I region (COI) sequence differences. In North America, two A. tosichella genotypes known as biotypes are recognized by their response to the Cmc3 mite resistance gene in wheat. Aceria tosichella biotype 1 is susceptible to Cmc3 and biotype 2 is virulent to Cmc3. In this study, ITS1 and COI sequence differences in 25 different populations of A. tosichella of known biotype 1 or biotype 2 composition were characterized for ITS1 and COI sequence differences and used to model spatio-temporal dynamics based on biotype prevalence. Results showed that the proportion of biotype 1 and 2 varies both spatially and temporally. Greater ranges of cropland and grassland within 5000m of the sample site, as well as higher mean monthly precipitation during the month prior to sampling appear to reduce the probability of occurrence of biotype 1 and increase the probability of occurrence of biotype 2. The results suggest that spatio-temporal modeling can effectively improve A. tosichella management. Continual integration of additional current and future precipitation and ground cover data into the existing model will further improve the accuracy of predicting the occurrence of A. tosichella in annual wheat crops, allowing producers to make informed decisions about the selection of varieties with different A. tosichella resistance genes.


Assuntos
Ácaros/classificação , Ácaros/genética , Triticum/parasitologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/patogenicidade , Vetores Aracnídeos/virologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Grão Comestível/virologia , Genes de Plantas , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Ácaros/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Texas , Triticum/genética , Triticum/virologia , Virulência/genética
16.
Mo Med ; 117(2): 89-94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308221

RESUMO

Background: There is lack of specific data on imported infections in the mid-west United States (U.S.). Methods: Retrospective data on demographic and geographic data of imported infections seen by the infectious diseases clinics and consultation service from 2001-2018 was collected. Results: Of the 64 infections, tuberculosis(TB) was most common [20(31.3%); pulmonary(11,55%), lymphadenopathy(8,40%), gastrointestinal(4,20%), disseminated(2,10%), and 1(5%) each of genitourinary and vertebral spine infection, 4 Human immune-deficiency virus infection and 1 echinococcosis)] followed by malaria(11,17.2%). Other infections: Cysticercosis [7,10.9%], giardiasis (4,6.3%), 3 each (4.7%) Human T-lymphotrophic Virus infection and schistosomiasis, 2 each (3.1%) leprosy, strongyloidiasis, and typhoid fever, one each (1.6%) of ascariasis, brucellosis, Chagas disease, Chikungunya virus, hepatitis A virus, echinococcosis, Japanese encephalitis virus, loiasis, paratyphoid fever, Q fever, and unspecified parasitosis. Geographic origins: Africa(26,40.6%), Asia(16,25%), Central America(11,17.2%), Europe(2,3.1%), Oceania(2,3.1%), South America(2,3.1%), and Unknown(5). More cases were seen after 2015. Conclusions: With increasing tourism, it is important to educate rural mid-west healthcare professionals on travel medicine. The current COVID-19 pandemic illustrates the importance of this type of education and data accumulation now and in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Viagem , Febre Tifoide , Estados Unidos
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(11)2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245763

RESUMO

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a causative agent of respiratory tract infections in avian hosts worldwide but is a particular problem for commercial turkey production. Little is known about the ecologic and evolutionary dynamics of O. rhinotracheale, which makes prevention and control of this pathogen a challenge. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the genetic relationships between O. rhinotracheale populations through comparative genomics of clinical isolates from different U.S. turkey producers. O. rhinotracheale clinical isolates were collected from four major U.S. turkey producers and several independent turkey growers from the upper Midwest and Southeast, and whole-genome sequencing was performed. Genomes were compared phylogenetically using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based analysis, and then assembly and annotations were performed to identify genes encoding putative virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance determinants. A pangenome approach was also used to establish a core set of genes consistently present in O. rhinotracheale and to highlight differences in gene content between phylogenetic clades. A total of 1,457 nonrecombinant SNPs were identified from 157 O. rhinotracheale genomes, and four distinct phylogenetic clades were identified. Isolates clustered by company on the phylogenetic tree, however, and each company had isolates in multiple clades with similar collection dates, indicating that there are multiple O. rhinotracheale strains circulating within each of the companies examined. Additionally, several antimicrobial resistance proteins, putative virulence factors, and the pOR1 plasmid were associated with particular clades and multilocus sequence types, which may explain why the same strains seem to have persisted in the same turkey operations for decades.IMPORTANCE The whole-genome approach enhances our understanding of evolutionary relationships between clinical Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale isolates from different commercial turkey producers and allows for identification of genes associated with virulence, antimicrobial resistance, or mobile genetic elements that are often excluded using traditional typing methods. Additionally, differentiating O. rhinotracheale isolates at the whole-genome level may provide insight into selection of the most appropriate autogenous vaccine strain, or groups of strains, for a given population of clinical isolates.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Ornithobacterium/genética , Perus/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
18.
J Emerg Nurs ; 46(6): 932-940, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340737

RESUMO

Introduction: Efficient identification and isolation of patients with communicable diseases limits exposure to health care workers, other patients, and visitors. In August 2014, our team developed and implemented an algorithm to triage suspected cases of Ebola virus disease in a midwestern United States emergency department and outpatient clinics based on patient travel history and symptoms. Here, we present the lessons learned and modifications to update the tool. Methods: Two strategies were developed and utilized to properly identify, isolate, and inform on patients with suspected highly hazardous communicable diseases: 1) a robust electronic symptom and travel screen with decision support tools in the electronic medical record, and 2) the availability of workflow protocols for Ebola virus disease, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) once a person under investigation is identified. After action reports provided opportunities to modify the algorithm and improve the identification and isolation processes. Results: Since our screening and travel electronic medical record inception 5 years ago, modifications changed iteratively to further enhance the screening process. Since 2018, staff have identified 5 patients at risk for MERS; in all cases, identification occurred during the check-in process. Exposure investigations in the emergency department decreased significantly after algorithm implementation in January 2019, from 30 in 2018 to 0 in 2019. Discussion: Although highly hazardous communicable diseases like Ebola virus disease and MERS are of concern due to their mortality rates and limited treatment options, these same concepts may be applied to the early identification and isolation of patients suspected of having more common communicable diseases like measles and influenza, emphasizing the importance of protocol-based screening in the healthcare environment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Enfermagem em Emergência/métodos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos
19.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 369-381, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306863

RESUMO

Microcystis is a widespread freshwater cyanobacterium that can produce microcystin, a potent hepatotoxin harmful to animals and humans. Therefore, it is crucial to monitor for the presence of toxigenic Microcystis spp. to provide early warning of potential microcystin contamination. Microscopy, which has been used traditionally to identify Microcystis spp., cannot differentiate toxigenic from non-toxigenic Microcystis. We developed a PCR-based method to detect toxigenic Microcystis spp. based on detection of the microcystin synthetase C (mcyC) gene and 16S rRNA gene. Specificity was validated against toxic and nontoxic M. aeruginosa strains, as well as 4 intergeneric freshwater cyanobacterial strains. Analytical sensitivity was as low as 747 fg/µL genomic DNA (or 3 cells/µL) for toxic M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, we tested 60 water samples from 4 farm ponds providing drinking water to swine facilities in the midwestern United States using this method. Although all water samples were positive for Microcystis spp. (i.e., 16S rRNA gene), toxigenic Microcystis spp. were detected in only 34 samples (57%). Seventeen water samples contained microcystin (0.1-9.1 µg/L) determined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, of which 14 samples (82%) were positive for mcyC. A significant correlation was found between the presence of toxigenic Microcystis spp. and microcystin in water samples (p = 0.0004). Our PCR method can be a low-cost molecular tool for rapid and specific identification of toxigenic Microcystis spp. in farm ponds, improving detection of microcystin contamination, and ensuring water safety for farm animals.


Assuntos
Microcistinas/isolamento & purificação , Microcystis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Tanques/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Eutrofização , Fazendas , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
20.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 308-311, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330279

RESUMO

Cytauxzoon felis is a pathogen responsible for cytauxzoonosis, a highly fatal disease in domestic cats. Although most studies of C. felis have focused on this parasite in domestic cats, bobcats are the reservoir host. In stark contrast, there is little information relative to the progression of C. felis infections in bobcats. We studied bobcats in southern Illinois during 2014-2017 to evaluate which environmental factors (i.e., ambient temperature; number of daylight hours; trapping year, month, and day) influenced C. felis parasitemia levels. Mean ambient temperature at 1 wk and 2 wk prior to sampling was associated with increased parasitemia levels. Vector activity intensifies with higher temperatures, suggesting that increased parasitemia levels are an adaptation to facilitate transmission.


Assuntos
Lynx/parasitologia , Parasitemia/veterinária , Piroplasmida/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Dermacentor/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Modelos Lineares , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Estações do Ano
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