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2.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 894-902, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak is in an accelerating phase, and South Africa (SA) has had the highest number of documented cases during the early phase of the pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To assess South Africans' understanding of and response to COVID-19 during the first week of the country's lockdown period. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in SA from 27 March to 2 April 2020. The survey was distributed widely among several websites and social media networks, including on a data-free platform. Descriptive statistics of knowledge, risk perception, access to and trust in information sources, and public and media opinions were calculated. Estimates were benchmarked to the 2019 national adult population estimates. RESULTS: Of the 55 823 participants, the majority (83.4%) correctly identified the main symptoms of COVID-19. Over 90% had correct knowledge of the incubation period, with lower rates for 18 - 29-year-olds. Knowledge of symptoms and the incubation period varied significantly by population group (p<0.001), dwelling type (p<0.001) and sex (p<0.001). A quarter (24.9%) perceived themselves as at high risk of contracting COVID-19. Risk perception varied by age, population group, employment status and dwelling type (p<0.001). The most prevalent COVID-19 information sources were government sources (72.9%), news websites/apps (56.3%), satellite television (51.6%) and local television (51.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of people facing the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial for guiding strategic policy. These findings provide public understanding of COVID-19 as the phases of the country-level epidemic progress, and also directly inform communication needs and gaps.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Acesso à Informação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e22060, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The success of behavioral interventions and policies designed to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic depends on how well individuals are informed about both the consequences of infection and the steps that should be taken to reduce the impact of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between public knowledge about COVID-19, adherence to social distancing, and public trust in government information sources (eg, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), private sources (eg, FOX and CNN), and social networks (eg, Facebook and Twitter) to inform future policies related to critical information distribution. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (N=1243) between April 10 and 14, 2020. Data collection was stratified by US region and other demographics to ensure representativeness of the sample. RESULTS: Government information sources were the most trusted among the public. However, we observed trends in the data that suggested variations in trust by age and gender. White and older populations generally expressed higher trust in government sources, while non-White and younger populations expressed higher trust in private sources (eg, CNN) and social networks (eg, Twitter). Trust in government sources was positively associated with accurate knowledge about COVID-19 and adherence to social distancing. However, trust in private sources (eg, FOX and CNN) was negatively associated with knowledge about COVID-19. Similarly, trust in social networks (eg, Facebook and Twitter) was negatively associated with both knowledge and adherence to social distancing. CONCLUSIONS: During pandemics such as the COVID-19 outbreak, policy makers should carefully consider the quality of information disseminated through private sources and social networks. Furthermore, when disseminating urgent health information, a variety of information sources should be used to ensure that diverse populations have timely access to critical knowledge.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Confiança , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Distância Social , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine perceptions, behaviors, and impacts surrounding COVID-19 early in the pandemic response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 1,030 U.S. adults was administered on March 31st, 2020. This survey examined attitudes toward media, government, and community responses to COVID-19 by political ideology and sociodemographic factors. Knowledge, anxieties, and impacts of COVID-19 were also assessed. RESULTS: Conservatives were more likely to report that COVID-19 was receiving too much media coverage and people were generally overreacting; liberals were more likely to report the government had not done enough in response to the pandemic. Females and those with lower income experienced more COVID-19 related economic anxieties. Those working and with children at home reported higher social, home, and work disruption. Social distancing behaviors were more common among liberals and were associated with increases in depressive symptoms. General knowledge about COVID-19 was widely exhibited across the sample, however, Black and Hispanic respondents were less likely to correctly answer questions about the availability of a vaccine and modes of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Public health experts should consider the political climate in crafting messaging that appeals to the values of those across the political spectrum. Research on the COVID-19 pandemic should continue to monitor the effects of social distancing on mental health and among vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Política , Opinião Pública , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
5.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(5): 56-64, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a disastrous impact globally. For the general public and for people with mental illnesses, this pandemic may cause mental/physical stress and major life impacts. PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the related changes in daily life and impacts on the well-being of a group of patients with chronic treatment-resistant depression (TRD) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a part of a long-term, follow-up study of a cohort of patients with TRD collected in 2018. All of the subjects who were diagnosed with major depression and fit the inclusion criteria were referred by the psychiatrists from two teaching hospitals. Structured interviews were used to collect data on physical and psychological changes during the pandemic period between January and May 2020. The researchers organized the key points by recording or note taking. Thematic analysis was used to summarize and classify themes and units. RESULTS: The 116 respondents revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic affected their health in the biological, psychological, and social dimensions. The three emerging themes included: The threatening of homogeneity in the whole person's health, the interaction between bio-psycho-social aspects, and positive growth of individuals with TRD. Although the participants had confidence in the prevention strategies of the government related to COVID-19, they expressed feelings of distress and restlessness with regard to COVID-19-related news reports. CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the health of patients with TRD in both positive and negative ways. As the goal of government preventive strategies is to protect and promote public health, regular attention should be paid to the negative effects of long-term exposure to pandemic-related news on this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878092

RESUMO

Spain and Italy are amongst the European countries where the COVID-19 pandemic has produced its major impact and where lockdown measures have been the harshest. This research aims at understanding how the corona crisis has been represented in Spanish and Italian media, focusing on reference newspapers. The study analyzes 72 front pages of El País and El Mundo in Spain and Italy's Corriere della Sera and La Repubblica, collecting 710 news items and 3456 data evidences employing a mixed method (both qualitative and quantitative) based on content analysis and hemerographic analysis. Results show a predominance of informative journalistic genres (especially brief and news), while the visual framing emerging from the photographic choice, tend to foster humanization through an emotional representation of the pandemic. Politicians are the most represented actors, showing a high degree of politicization of the crisis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Jornais como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19907, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major disruptions worldwide since March 2020. The experience of the 1918 influenza pandemic demonstrated that decreases in the infection rates of COVID-19 do not guarantee continuity of the trend. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a precise spread model of COVID-19 with time-dependent parameters via deep learning to respond promptly to the dynamic situation of the outbreak and proactively minimize damage. METHODS: In this study, we investigated a mathematical model with time-dependent parameters via deep learning based on forward-inverse problems. We used data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) and the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University for Korea and the other countries, respectively. Because the data consist of confirmed, recovered, and deceased cases, we selected the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model and found approximated solutions as well as model parameters. Specifically, we applied fully connected neural networks to the solutions and parameters and designed suitable loss functions. RESULTS: We developed an entirely new SIR model with time-dependent parameters via deep learning methods. Furthermore, we validated the model with the conventional Runge-Kutta fourth order model to confirm its convergent nature. In addition, we evaluated our model based on the real-world situation reported from the KCDC, the Korean government, and news media. We also crossvalidated our model using data from the CSSE for Italy, Sweden, and the United States. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology and new model of this study could be employed for short-term prediction of COVID-19, which could help the government prepare for a new outbreak. In addition, from the perspective of measuring medical resources, our model has powerful strength because it assumes all the parameters as time-dependent, which reflects the exact status of viral spread.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Modelos Teóricos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22767, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The perceived threat of a contagious virus may lead people to be distrustful of immigrants and out-groups. Since the COVID-19 outbreak, the salient politicized discourses of blaming Chinese people for spreading the virus have fueled over 2000 reports of anti-Asian racial incidents and hate crimes in the United States. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to investigate the relationships between news consumption, trust, intergroup contact, and prejudicial attitudes toward Asians and Asian Americans residing in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compare how traditional news, social media use, and biased news exposure cultivate racial attitudes, and the moderating role of media use and trust on prejudice against Asians is examined. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was completed in May 2020. A total of 430 US adults (mean age 36.75, SD 11.49 years; n=258, 60% male) participated in an online survey through Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform. Respondents answered questions related to traditional news exposure, social media use, perceived trust, and their top three news channels for staying informed about the novel coronavirus. In addition, intergroup contact and racial attitudes toward Asians were assessed. We performed hierarchical regression analyses to test the associations. Moderation effects were estimated using simple slopes testing with a 95% bootstrap confidence interval approach. RESULTS: Participants who identified as conservatives (ß=.08, P=.02), had a personal infection history (ß=.10, P=.004), and interacted with Asian people frequently in their daily lives (ß=.46, P<.001) reported more negative attitudes toward Asians after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Relying more on traditional news media (ß=.08, P=.04) and higher levels of trust in social media (ß=.13, P=.007) were positively associated with prejudice against Asians. In contrast, consuming news from left-leaning outlets (ß=-.15, P=.001) and neutral outlets (ß=-.13, P=.003) was linked to less prejudicial attitudes toward Asians. Among those who had high trust in social media, exposure had a negative relationship with prejudice. At high levels of trust in digital websites and apps, frequent use was related to less unfavorable attitudes toward Asians. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing racial prejudice among the Asian population during a challenging pandemic can cause poor psychological outcomes and exacerbate health disparities. The results suggest that conservative ideology, personal infection history, frequency of intergroup contact, traditional news exposure, and trust in social media emerge as positive predictors of prejudice against Asians and Asian Americans, whereas people who get COVID-19 news from left-leaning and balanced outlets show less prejudice. For those who have more trust in social media and digital news, frequent use of these two sources is associated with lower levels of prejudice. Our findings highlight the need to reshape traditional news discourses and use social media and mobile news apps to develop credible messages for combating racial prejudice against Asians.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Atitude , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Confiança , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936804

RESUMO

As the most visible face of health expertise to the general public, health agencies have played a central role in alerting the public to the emerging COVID-19 threat, providing guidance for protective action, motivating compliance with health directives, and combating misinformation. Social media platforms such as Twitter have been a critical tool in this process, providing a communication channel that allows both rapid dissemination of messages to the public at large and individual-level engagement. Message dissemination and amplification is a necessary precursor to reaching audiences, both online and off, as well as inspiring action. Therefore, it is valuable for organizational risk communication to identify strategies and practices that may lead to increased message passing among online users. In this research, we examine message features shown in prior disasters to increase or decrease message retransmission under imminent threat conditions to develop models of official risk communicators' messages shared online from February 1, 2020-April 30, 2020. We develop a lexicon of keywords associated with risk communication about the pandemic response, then use automated coding to identify message content and message structural features. We conduct chi-square analyses and negative binomial regression modeling to identify the strategies used by official risk communicators that respectively increase and decrease message retransmission. Findings show systematic changes in message strategies over time and identify key features that affect message passing, both positively and negatively. These results have the potential to aid in message design strategies as the pandemic continues, or in similar future events.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Emergências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Internet , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Administração em Saúde Pública , Gestão da Segurança , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 7019676, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953177

RESUMO

Background: Ethiopia still suffers high levels of neonatal and maternal mortality, so the maternity continuum of care is a continuous framework for the delivery of maternal care from pregnancy to the postnatal period. Skilled care during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period is an important intervention in reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. But in Ethiopia, there are limited studies on the completion of the maternity continuum of care, so this study will help to suggest interventions in order to reduce the dropout of the maternity continuum of care. Objective: To assess the completion of the maternity continuum of care and factors associated with it among mothers who gave birth in the last one year in Enemay District, Northwest Ethiopia. Method and Materials. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 25 to March 10, 2019, on 651 women who gave birth in the last one year. The data were collected by a face-to-face interview through pretested and structured questionnaires. Binary logistic regression was used to identify predictors of the completion of the maternity continuum of care. Variables with a P value < 0.05 in multivariable analysis were declared as statistically significant associated factors. Results: This study revealed that about 45% (95% CI: 40.9%, 48.8%) of respondents completed the continuum of care. Women with secondary education (AOR = 6, 95% CI: 2.26, 16.6), women whose occupation is farming (AOR = 0.18, 95%, CI: 0.1, 0.32), women who have autonomy in health care decision (AOR = 4, 95% CI: 2.26, 7.2), women who have exposure to media (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.27), women with wanted pregnancies (AOR = 3.33, 95% CI: 1.87, 5.9), para five and above women (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.28, 6.3), and women whose husbands are employed (AOR = 4.97, 95% CI: 1.16, 21.2) were significantly associated with the completion of the maternity continuum of care. Conclusions and Recommendation. This study showed that less than half of the participants had achieved the continuum of care and education level, and both respondents and their husband's occupation, parity, autonomy in health care decision, exposure to the mass media, and wantedness of pregnancy were associated with the completion of the maternity continuum of care; therefore, working on enhancing the capacity of women's autonomy in health care and decision-making and preventing unintended pregnancy helps to improve the completion of the maternity continuum of care.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Autonomia Pessoal , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 18-29, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994613

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate how New Zealand newsprint media shapes discourse about dementia through its framing of the causes, effects and solutions, and who bears responsibility for the disease. METHODS: Using New Zealand's three largest daily newspapers, we examined i) the coverage of dementia between 2012-2016, ii) the framing of causes and effects of dementia, and iii) the most frequent associations of causes and effects of dementia. We integrated the findings to assess the moral evaluation of dementia in New Zealand newsprint media. RESULTS: Of the 361 articles extracted all presented effects of dementia, 35% discussed causes and 7% mentioned solutions for dementia. Medical causes dominated over health behavioural and societal causes, and effects were mostly the negative impact on the individual, family and society. Modifiable medical causes were more likely to be associated with adverse outcomes for society whereas non-modifiable medical causes were more likely to be associated with adverse outcomes for the individual and/or their family. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2012-16 New Zealand newsprint media largely portrayed dementia from a 'powerless victim' frame. Further research is required to assess whether, since 2016, there has been a shift towards media framing of dementia as potentially preventable and a social justice issue.


Assuntos
Demência/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Opinião Pública , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Nova Zelândia , Estigma Social
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751866

RESUMO

COVID-19 has changed our lives forever. The world we knew until now has been transformed and nowadays we live in a completely new scenario in a perpetual restructuring transition, in which the way we live, relate, and communicate with others has been altered permanently. Within this context, risk communication is playing a decisive role when informing, transmitting, and channeling the flow of information in society. COVID-19 has posed a real pandemic risk management challenge in terms of impact, preparedness, response, and mitigation by governments, health organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), mass media, and stakeholders. In this study, we monitored the digital ecosystems during March and April 2020, and we obtained a sample of 106,261 communications through the analysis of APIs and Web Scraping techniques. This study examines how social media has affected risk communication in uncertain contexts and its impact on the emotions and sentiments derived from the semantic analysis in Spanish society during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ecossistema , Emoções , Governo , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mídias Sociais , Espanha
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781727

RESUMO

COVID-19 is lasting longer than expected, which has a huge impact on the economy and on personal life. Each country has a different response method, and the damage scale is also distinct. This study aims to find out how COVID-19-related news was handled in the domestic media to seek ways to minimize the pandemic. The paper focuses on the number of news features by period and by disaster and analyzes related words based on big data. The results of the analysis are as follows. First, in the initial response phase, keywords to identify accurate sources of actual broadcast contents, fake news, social networking service (SNS), etc. were also ranked in the top 20. Second, in the active response phase, when the number of confirmed persons and the government's countermeasures were announced, more than 100 COVID-19-related articles were issued, and the related words increased rapidly from the initial response stage. Therefore, the fact that COVID-19 has been expressed as a keyword indicates that our society is watching with great interest in the government's response to the disease.


Assuntos
Big Data , Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Governo , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S33-S41, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737230

RESUMO

Cases of adolescents in organ failure who refuse solid organ transplant are not common, but several have been discussed in the media in the United States and the United Kingdom. Using the framework developed by Buchanan and Brock for surrogate decision-making, I examine what role the adolescent should morally play when deciding about therapy for life-threatening conditions. I argue that the greater the efficacy of treatment, the less voice the adolescent (and the parent) should have. I then consider how refusals of highly effective transplant cases are similar to and different from refusals of other lifesaving therapies (eg, chemotherapy for leukemia), which is more commonly discussed in the media and medical literature. I examine whether organ scarcity and the need for lifelong immunosuppression justify differences in whether the state intervenes when an adolescent and his or her parents refuse a transplant. I argue that the state, as parens patriae, has an obligation to provide the social supports needed for a successful transplant and follow-up treatment plan, although family refusals may be permissible when the transplant is experimental or of low efficacy because of comorbidities or other factors. I conclude by discussing the need to limit media coverage of pediatric treatment refusals.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/ética , Transplante de Órgãos/ética , Consentimento dos Pais/ética , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/ética , Adolescente , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Informado por Menores/ética , Consentimento Informado por Menores/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Transplante de Órgãos/legislação & jurisprudência , Consentimento dos Pais/legislação & jurisprudência , Participação do Paciente , Patient Self-Determination Act , Ética Baseada em Princípios , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
15.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S42-S47, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737231

RESUMO

The case of Jamie Fiske and subsequent public appeals for particular children by President Ronald Reagan represent classic cases in pediatric bioethics in which parents or others publicly appealed for a donor organ for a particular child. These raise questions about the appropriate boundaries for public appeals for a limited resource for a particular child and how the press and medical community should respond to such appeals. Public appeals by parents to advocate for their child to receive a limited resource above others promote rationing by morally irrelevant factors and shift the public focus from the national shortage of organs for transplant to the needs of a particular child. Yet these appeals are understandable and will likely continue. Recognizing this, we consider appropriate responses by the media, transplant community, hospitals, and individual clinicians.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Doação Dirigida de Tecido/ética , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/ética , Defesa do Paciente/ética , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Doação Dirigida de Tecido/tendências , Seleção do Doador/ética , História do Século XX , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/ética , Pais/psicologia , Defesa do Paciente/tendências , Papel do Médico , Política , Opinião Pública , Alocação de Recursos/métodos , Alocação de Recursos/provisão & distribução , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos
17.
Acute Med ; 19(2): 110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840263

RESUMO

We write this letter as doctors and proud members of the Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) community from a South Asian background. Recent Office for National Statistics (ONS) data suggest that the BAME population is disproportionately affected by Covid-19. Observations and experiences from within our family and wider community led us to explore how cultural aspects may account for these figures. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are likely to contribute to this unfortunate statistic.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Decepção , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Betacoronavirus , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 579, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is the 10th leading cause of death. Despite no country achieved its target, the world health organization (WHO) proposed a 90-90-90 approach to fastening the end TB strategy. Improvement and progression of TB control need good knowledge and a favorable attitude towards the disease. However, interventions designed don't take migrants and seasonal farmworkers into account. Therefore, this study aimed at estimating the level of knowledge and attitude on Tuberculosis among migrant and seasonal farmworkers in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the West Gondar zone from October to November 2018. A two-stage cluster sampling was used to select 949 migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. A p-value of < 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. The goodness of fit was checked using Hosmer and Lemeshow test. RESULTS: In this study, (41.8%), (95% CI: 38.73, 45.01) and (50.5%), (95% CI: 47.29, 53.65) of migrants and seasonal farmworkers had good knowledge and a favorable attitude, respectively. The odds of good knowledge among mass media exposed migrants were AOR = 1.42, 95% CI: (1.02, 2.01). Moreover, urban residence and having good knowledge increase the odds of favorable attitude by 1.66, (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.62) and 4.3 (AOR = 4.3, 95%CI: 3.26, 5.75), respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, the overall knowledge and attitude of migrant and seasonal farmworkers on TB were low. Family size and mass media exposure significantly affect knowledge of the migrants on TB. On the other hand, the attitude was affected by urban residence, health information, and having good knowledge. Health promotion interventions, focused on TB cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and treatment are important to migrant and seasonal farmworkers to improve the knowledge and attitude of migrants and seasonal farmworkers.


Assuntos
Atitude , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Conhecimento , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Migrantes/psicologia , Tuberculose/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731359

RESUMO

While COVID-19 is becoming one of the most severe public health crises in the twenty-first century, media coverage about this pandemic is getting more important than ever to make people informed. Drawing on data scraped from Twitter, this study aims to analyze and compare the news updates of two main Spanish newspapers El País and El Mundo during the pandemic. Throughout an automatic process of topic modeling and network analysis methods, this study identifies eight news frames for each newspaper's Twitter account. Furthermore, the whole pandemic development process is split into three periods-the pre-crisis period, the lockdown period and the recovery period. The networks of the computed frames are visualized by these three segments. This paper contributes to the understanding of how Spanish news media cover public health crises on social media platforms.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública , Espanha/epidemiologia
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