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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244304, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess therapeutic response monitoring after targeted therapy in an orthotopic rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using CEUS with focusing on inter-scanner and inter-operator reproducibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For reproducibility, CEUS was performed using two different US scanners by two operators in sixteen rat models of HCC. Using perfusion analysis software (VueBox ®), eleven parameters were collected, and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to analyze reproducibility. Then seventeen rat models of HCC were divided into treatment group (n = 8, 30 mg/kg/day sorafenib for five days) and control group (n = 9). CEUS was performed at baseline and 14 days after first treatment, and changes of perfusion parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: In treatment group, CEUS perfusion parameters showed a significant change. The peak enhancement (PE, 2.50 x103±1.68 x103 vs 5.55x102±4.65x102, p = 0.010) and wash-in and wash out AUC (WiWoAUC, 1.07x105±6.48 x104 vs 2.65x104±2.25x104, p = 0.009) had significantly decreased two weeks after treatment. On the contrary, control group did not show a significant change, including PE (1.15 x103±7.53x102 vs 9.43x102± 7.81 x102, p = 0.632) and WiWoAUC (5.09 x104±3.25x104 vs 5.92 x104±3.20x104, p = 0.646). For reproducibility, the various degrees of inter-scanner reproducibility were from poor to good (ICC: <0.01-0.63). However, inter-operator reproducibility of important perfusion parameters, including WiAUC, WoAUC, and WiWoAUC, ranged from fair to excellent (ICC: 0.59-0.93) in a different scanner. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CEUS is useful for assessment of the treatment response after targeted therapy and with fair to excellent inter-operator reproducibility.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Animais , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Perfusão , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD003718, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing the subgroup analysis of the fallopian tubes (tubes) is a commonly undertaken diagnostic investigation for women with subfertility. This is usually achieved by flushing contrast medium through the tubes and visualising patency on radiographs, ultrasonography or laparoscopy. Many women were noted to conceive in the first three to six months after tubal flushing, raising the possibility that tubal flushing could also be a treatment for infertility. There has been debate about which contrast medium should be used (water-soluble or oil-soluble media) as this may influence pregnancy rates. An important adverse event during tubal flushing is intravasation (backflow of contrast medium into the blood or lymphatic vessels),which could lead to embolism although it is asymptomatic in most cases. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tubal flushing with oil-soluble contrast media (OSCM) and water-soluble contrast media (WSCM) on subsequent fertility outcomes in women with subfertility. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, reference lists of identified articles and trial registries. The most recent search was conducted in April 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tubal flushing with OSCM, WSCM with each other or with no treatment, in women with subfertility. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected the trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. The overall quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE methods. MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen trials involving 3864 women were included in this systematic review. Overall, the quality of evidence varied from very low to moderate: the main limitations were risk of bias, heterogeneity and imprecision. OSCM versus no treatment Four studies (506 women) were included in this comparison. Tubal flushing with OSCM may increase the odds of live birth (odds ratio (OR) 3.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57 to 6.85, 3 RCTs, 204 women, I2 = 0, low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of live birth following no treatment is assumed to be 11%, the chance following tubal flushing with OSCM would be between 16% and 46%. Tubal flushing with OSCM may increase in the odds of clinical pregnancy (OR 3.54, 95% CI 2.08 to 6.02, 4 RCTs, 506 women, I2 = 18%, low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of clinical pregnancy following no treatment is assumed to be 9%, the chance following tubal flushing with OSCM would be between 17% and 37%. No study measured intravasation or other adverse events such as infection, haemorrhage and congenital abnormalities. WSCM versus no treatment Only one study (334 women) was included in this comparison. We are uncertain whether tubal flushing with WSCM increase live birth compared to no treatment (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.91, 1 RCT, 334 women, low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of live birth following no treatment is assumed to be 21%, the chance following tubal flushing with WSCM would be between 15% and 33%. We are uncertain whether tubal flushing with WSCM increases clinical pregnancy compared to no treatment (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.84, 1 RCT, 334 women, low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of clinical pregnancy following no treatment is assumed to be 27%, the chance following tubal flushing with WSCM would be between 29% and 40%. One case with pelvic infection was reported in the WSCM group and no case with infection in the no treatment group in a one study (334 women). Meta-analysis was not performed due to the rare events. No study measured intravasation or other adverse events such as infection, haemorrhage and congenital abnormalities. OSCM versus WSCM Six studies (2598 women) were included in this comparison. Three studies reported live birth, including two with higher live birth in the OSCM group (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.11, 1119 women; OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.97 to 6.03, 398 women); and one with insufficient evidence of a difference between groups (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.40, 533 women). Given the substantial heterogeneity observed (I2 = 86%), meta-analysis was not performed. Tubal flushing with OSCM probably increased in the odds of intravasation (asymptomatic) compared to tubal flushing with WSCM (OR 5.00, 95% CI 2.25 to 11.12, 4 RCTs, 1912 women, I2 = 0, moderate-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of intravasation following tubal flushing with WSCM is assumed to be 1%, the chance following tubal flushing with OSCM would be between 2% and 9%. Tubal flushing with OSCM may increase the odds of clinical pregnancy (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.85, 6 RCTs, 2598 women, I2 = 41%, low-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of clinical pregnancy following tubal flushing with WSCM is assumed to be 26%, the chance following tubal flushing with OSCM would be between 28% and 39%. We are uncertain whether tubal flushing with OSCM decreases the odds of infection (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.22, 2 RCTs, 662 women, I2 = 0, very low-quality evidence) or haemorrhage (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.06, 2 RCTs, 662 women, I2 = 0, very low-quality evidence). Three neonates with congenital abnormalities were reported in the OSCM group while no congenital abnormality was reported in the WSCM group in one study (1119 women). No meta-analysis was performed due to the rare events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that compared to no treatment, tubal flushing with OSCM may increase the chance of live birth and clinical pregnancy, while it is uncertain whether tubal flushing with WSCM improves those outcomes. Compared to tubal flushing with WSCM, OSCM may improve clinical pregnancy while meta-analysis was impossible for live birth due to heterogeneity. Evidence also suggests that OSCM is associated with an increased risk of asymptomatic intravasation. Overall, adverse events, especially long-term adverse events, are poorly reported across studies.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Tubas Uterinas , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Viés , Meios de Contraste/química , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Óleos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Solubilidade , Irrigação Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Água
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21652, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769936

RESUMO

To investigate the diagnostic value of multimodal ultrasound imaging composed of conventional ultrasonography (US), contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), and shear wave elastography (SWE) for liver tumors.Between October 2017 and October 2019, US, CEUS, and SWE examinations of a total of 158 liver tumors in 136 patients at The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University were performed. The histopathological or imaging diagnostic results were used as controls to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US, CEUS, SWE, and multimodal ultrasound imaging, which combines these 3 modes, in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant liver tumors.Among the 158 tumors, there were 64 benign tumors, including 55 cases of hepatic hemangioma, 3 cases of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, 4 cases of hepatic cyst, and 2 cases of focal nonuniform distribution of fat in the liver. There were 94 malignant tumors, including 32 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 22 cases of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma, 29 cases of metastatic liver cancer, and 11 cases of dysplastic nodules in cirrhotic liver. In the diagnosis of benign and malignant liver tumors, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 82.56%, 68.06%, 75.96%, 75.53%, and 76.56% for US; 92.39%, 86.36%, 89.87%, 90.43%, and 89.06% for CEUS; 87.14%, 76.81%, 82.91%, 82.98%, and 82.81% for SWE; and 97.85%, 95.38%, 96.83%, 96.81%, and 96.88% for multimodal ultrasound imaging, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were all significantly higher for multimodal ultrasound imaging than those values for US, CEUS, and SWE (all P < .05). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for US, CEUS, SWE, and multimodal ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of benign and malignant liver tumors were 0.760, 0.897, 0.829, and 0.968, respectively.US, CEUS, and SWE all have diagnostic value in the diagnosis of benign and malignant liver tumors. Multimodal ultrasound imaging could significantly increase the accuracy of the diagnosis of benign and malignant liver tumors and has higher value for clinical application.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/instrumentação , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação
4.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(3): 685-692, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) using SonoVue has the potential to improve the performance of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with early breast cancer. However, the evidence of SLNB using CEUS in patients converting from cN1 to cN0 after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is lacking. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the feasibility of CEUS using SonoVue for the identification of sentinel lymph node (SLN) and the value of the combination of CEUS and blue dye (BD) for SLNB in patients converting from cN1 to cN0 following NAC. METHODS: Patients with cytology-proven node positive breast cancer at the initial diagnosis (stage T1-T3N1M0) from January 2018 to January 2019, underwent NAC. Patients converting from cN1 to cN0 following NAC were enrolled and randomized into two groups for SLNB: the combination method group using CEUS and BD together, and the single BD method group. Then all patients underwent complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and primary breast surgery. Compared with the final pathological results, the identification rate, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, false negative rate, negative predictive value, positive predictive value were recorded and compared between two methods. RESULTS: A total of 400 patients with stage T1-T3N1M0 disease underwent NAC between January 2018 to January 2019, among which 134 (33.5%) patients had clinically negative node confirmed by imaging after NAC and randomized into two groups. Each group included 67 cases. In the combination method group, contrast-enhanced lymphatic vessels in 66 cases of 67 were clearly visualized by US soon after the periareolar injection of SonoVue and the SLNs were accurately localized. The identification rate of the combination method was 98.5%%, which was significantly higher than 83.6% (56/67) using the single BD method. The mean numbers of SLNs identified by the combination method was higher than that by the single BD method. Compared with pathological diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, the positive predictive value, the negative predictive value, and the FNR of the combingation method were 84.4%, 100%, 89.4%, 100%, 75%, and 15.6%, respectively. In contrast, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, the positive predictive value, the negative predictive value, and the FNR using single blue dye were 73.9%, 100%, 89.3%, 100%, 84.6%, and 26.1%, respectively. The FNR using the combination method was significantly lower than that using single BD. CONCLUSION: Identification of SLNs in patients converting from cN1 to cN0 following NAC by CEUS is a technically feasible. The combination of CEUS and BD is more effective than BD alone for SLNB in patients converting from cN1 to cN0 following NAC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Linfonodo Sentinela/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 76(1): 99-110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury often occurs in various clinical events, and its incidence and mortality have been increasing. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the monitoring of dexamethasone in the improvement of renal I/R injury in rats. METHODS: Eighteen healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, I/R, and I/R surgery plus dexamethasone treatment (Dexa) groups. In the I/R group 45-minute renal ischemia with 24 h reperfusion period was monitored. Time-intensity curve (TIC)-derived parameters, which included peak value, time to peak (TP), area under the curve (AUC), and mean transit time (MTT) were compared to the blood creatinine, urea, Caspase-1, and NLRP3 levels. RESULTS: The I/R group showed an increased peak value, prolonged TP and MTT, and greater AUC (P < 0.05). The Dexa group showed shorter TP and MTT, and smaller AUC (P < 0.05). Results show that the associations between (i) TP, AUC, and MTT and (ii) creatinine, urea, Caspase-1, and NLRP3 levels were significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone can alleviate renal I/R injury in rats, which may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3 and caspase-1. CEUS can quantitatively measure this change, in which the changes in TP, AUC and MMT values have considerable reference values.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ultrassonografia/métodos
6.
Tumori ; 106(4): 325-332, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567505

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In January 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Italy necessitated rigorous application of more restrictive safety procedures in the management and treatment of patients with cancer to ensure patient and staff protection. Identification of respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was a challenge during the pandemic owing to a large number of asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients. METHODS: We report 5 patients with unknown SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoing positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with radiopharmaceuticals targeting different tumor processes: 18F-FDG, 18F-choline (FCH), and 68Ga-PSMA. RESULTS: In all patients, PET/CT showed increased tracer uptake in the lungs corresponding to CT findings of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Quantitative assessment of tracer uptake showed more elevated values for the glucose analogue 18F-FDG (mean SUVmax 5.4) than for the other tracers (mean SUVmax 3.5). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PET/CT is a sensitive modality to hypothesize SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in patients with cancer, even when asymptomatic. More data are needed to verify the correlation among immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical evolution, and PET results. Under the strict safety measures implemented at the PET center, the number of potentially SARS-CoV-2-positive patients undergoing PET/CT was very low (1.6%), and no staff member has been diagnosed with infection as of April 30, 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Neoplasias/virologia , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/terapia , Pneumonia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/uso terapêutico
7.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 216: 509-531, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594397

RESUMO

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging is a valuable tool for preclinical and clinical diagnostics. The most frequently used ultrasound contrast agents are microbubbles. Besides them, novel nano-sized materials are under investigation, which are briefly discussed in this chapter. For molecular CEUS, the ultrasound contrast agents are modified to actively target disease-associated molecular markers with a site-specific ligand. The most common markers for tumor imaging are related to neoangiogenesis, like the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and αvß3 integrin. In this chapter, applications of molecular ultrasound to longitudinally monitor receptor expression during tumor growth, to detect neovascularization, and to evaluate therapy responses are described. Furthermore, we report on first clinical trials of molecular CEUS with VEGFR2-targeted phospholipid microbubbles showing promising results regarding patient safety and its ability to detect tumors of prostate, breast, and ovary. The chapter closes with an outlook on ultrasound theranostics, where (targeted) ultrasound contrast agents are used to increase the permeability of tumor tissues and to support drug delivery.


Assuntos
Imagem Molecular , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Ultrassonografia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Microbolhas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
8.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 49(5): 267-271, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neck masses in adults are a common presentation for head and neck cancer. Head and neck cancer accounts for 3.4% of all malignancies in Australia, and the incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is rising. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent worsening prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This article provides a brief overview of neck masses in adults, with a guideline to work-up and management in a primary care setting. DISCUSSION: All neck masses should be considered malignant until proven otherwise. Detailed history and examination is crucial in the initial work-up. Fine-needle aspiration and computed tomography of the neck with contrast make up the mainstay of first-line investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Pescoço/anormalidades , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/métodos , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
9.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(3): 369-382, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical value of Arrival-time Parametric Imaging (At-PI) in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions. METHODS: For this ethics committee-approved retrospective study, a total of 184 breast lesions in 176 women were included and gray-scale ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and At-PI were performed. In CEUS and At-PI, perfusion patterns, perfusion uniformity and color spatial distribution for lesions were analyzed qualitatively and the maximal diameter ratio of the lesion in accumulated parametric images and that in gray-scale images (MDRAI/GI) and area ratio of the lesion in accumuated parametric images and that in gray-scale images (ARAI/GI) were calculated quantitatively. Kappa and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient were used to evaluate the interobserver reproducibility for CEUS and At-PI and the intraobserver reproducibility for At-PI, respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive and negative likelihood ratios (PPV, NPV) were calculated for MDRAI/GI and ARAI/GI. RESULTS: Good interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility for At-PI were identified. In At-PI, there were statistically significant differences in perfusion patterns, color spatial distribution, MDRAI/GI and ARAI/GI between benign and malignant breast lesions (P < 0.05). The AUCs of MDRAI/GI and ARAI/GI were 0.895 and 0.954, respectively, with no significant difference between them (Z = 1.84, P > 0.05). By using the thresholds of 1.125 for MDRAI/GI and 1.21 for ARAI/GI, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of At-PI were 84.48%, 88.24%, 85.57%, 92.45% and 76.92%, respectively, for MDRAI/GI and 93.10%, 91.18%, 92.39%, 94.74% and 88.57%, respectively, for ARAI/GI. CONCLUSIONS: At-PI is helpful to distinguish benign from malignant breast lesions. And MDRAI/GI and ARAI/GI are useful and efficient features for differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(3): 436-442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent modality for pelvic imaging. The anatomy of uterine cavity and vagina is optimally evaluated when the walls, which may spontaneously be collapsed, are distended. Distension of these cavities during pelvic MRI for evaluation of gynecologic diseases has been conducted with vagina, filled with ultrasound gel or saline solution. In this meta-analysis, we aim to assess the effectiveness of vaginal contrast media in MRI for improving the detection of pelvic pathologies. METHODS: The PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Science Citation Index, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched through March 2019 for studies of the accuracy of MRI using vaginal contrast media in the diagnosis and staging of pelvic pathologies. Four eligible studies of a total of 120 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The sensitivity rates and relative risk for MRI, before and after vaginal contrast medium administration, were pooled, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined. RESULTS: The pooled sensitivity rate for MRI before administering intravaginal contrast medium in detecting pelvic pathologies was 63% (95% CI, 54%-72%), and that after was 89% (95% CI, 83%-93%). The interstudy heterogeneity rate (assessed using the I statistic) was relatively low: 13% (P = 0.33) and 0% (P = 0.45) before and after vaginal contrast medium use, respectively. The average relative risk was 1.54 (SD, 0.22; 95% CI, 1.18-1.89; median, 1.50; range, 1.34-1.80). This demonstrated that, on average, the sensitivity rate for MRI in detecting pelvic disorders increased by 54% after the use of a vaginal contrast medium. CONCLUSIONS: Use of vaginal contrast media improved the diagnostic ability of MRI in identifying pelvic pathologies.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Endometriose/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Vagina/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Cremes, Espumas e Géis Vaginais/uso terapêutico
11.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(4): 419-429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Contrast-enhanced-ultrasound (CEUS) has been frequently used in assessment of cystic renal lesions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the Bosniak classification in CEUS compared to CT and MRI in a multi-center setting. METHODS: Bosniak classification in CEUS examinations of cystic renal lesions were compared to imaging findings in computed-tomography (ceCT) and magnetic-resonance-imaging (ceMRI). Imaging results were correlated to histopathological reports. All examinations were performed by experts (EFSUMB level 3) using up-to-date CEUS examination-protocols. RESULTS: Overall, 173 cystic renal lesions were compared to subgroups CT (n = 87) and MRI (n = 86). Using Bosniak-classification 64/87 renal cysts (73.6%) were rated equal compared to CT with upgrade of four lesions (4.6%) and downgrade of 19 lesions (21.8%) by CT (Intra-class-correlation [ICC] coefficient of 0.824 [p < 0.001]). CEUS compared to MRI, presenting different scoring especially in classes Bosniak IIF (n = 16/31) and Bosniak III (n = 16/28) with an ICC coefficient of 0.651 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: CEUS can visualize even finest septal and small nodular wall enhancement, which may result in an upgrade of cystic lesions into a higher Bosniak class compared to CT or MRI. Thus, a modification of the Bosniak classification on CEUS may reduce unnecessary biopsies and surgery.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Doenças Renais Císticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Doenças Renais Císticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(3): 349-359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification of vulnerable plaques at risk of rupture could help prevent cerebral ischemic stroke in patients with carotid artery disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) perfusion patterns and serum lipid signatures of carotid artery plaques with the degree of carotid stenosis. METHODS: A total of 80 patients with carotid artery plaques who underwent CEUS were included. All patients underwent CEUS, computed tomography angiography or digital subtraction angiography, and serum lipid testing. RESULTS: The contrast agent enhancement levels and the CEUS perfusion patterns in the plaques were associated with the degree of carotid stenosis (P < 0.05). Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was associated with the contrast agent enhancement levels (P < 0.05), but did not correlate with the degree of stenosis (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides with respect to contrast agent enhancement levels (P > 0.05) or the degree of stenosis (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: A high level of CEUS perfusion and increased serum FFA levels are indicative of vulnerable carotid plaques, which may be useful for the prediction of stroke in patients with carotid artery disease.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 37(1): 202-211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070164

RESUMO

Purpose: This study evaluated the usefulness of intraprocedural contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)/ultrasound (US) fusion imaging using a perflubutane-based contrast agent combined with preprocedural auto sweep three-dimensional US to obtain volume data for guidance and evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA).Methods: This uncontrolled clinical trial included 50 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with a mean diameter of 15.3 mm that had been treated by RFA. The efficacy of RFA was evaluated by CEUS/US fusion imaging during the procedure. If the ablation was deemed to be inadequate, further ablation was performed until adequate ablation was achieved. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) was performed a month after RFA, and the images obtained using each modality were reviewed to evaluate the efficacy of RFA.Results: Thirty-three of the 50 lesions were evaluated by CEUS/US fusion imaging as having been adequately ablated after the first RFA procedure. The ablation was evaluated as inadequate in the remaining 17 lesions, for which additional ablation was performed. Ninety-eight (49/50) of all HCCs were evaluated as having been eventually adequately ablated on intraprocedural CEUS/US fusion imaging. The concordance rate for evaluations between intraprocedural CEUS/US fusion imaging and CECT/CEMRI performed 1 month after RFA was 88% (44/50). The kappa value for agreement between the two methods of evaluation was 0.792.Conclusion: Intraprocedural fusion imaging combining CEUS and auto sweep three-dimensional US appears to be a useful modality for RFA guidance and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of RFA in patients with HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Fluorcarbonetos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Ablação por Radiofrequência/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Open Vet J ; 9(4): 309-312, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042650

RESUMO

Background: Idiopathic renal hematuria (IRH) generally occurs in healthy large-breed dogs that are <2-years-old. It is characterized by recurrent bleeding from the kidneys of unidentified cause. The final diagnosis is reached through the exclusion of primary urinary system and systemic causes of hematuria along with the direct visualization by cystoscopy of hematic urine jets at the ureteral orifice. Case Description: An 8-year-old female neutered Whippet was presented for investigation of a 4-week history of chronic intermittent macroscopic hematuria. Physical examination, systolic blood pressure, extensive laboratory workup (including coagulation profile and platelet count), urine culture, thoracic and abdominal radiographs, pneumocystogram, and double-contrast cystography were all unremarkable. B-mode ultrasound showed no abnormalities apart from a moderate amount of suspended echogenic amorphous material visible within the urinary bladder lumen. In the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) study, a large amount of echogenic ill-defined material was noted projecting into the urinary bladder lumen from the right ureterovesical junction in the fundamental mode. This material was more conspicuous and markedly contrast-enhancing in the harmonic mode. Ultrasound contrast medium has the unique property to strictly remain within the vessels without interstitial trapping or elimination by the kidneys. Indeed, the presence of the micro-bubbles into the urinary tract lumen in the CEUS study was interpreted as a direct sign of active urinary tract bleeding. A diagnosis of IRH was reached through CEUS and B-mode ultrasound along with an extensive laboratory workup and periodic follow-up of the patient. No therapy was administered and at a 1-year follow-up, the patient was alive with no current episodes of macroscopic hematuria reported. Conclusion: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of CEUS for the characterization of IRH. CEUS could represent a safe, non-invasive, affordable novel alternative technique to cystoscopy or cystotomy for the real-time diagnosis of IRH.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematúria/veterinária , Nefropatias/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Hematúria/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação
15.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106607

RESUMO

Extensive translational research has provided considerable progress regarding the understanding of atherosclerosis pathophysiology over the last decades. In contrast, implementation of molecular in vivo imaging remains highly limited. In that context, nanoparticles represent a useful tool. Their variable shape and composition assure biocompatibility and stability within the environment of intended use, while the possibility of conjugating different ligands as well as contrast dyes enable targeting of moieties of interest on a molecular level and visualization throughout various imaging modalities. These characteristics have been exploited by a number of preclinical research approaches aimed at advancing understanding of vascular atherosclerotic disease, in order to improve identification of high-risk lesions prior to oftentimes fatal thromboembolic events. Furthermore, the combination of these targeted nanoparticles with therapeutic agents offers the potential of site-targeted drug delivery with minimized systemic secondary effects. This review gives an overview of different groups of targeted nanoparticles, designed for in vivo molecular imaging of atherosclerosis as well as an outlook on potential combined diagnostic and therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/patologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia
16.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(3): 325-334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound (D-CEUS) in monitoring the chemoradiotherapy (CRT) therapeutic response of local advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (LAPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: From October 2017 to December 2018, 11 patients diagnosed as LAPC were included (7 men, 4 women; mean age: 61.1±8.6 years). The algorithm of CRT was as following: the radiotherapy dose was 50.4 Gy/28Fx with S-1 40 mg bid orally taken in radiotherapy day. Conventional ultrasound scan and CEUS were performed before and 4 weeks after CRT. All ultrasound examinations were performed by an ACUSON Oxana 2 ultrasound equipment (Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany) with a C 6-1 convex array transducer (1-6 MHz). Time intensity curves (TICs) were generated in the region of interests (ROIs) both in LAPC lesions and in its surrounding pancreas parenchyma by SonoLiver software (TOMTEC Imaging Systems). Quantitative perfusion parameters including maximum intensity (MI), rise time (RT), mean transit time (mTT) and time to peak (TTP) were analyzed and compared before and after CRT. RESULTS: No significant difference could be found by conventional B mode ultrasound scan after CRT. TICs of CEUS showed lower ascending and descending slopes rate after CRT. Among all perfusion quantitative parameters, MI decreased significantly after CRT (42.1±18.8% vs 27.8±17.2%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Depending on its unique advantages as non-radiation, effective and convenient, D-CEUS analysis and quantitative parameters, particularly MI, has potential application value in following up of the CRT treatment response in LAPC patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(2): 177-188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been used as an additional imaging technique in order to clarify rare focal splenic lesions (FSL). CEUS is a safe and cost-effective modality for assessment of perfusion. OBJECTIVE: To validate contrast enhancement pattern and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CEUS in unclear FSL. METHODS: CEUS examinations of the spleen in 50 patients between 2012 and 2018 were included in the study. Examinations were performed using B-mode, colour-coded Doppler ultrasound (CCDS) and CEUS after injection of sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles and interpreted in consensus by two experienced radiologists. Reference standard was defined as histopathological report and clinical course (treatment response, long term follow up). RESULTS: All patients were successfully examined by CEUS without an adverse reaction. CEUS presented the correct differentiation of benign and malignant alterations in 49/50 (98%). Lesion washout was found in all malignant but also 16.7% of all benign lesions. Matched to the histopathological report and clinical follow up, CEUS represented a sensitivity of 100% (95% -CI, 57-100), a specificity of 98% (95% -CI, 88-100), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 83% (95% -CI, 44-97) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (95% -CI, 92-100). CONCLUSION: CEUS may provide additional information by visualization of dynamic contrast enhancement pattern to differentiate benign and malignant lesions. Nevertheless, established criteria for malignancy (early enhancement or washout) in FSL should be considered with caution since they are also found in benign lesions.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Esplenopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Radiology ; 294(3): 548-556, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961262

RESUMO

Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a concern in hospitalized children undergoing CT with intravenous iodinated contrast material (ICM). Adult studies have shown frequencies of AKI after CT with intravenous ICM to be similar to propensity score-matched ICM-unexposed patient groups; similar data in pediatric patients are lacking. Purpose To evaluate the association between intravenous ICM exposure and AKI in hospitalized pediatric patients with stable kidney function undergoing contrast material-enhanced CT by comparing with a propensity score-matched ICM-unexposed patient sample undergoing abdominal US. Materials and Methods In this retrospective observational study, hospitalized patients aged 18 years or younger with stable kidney function and available serum creatinine (SCr) measurement before and after imaging who underwent CT with intravenous ICM or abdominal US (control group) between January 2009 and November 2018 were identified. The 1:1 propensity score matching was performed by using 23 covariates, stratified by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before imaging (≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). AKI was defined by using Acute Kidney Injury Network SCr-related criteria. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for AKI after imaging, including the effects of eGFR and intravenous ICM exposure before imaging. Results A total of 1850 unique patients were included in the propensity score-matched sample (925 exposed to ICM [mean age ± standard deviation, 8 years ± 6; 484 female patients]; 925 unexposed to ICM [mean age, 7 years ± 6; 484 female patients]). Frequency of AKI with eGFR greater than or equal to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 2.2% (20 of 889) for CT and US (odds ratio [OR]: 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52, 1.86; adjusted P = .95) and with eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 5.6% (two of 36) and 11.1% (four of 36) for CT and US, respectively (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.11, 5.00; adjusted P = .76). Significant multivariable predictors of AKI included eGFR before imaging (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98, 0.995; P = .001), body mass index (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.10; P = .003), acquired kidney disease (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.004, 3.78; P = .049), and nephrotoxic antibiotic exposure (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.25; P < .001). Intravenous ICM exposure was not predictive (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.51, 1.64; P > .05). Conclusion Hospitalized children with stable kidney function who underwent CT with intravenous iodinated contrast material (ICM) had a similar frequency of acute kidney injury (AKI) compared with a propensity score-matched ICM-unexposed patient group. In pediatric inpatients with estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than or equal to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, ICM was not independently associated with AKI. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Paltiel in this issue.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 74(4): 441-452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a hyperplastic mass of vascular abnormality and the second most common benign liver lesion. It can be discovered incidentally or during a surveillance examination in patients at risk for hepatic malignancy, mostly by conventional ultrasound. CEUS has been used as an additional alternative method for the rapid diagnosis of FNH. However, none of the previous studies compared the diagnostic performance of CEUS to MRI retrospectively in a 10-year observation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this long-term retrospective study is to assess the diagnostic performance of CEUS in the imaging of FNH and compare the results to MRI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A single experienced physician performed CEUS examinations in 244 patients between 2009 and 2019 with suspected focal nodular hyperplasia after conventional ultrasound. A second-generation blood pool agent (SonoVue®, Bracco, Milan, Italy) was administered. Additional dynamic MRI with contrast agent was performed in a subgroup of 95 patients. RESULTS: Out of 244 patients, FNH could be displayed in 221 patients on CEUS. A subgroup of 95 patients had CEUS examinations and CEMRI for diagnosis comparison. In comparison with CEMRI, CEUS presented a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 76%, a positive predictive value of 93% and a negative predictive value of 89%. CONCLUSION: CEUS is a safe and feasible approach that assess the diagnosis of focal nodular hyperplasia equally to MRI. The focal lesion enhancement can be depicted in real-time in the arterial, venous and late phase facilitating the prompt diagnosis.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Nodular Focal do Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Hiperplasia Nodular Focal do Fígado/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
20.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 74(1): 1-12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743990

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The evaluation of the potential clinical benefit of four-dimensional ultrasound (4D-US) in the assessment of bladder cancer (BC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 20 patients with indication for cystoscopy for suspicion of bladder cancer were prospectively included in this study. All patients underwent two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-US), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and real-time four-dimensional ultrasound (4D-US). All acquisitions were compared to each other in regard to image quality. This assessment was done using a 6 point scale (1 = best). All patients underwent subsequently cystoscopy with resection of the tumor (TURB), due a histopathological analysis was possible. RESULTS: All examinations were performed successfully and no patient had to be excluded from the study. Patients acceptance of 4D-US was consistently good. No adverse events occurred. Image quality of real time 4D-US (score: 1.27±0.46) was significantly superior (p < 0.001) to both, conventional 2D-US (score: 2.33±0.62) and also to 2D-CEUS (score: 2.00±0.53). In terms of tumor detection no superiority was evident for 4D-US compared to 2D-US or in utilization of CEUS (sensitivity = 0.89; specificity = 1.00; positive predictive value = 1.00; negative predictive value = 0.50; AUC = 0.944; (95% CI: 07.43-0.998)). CONCLUSION: The assessment of bladder cancer using real time 4D-US is feasible and improves the image quality and therefore also the precise anatomical consistency of intravesical tumor masses.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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