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1.
Gene ; 722: 144058, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494240

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attractive biological agents in regenerative medicine. To optimize cell therapies, it is necessary to determine the most effective delivery method for MSCs. Therefore, we evaluated the biological properties of MSCs after exposure to various temperatures to define optimal storage conditions prior to therapeutic delivery of MSCs. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Adherent and non-adherent MSCs were incubated at multiple temperatures (i.e., 4, 23 and 37 °C) in Lactated Ringers (LR) solution lacking essential cell growth ingredients, or in culture media which is optimized for cell growth. Cells were assessed either after the temperature changes (4 h) or after recovery (24 h). Metabolic activity of MSCs, cell number and expression of representative mRNA biomarkers were evaluated to assess the biological effects of temperature. We monitored changes in mRNAs expression related to cytoprotective- or stress-related responses (e.g., FOS, JUN, ATF1, ATF4, EGR1, EGR2, MYC), proliferation (e.g., HIST2H4, CCNB2), and extracellular matrix production (ECM; e.g., COL3A1, COL1A1) by quantitative real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. RESULTS: Our study demonstrates that storing MSCs in Lactated Ringers (LR) solution for 4 h decreases cell number and metabolic activity. The number of viable MSCs decreased significantly when cultured at physiological temperature (37 °C) and severe hypothermia (4 °C), while cells grown at ambient temperature (23 °C) exhibited the least detrimental effects. There were no appreciable biological differences in mRNA markers for proliferation or ECM deposition at any of the temperatures. However, biomarkers related to cytoprotective- or stress-responses were selectively elevated depending on temperature or media type (i.e., LR versus standard media). CONCLUSION: The biological impact of nutrient-free media and temperature changes after 4 h exposure persists after a 24 h recovery period. Hence, storage temperature and media conditions should be optimized to improve effective dosing of MSCs.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Temperatura Baixa , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Nutrientes , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107769, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mansonellosis arises from infections with threadlike filarial nematodes in millions of individuals, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Since infections present no overt clinical symptoms but attenuate immune responses that might lead to increased susceptibility and worsened disease course of concomitant infections, it is truly a neglected tropical disease. Nevertheless, only few studies focus on identifying suitable safe drugs for its control and little is known about the requirements for in vitro maintenance of the Mansonella perstans transmission stage. This study, therefore, evaluated the survival of M. perstans microfilariae (mf) using in vitro conditions that have been shown to promote survival of Loa loa, a closely related filarial nematode. Furthermore, the in vitro microfilaricidal effect of 15 agents was assessed on this helminth. METHODS: The ability of two basic culture media; Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI-1640) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and a monkey kidney epithelial cell line (LLC-MK2) to support the survival of M. perstans microfilariae was investigated. Subsequently, 6 anti-helminthics, 5 anti-malarials, 1 anti-microbacterial, 2 trypanocidals and 1 anti-cancer agent were tested in vitro against mf. The suitability of the culture media as well as the effect of the anti-infective agents on mf survival was assessed by scoring their motility. RESULTS: FBS supplement and additional LLC-MK2 cells significantly improved the survival of mf in DMEM and RPMI-1640 culture. In detail, RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% FBS and LLC-MK2 cells sustained the maintenance of mf for at least 20 days (100.00 ±â€¯0.00% survival). In co-cultures with LLC-MK2 cells without serum, M. perstans mf were maintained in DMEM and RPMI-1640 medium with a motility above 99% by day 5. Mefloquine displayed the highest microfilaricidal effect in vitro followed by artesunate. CONCLUSION: Both RPMI and DMEM in the presence of LLC-MK2 cells are suitable for the maintenance of M. perstans mf in vitro. In absence of the feeder cells, the addition of 10% FBS to RPMI-1640 medium improved the parasite survival rate and motility. The microfilaricidal activity of mefloquine and artesunate on M. perstans mf was documented for the first time in this study and can therefore be considered as reference for further screening of agents against this parasite stage.


Assuntos
Artesunato/farmacologia , Filaricidas/farmacologia , Mansonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Mansonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mefloquina/farmacologia , Amodiaquina/farmacologia , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Área Sob a Curva , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Meios de Cultura/química , Haplorrinos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Mansonella/fisiologia , Microfilárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microfilárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microfilárias/fisiologia , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/farmacologia
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 294-298, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the growth and reproduction of the promastigotes of Leishmania isolates from various endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in China in various culture media, so as to provide experimental evidence for selecting an appropriate medium for the culture of Leishmania. METHODS: A total of 3 × 105 promastigotes of KS-2, Cy and JIASHI-5 Leishmania isolates were inoculated into 1 mL NNN medium, 1 mL M199 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum medium, 1 mL M199 medium supplemented with 20% horse serum medium, and 1 mL brain heart infusion medium containing heme, respectively. All media were placed at 22 ℃ under a sterile condition, and the number of promastigotes was counted continuously for 8 days under a microscope. The growth curve was plotted for the three Leishmania isolates. RESULTS: The promastigotes of KS-2, Cy and JIASHI-5 Leishmania isolates all grew and reproduced in the NNN medium, the M199 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum medium, and the M199 medium supplemented with 20% horse serum medium. The number of promastigotes of KS-2, Cy and JIASHI-5 Leishmania isolates was all significantly higher in the NNN medium than in the M199 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum medium, and the M199 medium supplemented with 20% horse serum medium at various time points of culture (all P values < 0.05), and the number of promastigotes of the KS-2 isolate was all significantly greater than that of the Cy and JIASHI-5 isolates in the NNN medium, the M199 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum medium, and the M199 medium supplemented with 20% horse serum medium at various time points of culture (all P values < 0.05). In ad dition, the promastigotes of KS-2, Cy and JIASHI-5 Leishmania isolates failed to grow and reproduce in the brain heart infusion medium. CONCLUSIONS: The growth and reproduction of the promastigotes of various Leishmania isolates from various endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in China vary in the same culture medium, and the growth and reproduction of a Leishmania isolate vary in different culture media. The NNN medium best fits for the culture of Leishmania isolates in the endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis in China.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura , Leishmania , China , Meios de Cultura/química , Humanos , Leishmania/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Reprodução
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553366

RESUMO

Candida haemulonii complex (C. haemulonii, C. haemulonii var. vulnera and C. duobushaemulonii) consists of emergent multidrug-resistant pathogens that cause bloodstream and deep-seated infections. However, little is known about their virulence factors. Herein, we evaluated the presence of extracellular serine peptidases in this fungal complex. Serine peptidase activity was measured by spectrophotometry using chromogenic peptide substrates to the S1 family. Chymotrypsin-, trypsin- and elastase-like activities were detected in all fungal isolates. Since higher chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities were observed from the cleavage of N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNa and N-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pNa, respectively, these substrates were selected for further experiments. Overall, pHs 7.0 and 9.0 were those in which higher chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities were observed, respectively, displaying higher hydrolytic activities at 37-45°C. Additionally, the serine peptidases produced by C. haemulonii complex were inhibited by PMSF and AEBSF in a typically concentration-dependent manner. Although the Michaelis constant (Km) values obtained for chymotrypsin-like peptidases were similar, greater differences were observed for trypsin-like enzymes secreted by the different fungal isolates. This is the first time that peptidases belonging to the S1 family are described in the C. haemulonii species complex. Thus, these data open the doors for more detailed studies into potential roles of these peptidases in fungal virulence.


Assuntos
Candida/enzimologia , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla , Tripsina/metabolismo , Candida/classificação , Meios de Cultura , Espectrofotometria , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1148: 1-24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482492

RESUMO

The use of therapeutic enzymes embraces currently a vast array of applications, abridging from diggestive disorders to cancer therapy, cardiovascular and lysosomal storage diseases. Enzyme drugs bind and act on their targets with great affinity and specificity, converting substrates to desired products in a reduced time frame with minimal side reactions. These characteristics have resulted in the development of a multitude of enzyme biopharmaceuticals for a wide range of human disorders.The advances in genetic engineering and DNA recombination techniques facilitated the production of therapeutical human-like enzymes, using different cells as host organisms. The selection of hosts generally privileges those that secrete the enzyme into the culture medium, as this eases the purification process, and those that are able to express complex glycoproteins, with glycosylation patterns and other post-translational modifications close to human proteins. Moreover, engineering approaches such as pegylation, encapsulation in micro- and nanocarriers, and mutation of amino acid residues of the native enzyme molecule to yield variants with improved therapeutic activity, half-life and/or stability, have been also addressed. Engineered enzyme products have been designed to display enhanced delivery to target sites and reduced adverse side-effects (e.g., immunogenicity) upon continuous drug administration.Irrespectively of the production method, the final formulation of therapeutic enzymes must display high purity and specificity, and they are often marketed as lyophilized pure preparations with biocompatible buffering salts and diluents to prepare the reconstituted aqueous solution before treatment.


Assuntos
Enzimas/biossíntese , Enzimas/isolamento & purificação , Enzimas/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos , Meios de Cultura , Engenharia Genética , Glicosilação , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Recombinantes
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180439, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531531

RESUMO

The orchid seed banks of Atlantic Forest may be considered a key strategy for the conservation of species threatened with extinction by indiscriminate collection or habitat destruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed viability, to choose the best culture medium for the asymbiotic germination and evaluate germination, after storage for different periods and temperatures for the Brazilian native orchids: Gomesa praetexta (Rchb.f.) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams, Gomesa forbesii (Hook.) M.W.Chase & N.H.Williams, Gomesa recurva R.Br. and Grandiphyllum divaricatum (Lindl.) Docha Neto. Knudson C (KC), Murashige & Skoog (MS), half-strength MS (1/2 MS macro- and micro-nutrients) and Woody Plant Medium (WPM) culture media were tested for germination. The WPM culture medium was the best for asymbiotic germination of all species evaluated, with high germination percentages and improved seedling development. Seeds of G. divaricatum, G. praetexta, G. recurva and G. forbesii indicated orthodox behavior, with high viability rates after 12 months of storage, being recommended the storage temperature of -80°C for the first three species and -20°C for G. forbesii. The protocol developed in the present study was efficient for seed bank storage, in vitro germination and seedling production of G. divaricatum and G. praetexta, contributing to conservation strategies of these species.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Germinação/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aclimatação , Brasil , Meios de Cultura , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Florestas , Orchidaceae/classificação , Banco de Sementes
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122120, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520855

RESUMO

This work studied the hydrothermal Pretreatment of Salvaged Cyanobacteria and used the pretreated slurry as medium for cultivating Scenedesmus obliquus. The cyanobacterial slurry was pretreated by chemical oxidation, hydrothermal treatment and hydrothermal oxidation, and then the cultivation experiment of oil-producing microalgae (Scenedesmus obliquus) was carried out. The results showed that hydrothermal oxidation could transform the hard-to-treat salvaged cyanobacteria into culture medium for microalgae. The oil yield from S. obliquus cultured in that was higher than that in conventional BG11 medium.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microalgas , Scenedesmus , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121964, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451339

RESUMO

Algae biomass comprises variety of biochemicals components such as carbohydrates, lipids and protein, which make them a feasible feedstock for biofuel production. However, high production cost mainly due to algae cultivation remains the main challenge in commercializing algae biofuels. Hence, extraction of other high value-added bioproducts from algae biomass is necessary to enhance the economic feasibility of algae biofuel production. This paper is aims to deliberate the recent developments of conventional technologies for algae biofuels production, such as biochemical and chemical conversion pathways, and extraction of a variety of bioproducts from algae biomass for various potential applications. Besides, life cycle evaluation studies on microalgae biorefinery are presented, focusing on case studies for various cultivation techniques, culture medium, harvesting, and dewatering techniques along with biofuel and bioenergy production pathways. Overall, the algae biorefinery provides new opportunities for valorisation of algae biomass for multiple products synthesis.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura , Lipídeos
9.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 126, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363938

RESUMO

Isolation and identification of temperature tolerant phosphate solubilizing bacteria (TTPSB) and their use as microbial fertilizers was the main goal of the study. In this study, TTPSB were isolated from soil samples treated for 16 h at 55 °C. Their phosphate solubilizing activity was either evaluated in solid media by forming a clear zone (halo) or in liquid media by quantification of the soluble phosphate in the growth medium. Five colonies (RPS4, RPS6, RPS7, RPS8 and RPS9) were identified to be able to form a halo and two of the isolates (RPS9 and RPS7) tolerated a temperature of 55 °C. With tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the sole P-source, the phosphate solubilizing capacity of RPS9 and RPS7 was determined to be 563.8 and 324.1 mg P L-1 in liquid Sperber medium, respectively. Both bacterial isolates were identified as Pantoea agglomerans by molecular and biochemical characterization. To be used as a microbial fertilizer a carrier system for the temperature tolerant bacteria consisting of rock phosphate, sulfur and bagasse was used. It could be established that the bacterial cell counts of the microbial fertilizers were acceptable for application after storage for 4 months at 28 °C. In a greenhouse experiment using pot cultures, inoculation of maize (S.C.704) with the microbial fertilizers in an autoclaved soil resulted in a significant effect on total fresh and dry weight of the plant root and shoot as well as on the P content of the root and shoot. The effects observed with RPS9 as a component of the microbial fertilizer on plant growth and P nutrition was comparable with the addition of 50% of recommended triple superphosphate (TSP) dose. Using temperature tolerant bacteria in microbial fertilizers will overcome limitations in production and storage of the microbial fertilizers and contribute to a environmentally-friendly agriculture. The temperature tolerant P. agglomerans strain RPS9 was shown to be effective as part of a microbial fertilizer in supporting the growth and P uptake in maize.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Pantoea/isolamento & purificação , Pantoea/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Biotransformação , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Temperatura Alta , Pantoea/classificação , Pantoea/efeitos da radiação , Solubilidade , Zea mays/microbiologia
10.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 759-768, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376108

RESUMO

The cultivation of microbial species remains a primary challenge in microbiology and obtaining pure cultures is essential for the study of microbial physiology and function. When isolating microorganisms from aquaculture environments, Vibrio are the most dominate isolates on the media that are commonly used. In order to expand our ability to study microbial species, an easy-operation and low-cost medium that can reduce the interference of Vibrio strains and increase the cultivability of other bacteria is urgently needed. We compared viable cell counts on conventional media (CM; including Marine Agar 2216 and LB media) and diluted media (DM; including 1/10-Marine Agar 2216, 1/10-LB). We also assessed the diversity of cultivable microorganisms under high and low nutrient conditions by a plate-wash strategy coupled with high-throughput sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that microbial communities from DM, especially 1/10-Marine Agar 2216, are more diverse than those obtained from CM. Vibrio isolates were reduced on DM. PICRUSt analysis revealed that nutrient composition is a significant contributor to the diversity and function of the cultivable microbial communities. Bacteria grown on CM possess more pathogenic characteristics, whereas DM favors the growth of bacteria that have multiple metabolic functions. Collectively, our data provide strong evidence that dilution of CM influences the cultivability of bacteria from aquaculture seawater. It also supports that DM can expand the range of microbial species that can be cultivated. This study also provides insights for media design in microbial cultivation from aquaculture systems.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vibrio/genética , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio/metabolismo
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 136, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432249

RESUMO

Volatile phenols such as 4-ethylphenol are produced from hydroxycinnamic acids by Dekkera bruxellensis, an important yeast contaminating alcoholic fermentations. 4-ethylphenol results from the decarboxylation and reduction of p-coumaric acid, a compound found in sugarcane musts. In wine, volatile phenols are responsible by sensorial alterations whereas in the context of bioethanol fermentation, little is known about their effects on the main yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we evaluated the interaction of 4-ethylphenol and pH, sucrose and ethanol on the growth and fermentation capacity of the industrial strain of S. cerevisiae PE-2. A central compound rotational design was utilized to evaluate the effect of 4-ethylphenol, pH, ethanol and sucrose concentration on the yeast maximum specific growth rate (µmax) in microplate experiments in YPS medium (Yeast extract-Peptone-Sucrose), at 30 °C. Following, single-cycle fermentations in YPS medium, pH 4.5, 17% sucrose, at 30 °C, with 4-ethylphenol in concentrations of 10 and 20 mg L-1 being added at the start or after 4 h of fermentation, were carried out. 4-ethylphenol affected µmax of S. cerevisiae in situations that resemble the conditions of industrial bioethanol production, especially the low pH of the fermentation medium and the high ethanol concentration because of the anaerobic sucrose uptake. The addition of 4-ethylphenol on fermentation resulted in significant effect on the cell yeast concentration, pH and alcohol production, with significant decrease from 86% to the range of 65-74% in the fermentative efficiency. The industrial yeast S. cerevisiae PE-2 growth and fermentative capacity were affected by the presence of 4-ethylphenol, a metabolite produced by D. bruxellensis, which may contribute to explain the impact of this yeast on bioethanol industrial production.


Assuntos
Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial , Fenóis/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Inibidores do Crescimento/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Ambiente
12.
Tumour Biol ; 41(8): 1010428319866369, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402761

RESUMO

Gaining a better understanding of the biological properties of cell-free DNA constitutes an important step in the development of clinically meaningful cell-free DNA-based tests. Since the in vivo characterization of cell-free DNA is complicated by the immense heterogeneity of blood samples, an increasing number of in vitro cell culture experiments, which offer a greater level of control, are being conducted. However, cell culture studies are currently faced with three notable caveats. First, the concentration of cell-free DNA in vitro is relatively low. Second, the median amount and size of cell-free DNA in culture medium varies greatly between cell types. Third, the amount and size of cell-free DNA in the culture medium of a single cell line fluctuates over time. Although these are interesting findings, it can also be a great source of experimental confusion and emphasizes the importance of method optimization and standardization. Therefore, in this study, we compared five commonly used cell-free DNA quantification methods, including quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Qubit Double-Stranded DNA High Sensitivity assay, Quant-iT PicoGreen Assay, Bioanalyzer High Sensitivity DNA assay, and NanoDrop Onec. Analysis of the resulting data, along with an interpretation of theoretical values (i.e. the theoretical detection and quantification limits of the respective methods), enables the calculation of optimal conditions for several important preanalytical steps pertaining to each quantification method and different cell types, including the (1) time-point at which culture medium should be collected for cell-free DNA extraction, (2) amount of cell culture supernatant from which to isolate cell-free DNA, (3) volume of elution buffer, and (4) volume of cell-free DNA sample to use for quantification.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos/química
13.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(9-10): 51, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455975

RESUMO

Endophytic actinomycetes, a prolific source of natural products, are well known for their diverse metabolic versatility, and their association with medicinal plants and antimicrobial potential are well worth exploring. We isolated and identified the Streptomyces cavourensis strain MH16 inhabiting the tree Millingtonia hortensis Linn. using phylogenetic analysis based on a 16S rRNA molecular approach. We used the disc diffusion method to evaluate the impact of differences in the compositions of the media on the production of secondary metabolites from strain MH16. The production of antimicrobial metabolites was determined by the observation of inhibition zones on intensive bands when using a TLC-bioautography assay. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites was optimal when the strain MH16 was cultured in ISP-2 medium as depicted by a zone of inhibition. Strain MH16 effectively inhibited methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and other multi drug-resistant pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the antimicrobial metabolites was 25-100 µg mL-1. The study manifests the optimization and utilization of different fermentation media which best suits for increased production of the secondary metabolites from Streptomyces cavourensis. This research suggests that the antimicrobial metabolites of strain MH16 found in M. hortensis has great potential for the biodiscovery of new anti-infective drugs against a wide range of multidrug-resistant pathogens.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/biossíntese , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamiales/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Streptomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 558, 2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402391

RESUMO

The use of a suitable method for the enumeration of indicator microorganisms is of crucial importance for reliable monitoring and assessment of the quality of bathing waters. Among other characteristics, the method should be selective enough and ensure acceptable relative recovery of target microorganisms. This study presents the basic parameters, relative recovery and categorical performance characteristics of Tryptone Bile X-glucuronide (TBX) agar for Escherichia coli (E. coli) enumeration in bathing water samples using the membrane filtration method.The results of the relative recovery study, in which TBX agar was compared against temperature-modified ISO 9308-1:2014, showed that in order to achieve a satisfactory relative recovery of E. coli with TBX agar at 44 ± 0.5 °C, the resuscitation period on a non-selective medium (Minerals Modified Glutamate Agar, MMGA) at 36 ± 2 °C is crucial. Incubation on a double-layer MMGA/TBX medium with a 6-h resuscitation period and alternating incubation on single-layer MMGA and TBX agar with a 4-h resuscitation period resulted in acceptable and very similar relative recovery. The achieved performance characteristics of the tested medium, double-layer MMGA/TBX agar, are acceptable. The selectivity was matrix-dependent and was 60.6% for inland and 69.9% for coastal waters. No significant effect of the resuscitation period on selectivity was recorded. Finally, the results showed that when the resuscitation period on a non-selective medium is included, TBX agar is a suitable medium for E. coli enumeration in bathing water samples using the membrane filtration method and that its use, theoretically, would not have negative effects on the assessment of bathing water quality.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Ágar , Banhos , Meios de Cultura , Filtração
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 306: 108273, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382055

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin naturally found in a wide range of food commodities throughout the world. Aspergillus carbonarius is the most important source of OTA in food commodities such as wine, grapes and dried vine fruits and is also responsible for the formation of OTA in coffee. The aim of this study was to determine the simultaneous effect of three culture media (Czapek Yeast Extract Broth (CYB); Synthetic Grape Juice Medium (SGM) and White grape juice (WGJ)) at three water activity (aw) levels (0.90; 0.95 and 0.98-0.99), and three incubation temperatures (15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C) on the growth and OTA production by 16 strains of A. carbonarius. The strains were mainly isolated from grapes from areas with a Mediterranean climate. All the strains were confirmed for identity by sequencing of the calmodulin gene. The assay was performed in microtiter plates, determining the absorbance at 530 nm and the concentration of OTA after 1, 2, 4 and 10 days of incubation. No significant differences were observed in absorbance values between the strains. The highest absorbance values were recorded in CYB at 0.99 aw and at 0.95 aw after 10 days of incubation at 25 °C and 35 °C. None of the strains were able to grow at 0.90 aw and 15 °C in any culture media after 10 days of incubation. OTA concentration was statistically higher at 15 °C than at 25 °C or 35 °C. The highest significant OTA values were obtained at 0.98-0.99 aw and the best culture media for OTA production was CYB, followed by WGJ and SGM. While strains isolated from Mediterranean climate foods had a similar behavior despite being isolated from different geographical areas, OTA concentration produced by one Robusta coffee strain from Thailand was statistically higher at 25 °C than at 15 °C. This would suggest that the type of food matrices and consequently the adaptation of A. carbonarius strains to different climatic conditions would have a greater influence on the ecophysiology of the strains than only their geographical origin.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Micotoxinas/biossíntese , Ocratoxinas/biossíntese , Aspergillus/patogenicidade , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Temperatura Ambiente , Tailândia , Vitis/microbiologia , Água/análise , Vinho/microbiologia
16.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(6): 512-517, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292055

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effect of knockdown of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) on the proliferation of rat mesangial cells (GMCs) cultured in high glucose (HG) and its mechanism. Methods Rat GMCs was cultured and divided into normal group, high glucose treatment group, negative control small interfering RNA combined with high glucose treatment group (siRNA-NC-HG group) and HMGB1 small interference RNA combined with high glucose treatment group (siRNA-HMGB1-HG group). GMCs in the normal group were cultured in normal DMEM medium. GMCs in the HG treatment group were cultured with HG-DMEM medium. The GMCs in the siRNA-HMGB1-HG group, after transfected with siRNA-HMGB1 sequence for 6 hours, were cultured with high glucose medium for 24 hours. GMCs in the siRNA-NC-HG group, after transfected with siRNA-NC sequence for 6 hours, were cultured in HG medium for 24 hours. HMGB1 mRNA expression levels of GMCs were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation of GMCs. Flow cytometry was performed to assess the apoptosis of GMCs. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein levels of HMGB1, NF-κBp65 and nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha (IκBα). ELISA was used to detect the levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the cell supernatants. Results Compared with the siRNA-NC-HG group or HG treatment group, HMGB1 mRNA level decreased in GMCs in the siRNA-HMGB1-HG group, and after 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-hour treatment, the proliferation activity and apoptosis rate of GMCs decreased. After knock-down of HMGB1 level of GMCs, the level of NF-κBp65 protein decreased, the level of IκBα protein increased, and the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in the supernatant decreased. Conclusion Knockdown of HMGB1 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of GMCs induced by HG, which may be related to the inhibition of NF-κB/IκB-α pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Células Mesangiais/citologia , Animais , Meios de Cultura , Dissacarídeos , Eletrólitos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Glucose , Glutamatos , Glutationa , Histidina , Manitol , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
17.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 335-344, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322471

RESUMO

Selenium-enriched yeast can transform toxic inorganic selenium into absorbable organic selenium, which is of great significance for human health and pharmaceutical industry. A yeast Rhodotorula glutinis X-20 we obtained before has good selenium-enriched ability, but its selenium content is still low for industrial application. In this study, strategies of process optimization and transport regulation of selenium were thus employed to further improve the cell growth and selenium enrichment. Through engineering phosphate transporters from Saccharomyces cerevisiae into R. glutinis X-20, the selenium content was increased by 21.1%. Through using mixed carbon culture (20 g L-1, glycerol: glucose 3:7), both biomass and selenium content were finally increased to 5.3 g L-1 and 5349.6 µg g-1 (cell dry weight, DWC), which were 1.14 folds and 6.77 folds compared to their original values, respectively. Our results indicate that high selenium-enrichment ability and biomass production can be achieved through combining process optimization and regulation of selenium transport.


Assuntos
Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Rhodotorula/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Selênio/metabolismo , Transgenes , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Fermentação , Expressão Gênica , Glucose/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicerol/química , Glicerol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Simportadores de Próton-Fosfato/genética , Simportadores de Próton-Fosfato/metabolismo , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo III/genética , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo III/metabolismo
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 110, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280381

RESUMO

Carbon sources whether types or magnitudes were fateful in terms of stimulating growth and lipids accumulation in microalgae applied for biodiesel production. The set scenario of this work was to investigate the feasibilities of glucose (G) combining with sodium acetate (SA) carbon sources in enhancing biomass and lipid accumulation in Coccomyxa subellipsoidea. The results demonstrated that C. subellipsoidea subjected to the combination feeding of G (20 g/L) and SA (12 g/L) achieved the favorable biomass (5.22 g/L) and lipid content (52.16%). The resulting lipid productivity (388.96 mg/L/day) was 1.33- to 7.60-fold more than those of sole G or SA as well as other combinations of G and SA. Even though the total fatty acids of C. subellipsoidea cells treated with the optimal combination of G and SA showed no noticeable increment in comparison with sole G or SA, the proportion of monounsaturated C18:1 (over 48.69%) and the content of C18:3 (< 12%) were commendable in high-quality algal biodiesel production. Further, such fascinating lipid accumulation in C. subellipsoidea cells treated with G combining with SA might be attributed to that G promoted glycolysis as well as SA activated glyoxylate shunt and TCA cycle to synergistically provide sufficient acetyl-CoA precursors for lipid accumulation. These findings hinted the potential of the combination of carbon sources in enhancing the overall lipid productivity to offset alga-based biodiesel production cost and would guide other alga strains cultivation.


Assuntos
Clorófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Acetato de Sódio/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Clorófitas/citologia , Meios de Cultura/química , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Metabolômica , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
19.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(7): 1061-1070, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280522

RESUMO

In the present study, the optimization of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) production by Bacillus sp. FBL-2 was studied using a statistical approach. One-factor-at-a-time method was used to investigate the effect of carbon sources and nitrogen sources on γ-PGA production and was utilized to select the most significant nutrients affecting the yield of γ-PGA. After identifying effective nutrients, response surface methodology with central composite design (CCD) was used to obtain a mathematical model to identify the optimum concentrations of the key nutrients (sucrose, L-glutamic acid, yeast extract, and citric acid) for improvement of γ-PGA production. The optimum amount of significant medium components appeared to be sucrose 51.73 g/l, L-glutamic acid 105.30 g/l, yeast extract 13.25 g/l, and citric acid 10.04 g/l. The optimized medium was validated experimentally, and γ-PGA production increased significantly from 3.59 g/l (0.33 g/l/h) to 44.04 g/l (3.67 g/l/h) when strain FBL-2 was cultivated under the optimal medium developed by the statistical approach, as compared to non-optimized medium.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Análise de Variância , Ácido Cítrico , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Ácido Glutâmico , Modelos Teóricos , Nitrogênio , Ácido Poliglutâmico/biossíntese , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sacarose
20.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(7): 1043-1052, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353877

RESUMO

Active lipase-producing bacterium Burkholderia gladioli Bps-1 was rapidly isolated using a modified trypan blue and tetracycline, ampicillin (TB-TA) plate. The electro-phoretically pure enzyme was obtained by purification using ethanol precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The molecular weight was 34.6 kDa and the specific activity was determined to be 443.9 U/mg. The purified lipase showed the highest activity after hydrolysis with p-NPC16 at a pH of 8.5 and 50°C, and the Km, kcat, and kcat/Km values were 1.05, 292.95 s-1 and 279 s-1mM-1, respectively. The lipase was highly stable at 7.5 ≤ pH ≤ 10.0. K+ and Na+ exerted activation effects on the lipase which had favorable tolerance to short-chain alcohols with its residual enzyme activity being 110% after being maintained in 30% ethanol for 1 h. The results demonstrated that the lipase produced by the strain B. gladioli Bps-1 has high enzyme activity and is an alkaline lipase. The lipase has promising chemical properties for a range of applications in the food-processing and detergent industries, and has particularly high potential for use in the manufacture of biodiesel.


Assuntos
Burkholderia gladioli/enzimologia , Burkholderia gladioli/isolamento & purificação , Lipase/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Biocombustíveis , Burkholderia gladioli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Burkholderia gladioli/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Detergentes , Estabilidade Enzimática , Etanol/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Cinética , Lipase/química , Lipase/isolamento & purificação , Peso Molecular , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura Ambiente
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