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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250550, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345536

RESUMO

Abstract Vanillin is the major component which is responsible for flavor and aroma of vanilla extract and is produced by 3 ways: natural extraction from vanilla plant, chemical synthesis and from microbial transformation. Current research was aimed to study bacterial production of vanillin from native natural sources including sewage and soil from industrial areas. The main objective was vanillin bio-production by isolating bacteria from these native sources. Also to adapt methodologies to improve vanillin production by optimized fermentation media and growth conditions. 47 soil and 13 sewage samples were collected from different industrial regions of Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Kasur. 67.7% bacterial isolates produced vanillin and 32.3% were non-producers. From these 279 producers, 4 bacterial isolates selected as significant producers were; A3, A4, A7 and A10. These isolates were identified by ribotyping as A3 Pseudomonas fluorescence (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) and A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Vanillin producers were further tested for improved production of vanillin and were grown in different fermentation media under optimized growth conditions for enhanced production of vanillin. The fermentation media (FM) were; clove oil based, rice bran waste (residues oil) based, wheat bran based and modified isoeugenol based. In FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36, and FM37, the selected 4 bacterial strains produced significant amounts of vanillin. A10 B. subtilis produced maximum amount of vanillin. This strain produced 17.3 g/L vanillin in FM36. Cost of this fermentation medium 36 was 131.5 rupees/L. This fermentation medium was modified isoeugenol based medium with 1% of isoeugenol and 2.5 g/L soybean meal. ech gene was amplified in A3 P. fluorescence using ech specific primers. As vanillin use as flavor has increased tremendously, the bioproduction of vanillin must be focused.


Resumo A vanilina é o principal componente responsável pelo sabor e aroma do extrato de baunilha e é produzida de três formas: extração natural da planta da baunilha, síntese química e transformação microbiana. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo estudar a produção bacteriana de vanilina a partir de fontes naturais nativas, incluindo esgoto e solo de áreas industriais. O objetivo principal era a bioprodução de vanilina por meio do isolamento de bactérias dessas fontes nativas. Também para adaptar metodologias para melhorar a produção de vanilina por meio de fermentação otimizada e condições de crescimento. Foram coletadas 47 amostras de solo e 13 de esgoto de diferentes regiões industriais de Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad e Kasur; 67,7% dos isolados bacterianos produziram vanilina e 32,3% eram não produtores. Desses 279 produtores, 4 isolados bacterianos selecionados como produtores significativos foram: A3, A4, A7 e A10. Esses isolados foram identificados por ribotipagem como fluorescência A3 Pseudomonas (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) e A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Os produtores de vanilina foram posteriormente testados para produção aprimorada de vanilina e foram cultivados em diferentes meios de fermentação sob condições de crescimento otimizadas para produção aprimorada de vanilina. Os meios de fermentação (FM) foram: à base de óleo de cravo, à base de resíduos de farelo de arroz (resíduos de óleo), à base de farelo de trigo e à base de isoeugenol modificado. Em FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36 e FM37, as 4 cepas bacterianas selecionadas produziram quantidades significativas de vanilina. A10 B. subtilis produziu quantidade máxima de vanilina. Essa cepa produziu 17,3 g / L de vanilina em FM36. O custo desse meio de fermentação 36 foi de 131,5 rúpias / L. Esse meio de fermentação foi um meio à base de isoeugenol modificado com 1% de isoeugenol e 2,5 g / L de farelo de soja. O gene ech foi amplificado em A3 P. fluorescence usando primers específicos para ech. Como o uso da vanilina como sabor aumentou tremendamente, a bioprodução da vanilina deve ser focada.


Assuntos
Benzaldeídos/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolismo , Enterococcus faecium/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Alcaligenes faecalis/metabolismo , Fermentação
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246904, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345524

RESUMO

Abstract Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Resumo A hiperidricidade é um distúrbio fisiológico sério e afeta a propagação in vitro de muitas plantas e também da Salvia santolinifolia. O material doador para iniciar a cultura in vitro foi o calo retirado dos brotos in vitro produzidos em meio Murashig e Skoogs (MS) a 4,0 mg / l BA. Esse calo formou numerosos rebentos hiperídricos em cultura no meio da mesma composição. O objetivo foi avaliar sistematicamente o efeito das citocininas (Benziladnina (BA) e N6 - (- 2-isopentenil) adenina (2iP), magnitude dos vasos de cultura, solidificação do meio, fonte de nitrogênio e cloreto de cálcio para o alívio da hiperidricidade. culturas de tecidos de S. santolinifolia BA e 2iP induziram hiperidricidade severa, quando outros fatores, como magnitude dos vasos de cultura e uma concentração adequada de ágar, nitrato de amônio (NH4NO3), nitrato de potássio (KNO3) e cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2.2H2O), não foram otimizados. Após 30 dias de cultura, observamos 83,82% de brotos hiperídricos em níveis aumentados (1,5 mg / l 2iP) e 81,59% em níveis reduzidos (1,0 mg / l 2iP). Por outro lado, a porcentagem de hiperidricidade diminuiu (0,4%) e em níveis aumentados (0,8%) de ágar foram 72,37% e 39,08%, respectivamente. A modificação do meio MS com NH4NO3 (412 mg / l), KNO3 (475 mg / l) e CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg / l) foi encontrada melhor hiperidricidade média a reduzida (23,6%).


Assuntos
Salvia , Brotos de Planta , Meios de Cultura
3.
Cornea ; 41(10): 1302-1304, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the first case of keratitis caused by Cladorrhinum samala and review of the literature. METHODS: This was a case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 35-year-old immunocompetent man presented with pain, redness, and watering in the right eye 7 days after trauma with some foreign body. He was diagnosed with infectious keratitis, and a thorough microbiological workup was performed. Corneal scrapings were subjected to a potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination, Gram staining, bacterial (blood agar and Robertson cooked meat broth), and fungal culture (Sabouraud dextrose agar and brain-heart infusion agar). The KOH mount revealed septate fungal hyphae with irregular margins. Yellow-white nonsporulating mycelial growth was noted on the Sabouraud dextrose agar, which was identified as C. samala by sequencing. The patient responded to 5% natamycin and 1% voriconazole eye drops, and there was a formation of a corneal opacity in a period of 3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first case of keratitis by C. samala, highlighting the emergence of a rare dematiaceous fungi causing keratitis and the role of molecular modalities in the diagnosis of nonsporulating fungi in suspected cases.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Córnea , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Ceratite , Adulto , Ágar , Úlcera da Córnea/diagnóstico , Úlcera da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera da Córnea/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia , Glucose , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceratite/microbiologia , Masculino , Natamicina , Soluções Oftálmicas , Sordariales , Voriconazol
4.
Helicobacter ; 27(5): e12921, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori has a high infection rate, and it is possible that more than half of the world's population is infected. The route of transmission of H. pylori has not been completely elucidated yet. The coccoid form of H. pylori is generally considered to be in a VBNC (viable but nonculturable) state, and this form in the environment is thought to play an important role in infection and transmission, but its stability and survivability are still unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to promote its changing to coccoid form, the spiral form of H. pylori grown in a culture medium was exposed to sterile distilled water, and we investigated the bacterial cell number and the morphological changes by using fluorescence staining methods and electron microscopic observation. We also examined the dynamics of its growth ability by measuring the colony forming unit on an agar-plate medium. RESULTS: After exposure to sterile distilled water, the H. pylori spiral form rapidly lost its growth ability at 37°C. One day after exposure, approximately 95% of the spiral form disappeared and the proportion of the coccoid form increased. The total number of bacteria also decreased to less than half and continued to decrease over time. Epi-microscopic and electron microscopic observations revealed that deformation of bacterial cells, collapse, and leaking out of cell contents were promoted in exposure to sterile distilled water. CONCLUSION: Helicobacter pylori quickly begins to transform into the coccoid form after exposure to sterile distilled water, rapidly loses its growth ability, and then lyses and dies. Water-exposure is lethal for H. pylori and it is unlikely to survive in the VBNC state in water.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Ágar , Meios de Cultura , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Água
5.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 69(3): 683-689, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112527

RESUMO

Morphological development is the most common non-invasive criterion used to select in vitro human embryos for implantation. With this criterion, however, embryos in cellular arrest go unnoticed. A more accurate criterion is needed to improve the success rate of implantation. Extracellular matrix metalloproteases type 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 are key markers of embryonic development and the implantation process, according to various animal studies. The first objective of this study was to examine proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity in the culture media of human embryos with good morphological development. Secondly, the results of proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity in the culture medium were compared between pregnant and non-pregnant. Forty-two patients were approved by the Ethics and Research Committees of the Instituto Nacional de Perinatología in México City hospital, based on institutional inclusion criteria for in vitro fertilization. On day 5 of development, embryos were transferred to patients, and the culture media secretion profile of proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity was determined by substrate gel zymography. After analysis of embryo sac development, each patient was assigned to the pregnant (n=17) or non-pregnant (n=25) group. Our results demonstrate that proMMP-2 was active in the culture media corresponding to all 17 women achieving full-term pregnancy and proMMP-9 in the media corresponding to 11 of these women. Contrarily proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 were active in the culture media corresponding to 3 and 11 of the 25 non-pregnant patients, respectively. The clinical implications of this study suggest the activity evaluation of proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 in embryonic culture media on day 5 of development appears to be a reliable indicator of the quality of embryos and their capacity to establish a pregnancy.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Meios de Cultura , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Precursores Enzimáticos , Feminino , Gelatinases , Humanos , Gravidez
6.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078137

RESUMO

Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) sheets have attracted much attention in cell therapy. However, the culture media and coating matrix used for the preparation of UC-MSC sheets have not been safe enough to comply with current clinical drug standards. Moreover, the UC-MSC sheet preservation systems developed before did not comply with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) regulations. In this study, the culture medium and coating matrix were developed for UC-MSC sheet production to comply with clinical drug standards. Additionally, the GMP-compliant preservation solution and method for the UC-MSC sheet were developed. Then, quality standards of the UC-MSC sheet were formulated according to national and international regulations for drugs. Finally, the production process of UC-MSC sheets on a large scale was standardized, and three batches of trial production were conducted and tested to meet the established quality standards. This research provides the possibility for clinical trials of UC-MSC sheet products in the development stage of new drugs and lays the foundation for industrial large-scale production after the new drug is launched.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Cordão Umbilical , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
7.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 396, 2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that non-invasive preimplantation genetic testing (niPGT) for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) blastocysts can be used to identify chromosomal ploidy and chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we report the feasibility and performance of niPGT for conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) blastocysts. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. In the preclinical stage, whole genome amplification and NGS were performed using the sperm spent culture medium (SCM). Then, trophectoderm (TE) biopsies and corresponding SCM derived from 27 conventional IVF monopronuclear embryos were collected. In the clinical stage, samples from 25 conventional IVF cycles and 37 ICSI cycles from April 2020-August 2021 were collected for performance evaluation. RESULTS: Preclinically, we confirmed failed sperm DNA amplification under the current amplification system. Subsequent niPGT from the 27 monopronuclear blastocysts showed 69.2% concordance with PGT results of corresponding TE biopsies. In the clinical stage, no paternal contamination was observed in any of the 161 SCM samples from conventional IVF. While maternal contamination was observed in 29.8% (48/161) SCM samples, only 2.5% (4/161) samples had a contamination ratio ≥ 50%. Compared with that of TE biopsy, the performances of NiPGT from 161 conventional IVF embryos and 122 ICSI embryos were not significantly different (P > 0.05), with ploidy concordance rates of 75% and 74.6% for IVF and ICSI methods, respectively. Finally, evaluation of the euploid probability of embryos with different types of niPGT results showed prediction probabilities of 82.8%, 77.8%, 62.5%, 50.0%, 40.9% and 18.4% for euploidy, sex-chromosome mosaics only, low-level mosaics, multiple abnormal chromosomes, high-level mosaics and aneuploidy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our research results preliminarily confirm that the niPGT approach using SCM from conventional IVF has comparable performance with ICSI and might broadening the application scope of niPGT.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Blastocisto/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Meios de Cultura , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Sêmen
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15105, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068256

RESUMO

Mycelium fungal species exhibit fire retardant characteristics. The influence of the growth media on the fungal growth rates, biochemical composition, and microstructural characteristics and their relationship to thermal properties is poorly understood. In this paper, we demonstrate that molasses can support the growth of non-pathogenic Basidiomycota phylum fungal species producing bio-derived materials with potential fire retardation characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry were used to interrogate the microstructural and biochemical properties of the molasses-grown mycelia species. Thermal decomposition of molasses-fed mycelia was evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis interfaced with FTIR for real-time evolved gas analysis. The morphological and microstructural characteristics of the residual char post-thermal exposure were also evaluated. The material characterization enabled the establishment of a relationship between the microstructural, biochemical properties, and thermal properties of molasses-fed mycelia. This paper presents a comprehensive exploration of the mechanisms governing the thermal degradation of three mycelial species grown in molasses. These research findings advance the knowledge of critical parameters controlling fungal growth rates and yields as well as how the microstructural and biochemical properties influence the thermal response of mycelia.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Incêndios , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Melaço , Micélio
9.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 934, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085302

RESUMO

There is need for a reliable in vitro system that can accurately replicate the cardiac physiological environment for drug testing. The limited availability of human heart tissue culture systems has led to inaccurate interpretations of cardiac-related drug effects. Here, we developed a cardiac tissue culture model (CTCM) that can electro-mechanically stimulate heart slices with physiological stretches in systole and diastole during the cardiac cycle. After 12 days in culture, this approach partially improved the viability of heart slices but did not completely maintain their structural integrity. Therefore, following small molecule screening, we found that the incorporation of 100 nM tri-iodothyronine (T3) and 1 µM dexamethasone (Dex) into our culture media preserved the microscopic structure of the slices for 12 days. When combined with T3/Dex treatment, the CTCM system maintained the transcriptional profile, viability, metabolic activity, and structural integrity for 12 days at the same levels as the fresh heart tissue. Furthermore, overstretching the cardiac tissue induced cardiac hypertrophic signaling in culture, which provides a proof of concept for the ability of the CTCM to emulate cardiac stretch-induced hypertrophic conditions. In conclusion, CTCM can emulate cardiac physiology and pathophysiology in culture for an extended time, thereby enabling reliable drug screening.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Coração , Cardiomegalia , Meios de Cultura , Humanos , Sístole
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 7986-7997, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055844

RESUMO

In this study, we developed and optimized a growth medium using various nitrogen sources for the cultivation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a probiotic and essential dairy starter culture. The composition of de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) culture medium was modified, and the nitrogen content was replaced by alternative nitrogen sources X-Seed Nucleo Max, X-Seed KAT, and X-Seed Carbo Max (Ohly GmbH) in various blends of 5 and 10 g/L. Results showed that bacterial growth was significantly higher when the nitrogen source blend of 10 g/L of KAT and 10 g/L of Carbo Max [KCMax (10/10)] was used. The optical densities of the Lb. bulgaricus strains were significantly higher in the KCMax (10/10) medium than in the MRS medium. There was no significance in bacterial counts for both the MRS and the KCMax (10/10) medium, and all bacterial counts were estimated at 8 log cfu/mL. The buffering capacity of the KCMax (10/10) medium was also tested and supplemented with l-histidine and was significantly higher than that of the MRS control medium. KCMax (10/10) also supported the freeze-stability and viability of the Lb.bulgaricus cells during freezing and freeze-drying operations. Our results suggest that the alternative nitrogen sources X-Seed Nucleo Max, X-Seed KAT and X-Seed Carbo Max can substantially support the growth of lactic acid bacteria as demonstrated with Lb. bulgaricus. These alternative nitrogen sources could thus be recommended for lactic acid bacteria fermentation and for the cultivation of dairy starter cultures.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Lactobacillus delbrueckii , Animais , Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Histidina , Humanos , Nitrogênio , Iogurte/microbiologia
11.
J Virol Methods ; 309: 114610, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064127

RESUMO

Inactivation of human respiratory viruses in air and on surfaces is important to control their spread. Exposure to germicidal ultraviolet (UV-C) light damages viral nucleic acid rendering them non-infectious. Most of the recent viral inactivation studies have not considered potential artifacts caused by interactions between UV-C light and culture media used to suspend and deposit virus on surfaces. We show that the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) form when commonly used virus culture media is exposed to 265 nm irradiation from light emitting diodes (LEDs) at UV-C doses (4 or 40 mJ/cm2) commonly considered to achieve multiple log-inactivation of virus. Surface viral inactivation values were enhanced from 0.49 to 2.92 log10 of viruses in DMEM, EMEM or EMEM-F as compared to absence of culture media (only suspended in Tris-buffer). The mechanisms responsible for the enhanced surface inactivate is hypothesized to involve photo-activation of vitamins and dyes present in the culture media, deposited with the virus on surfaces to be disinfected, which produce ROS and RNS. Given the rapidly growing research and commercial markets for UV-C disinfecting devices, there is a need to establish surface disinfecting protocols that avoid viral inactivation enhancement artifacts associated with selection and use of common cell culture media in the presence of UV-C light. This study addresses this weak link in the literature and highlights that inadequate selection of virus suspension media may cause a bias (i.e., over-estimation) for the UV-C dosages required for virus inactivation on surfaces.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos , Vírus , Viés , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Corantes , Meios de Cultura , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Nitrogênio , Oxigênio , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Raios Ultravioleta , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação , Vitaminas
12.
F1000Res ; 11: 242, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811802

RESUMO

Background: The extended embryo culture using single-step medium gained popularity in clinical in vitro fertilisation (IVF). However, there are concerns about the degradation of unstable medium components and their negative effects on the developing embryos. Further, dry-incubation can increase osmolality, which can in-turn enhance the concentration of constituents of the media and their stability. Hence, this study was conducted to understand the immediate changes in the culture media metabolites in relation to clinically comparable situations such as single-step extended embryo culture and use of dry and humidified-incubation in two-different gaseous conditions. Methods: Commercially available single-step medium was sham-cultured in droplets under oil in two different conditions viz. dry (37°C; 6%CO 2; 5%O 2) and humidified (37°C; 6% CO 2; atmospheric O 2) for 0h, 72h, and 120h intervals. Droplets were subjected to the sensitivity-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based profiling using 800 MHz NMR equipped with a cryogenically cooled micro-coil (1.7mm) probe. Metabolomic signatures between the two groups were comprehensively assessed. Results: A total of ten amino acids and four energy substrates were identified from the culture medium. Metabolite levels showed a non-significant increase in the dry-incubation group at 72h and then declined at 120h. Humidified incubation had no effects on the level of the metabolite until 120h. No significant differences in the levels of metabolites were observed between the dry and humidified-groups at various time-points tested. Conclusions: A non-significant variation in the levels of metabolites observed in the dry-incubation of single-step medium most unlikely to influence a clinical outcome. However, the impact of these subtle changes on the (epi)genetic integrity of the embryos in a clinical set-up to be addressed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Embrião de Mamíferos , Meios de Cultura/química , Fertilização In Vitro , Oxigênio
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2527: 1-8, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951179

RESUMO

Somatic embryogenesis is a natural phenomenon through which somatic embryos are produced from somatic cells although. It is considered the most efficient morphogenic pathways for plant multiplication. One of the key features of somatic embryogenesis is the use of cellular totipotency, where dedifferentiation is induced to foster cell proliferation, followed by the induction of differentiation using plant growth regulators to produce new plants. There is a cell group with the potential to undergo the somatic embryogenesis pathway through adequate stimulation (plant growth regulators, incubation conditions, and supplementation of the culture medium). There are two somatic embryogenesis pathways in plants: direct and indirect embryogenesis. Direct somatic embryogenesis consists of the formation of embryos directly from isolated cells, without the formation of "callous" tissue. Indirect somatic embryogenesis is characterized by the formation of a callus as a stage that precedes the formation of somatic embryos. It should be stressed that not all plant cells have this morphogenic capacity; consequently, determining the type of factors that drive this type of response has been challenging. This book provides the reader with updated available information on the techniques, relevant protocols, and tools to perform somatic embryogenesis in different plant species for economic purposes.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Meios de Cultura , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Plantas/genética
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2527: 161-180, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951191

RESUMO

The global floriculture market is expected to reach US$41.1 billion by 2027 at a CAGR of 5% over the analysis period 2020-2027; on the year 2020, the recorded market value in this trade was US$29.2 billion. The florists mainly use Anthurium andraeanum flowers in fashionable bouquets and floral arrangements because of their beautiful, attractive bright colored eye-catching spathe, candle-like spadix, prolonged vase life, etc. The cut flower industry always seeks elite cultivars and new hybrids of A. andraeanum, that in turn depend on the availability of large numbers of clonal planting propagules. In vitro somatic embryogenesis is an important technique for large-scale clonal propagation, development of transgenic plants, creation of new variety by somaclonal variation, mutagenesis on in vitro plants, and germplasm preservation for future use. Here, we describe the protocol of somatic embryogenesis of Anthurium andraeanum cv. Cancan, an important commercial cultivated variety. The protocol has been optimized by using 4 different types of culture media which are used during embryogenic callus induction, multiplication of callus, induction of somatic embryogenesis, and maturation plus conversion of embryos into plantlets. The protocol outlines the detailed methods from mother plant procurement to hardening of micro plants that is ready to transfer in the field and it can be used for large-scale commercial propagation.


Assuntos
Flores , Tilia , Meios de Cultura , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Flores/genética , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2527: 183-201, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951192

RESUMO

The thin cell layer (TCL) culture system was initially reported in relation to the model plant Nicotiana tabacum, giving rise to 47 years of continuous application and investigation on micropropagation and plant breeding of over 100 plant species or hybrids. The small sizes of the tissue sections (100 µm to 1-2 mm in thickness), its classification into transverse TCL (tTCL) or longitudinal TCL (lTCL) categories, and the interaction between the cultured cells and the culture medium are the main drivers of its efficacy in tens of plants for the induction of somatic embryogenesis, relative to the conventional in-vitro culture system. Furthermore, it promotes higher productivity and reduced time in the proliferation of cultures, which is key for the differentiation of cells and plant tissues. This chapter describes the main characteristics of the TCL sections, and the interaction between cells under in-vitro culture. In addition, it highlights the latest findings reporting the success of TCL in ornamental, herbaceous, woody, and recalcitrant plants. In most cases, studies on the use of TCL in combination with techniques such as bioreactors, histology, genetic transformation, and fidelity analysis, provide indisputable evidence that highlights the importance of this technique in plant biotechnology. Finally, the perspectives on TCL use are described, underlining the advantages and constraints of the technique for its continued use and future application.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Melhoramento Vegetal , Meios de Cultura , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , Plantas , Tabaco/genética
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2527: 203-221, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951193

RESUMO

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a process that allows formation of embryos from somatic cells; this biological process has different stages that first require micropropagation and conditioning of explant, and then induction, multiplication, development, and germination of somatic embryos (SoE), to obtain seedlings that will be acclimatized and grown in a greenhouse to further be cultivated in the field. Inorganic compounds are supplemented by macro- and micronutrients that can conform different culture media, and with other compounds such as a carbon source, vitamins, and plant growth regulators (PGRs), will direct the fate of the plant cells to obtain SoE that will regenerate into plants. The concentration of these inorganic compounds must be optimized, since at very high concentrations they can cause toxicity and at low concentrations they may not induce the desired response. The objective of this chapter is to describe the most significant advances in the use of inorganic elements during the different stages of SE, starting with the description of the most used basal media and later describing the use of the main studied mineral elements during establishment of SE.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Meios de Cultura , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Germinação
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2527: 267-270, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951197

RESUMO

One of the main objectives to achieve in plant tissue culture is the multiplication of the available plant material, taking full advantage of the regenerative capacities of plant cells. Somatic embryogenesis leverages cell totipotency to produce new explants from a cell, thus obtaining many propagules for scientific research, industrial, or exploitation purposes. Somatic embryogenesis (ES) characterizes by being one of the most efficient techniques in plant micropropagation. However, developing an efficient plant ES protocol requires several key factors to consider, as demonstrated throughout the chapters of this book. These chapters highlight the major drivers of the success of ES in different plant species: plant growth regulators, concentration of auxins and cytokines, water deficit, photoperiod, and type of culture medium; techniques such as the use of bioreactors and Thin Cell Layer (TCL); and the influence of stress on the formation of somatic embryos. Research has been conducted to address each phase of somatic embryogenesis, either individually or for all phases. The chapters of this book cover in detail the techniques used and provide guidance that will allow readers to successfully develop all the somatic embryogenesis phases in different cultures, from cell dedifferentiation to differentiation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Sementes , Meios de Cultura , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 930510, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36032173

RESUMO

Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria can release vesicle-like structures referred to as bacterial extracellular vesicles (BEVs), which contain various bioactive compounds. BEVs play important roles in the microbial community interactions and host-microbe interactions. Markedly, BEVs can be delivered to host cells, thus modulating the development and function of the innate immune system. To clarify the compositions and biological functions of BEVs, we need to collect these vesicles with high purity and bioactivity. Here we propose an isolation strategy based on a broad-spectrum antimicrobial epsilon-poly-L-lysine (ϵ-PL) to precipitate BEVs at a relatively low centrifugal speed (10,000 × g). Compared to the standard ultracentrifugation strategy, our method can enrich BEVs from large volumes of media inexpensively and rapidly. The precipitated BEVs can be recovered by adjusting the pH and ionic strength of the media, followed by an ultrafiltration step to remove ϵ-PL and achieve buffer exchange. The morphology, size, and protein composition of the ϵ-PL-precipitated BEVs are comparable to those purified by ultracentrifugation. Moreover, ϵ-PL-precipitated BEVs retained the biological activity as observed by confocal microscopy studies. And THP-1 cells stimulated with these BEVs undergo marked reprogramming of their transcriptome. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed that the signal pathways of cellular inflammatory response were significantly activated. Taken together, we provide a new method to rapidly enrich BEVs with high purity and bioactivity, which has the potential to be applied to BEVs-related immune response studies.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Polilisina , Antibacterianos , Meios de Cultura , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos
19.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272459, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) remains one of the most significant causes of death and a major public health problem in the community. As a result, the aim of this study was to determine magnitude of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its drug resistance, and associated factors among presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from January to July 2019. Demographic and clinical data were collected by structured questionnaire through face to face interview. Using microscopic examination and GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and culturing in the Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture media, we collected and analyzed both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 23. Binary logistic regression was done to identify the associated risk factors and p-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant association. RESULTS: Of the total 436 respondents, 223(51%) were male. The mean ±SD age of the participants was 38±17years. Overall, 27/436(6.2%) of the participants had confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and LJ culture media, and two isolates were resistant to RIF and one to INH medication, with two (0.5%) being MDR-TB. MTB infection was associated with previous TB contact history, patient weight loss, and CD4+ T-cell counts of 200-350/mm3 of blood. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of M. tuberculosis and MDR-TB in this study underscores the need for improved early case detection and management of MDR-TB in order to reduce transmission and patient suffering.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Meios de Cultura , Resistência a Medicamentos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e263282, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043661

RESUMO

The growth of Haematococcus pluvialis in two alternative culture media NPK (10:10:10) and ME (macrophyte extract), under mixotrophic conditions using sugarcane molasses as a carbon source were evaluated for 28 days. The molasses was used in two different ways, in a native form (untreated) and a hydrolyzed (pretreated). Cell density of Haematococcus pluvialis in mixotrophic cultivation was higher in pretreated molasses. Growth rate was higher when pretreated molasses were employed in mixotrophic cultivation with NPK culture medium (k=0.5 7th growth day). Biomass, chlorophyll-a, conductivity and total inorganic nitrogen were not significantly different (p>0.05) during the experimental period for two mixotrophic cultivation and culture media. Protein contents of H. pluvialis biomass were higher in NPK culture medium with pretreated molasses (50% dry biomass). Annual biomass production was 520 kg-1 dry biomass with untreated molasses for two culture media, and 650 and 520 kg-1 dry biomass with pretreated molasses for NPK and ME culture media, respectively. The use of NPK and ME culture media in mixotrophic cultivation may be a new protocol for H. pluvialis cultivation due to the low cost and similar annual production.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Microalgas , Saccharum , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Fertilizantes , Melaço , Extratos Vegetais
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