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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127774, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777570

RESUMO

Apis cerana honey collected from the Qinling Mountains in China has been widely used for its antimicrobial property in traditional Chinese medicine. However, its antibacterial mechanism against Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 is still uncertain. A total of 52 volatile components were identified using headspace-gas-chromatography-ion-mobility, and Qinling A. cerana honey exhibited more abundant aromas than monofloral honeys. The phenolic extracts of honey sample F exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (5 mg/mL), and chlorogenic acid exhibited the highest (155.91 ± 0.79 mg/kg), followed by caffeic acid, and rutin. After being treated with the extract, cell membranes of S. Typhimurium LT2 significantly shrunk and further collapsed. The extract treatment on mice caused a significant decrease in S. Typhimurium LT2, and a dramatic increase in the potential prebiotic Lactobacillus in both the caecum and colon. The results demonstrate that the Qinling A. cerana honey extract could effectively inhibit S. Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Mel/análise , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Abelhas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/química , Infecções por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/uso terapêutico
2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127599, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711278

RESUMO

The research towards the identification of new authenticity markers is crucial to fight against fraudulent activities on honey, one of the top ten most falsified food commodities. This work proposes an association of stable isotopes and elemental content as markers for honey authentication, with respect to its floral and geographical origin. Emerging markers like isotopic signature of honey water alongside with carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of ethanol obtained from honey fermentation and Rare Earth Elements, were used to develop new recognition models. Thus, the efficiency of the discrimination potential of these emerging markers was discussed individually and in association. This approach proved its effectiveness for geographical differentiation (>98%) and the role of the emerging markers in these classifications was an essential one, especially of: (D/H)I, δ2H, δ18O, La, Ce and Pr. Floral recognition was realized in a lower percentage revealing the suitability of these markers mainly for geographical classification.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Mel/análise , Isótopos/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Fermentação , França , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Romênia , Água/análise , Água/química
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 143880, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302069

RESUMO

Beekeeping provides honey, protein-containing drone broods and pollen, and yield-increasing pollination services. This study tested the hypothesis that beekeeping can result in net-positive impacts, if pollination services and protein-containing by-products are utilised. As a case example, Finnish beekeeping practices were used. The study was performed using two different approaches. In both approaches, the evaluated impacts were related to climate change, land use, and freshwater use, and were scaled down to represent one beehive. The first approach considered honey production with pollination services and the replacement of alternative products with co-products. The impacts were normalised to correspond with planetary boundary criteria. The second approach evaluated the impacts of the different products and services of beekeeping separately. In the first approach the honey production system moved towards a safe operational space. Freshwater use was the impact category with the largest shift towards a safe operational space (39% shift). The second approach caused a global warming potential of honey production of 0.65 kgCO2-eq kg-1, when pollen and drone broods were considered as by-products and the influence of pollination services were not included. When honey, pollen, and drone broods were considered as co-products and pollination services were included, the impacts regarding land use and climate change were net-positive. The impact of freshwater use was relatively small. For honey, the impacts on the climate change, land use, and freshwater use were -0.33 kgCO2-eq kg-1, -7.89 m2 kg-1, and 14.01 kg kg-1, respectively. The impact allocation with co-products and pollination services was conclusive. A lack of consideration for the impact reduction of pollination led to beekeeping having a negative impact on the environment. Based on these results, beekeeping enhances food security within planetary boundaries, provided that pollination services and protein-containing by-/co-products are utilised.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas , Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Mudança Climática , Mel/análise , Pólen , Polinização
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(1): 503-517, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815014

RESUMO

Natural products may be applied in a wide range of domains, from agriculture to food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the antioxidant properties and the capacity to inhibit some enzymatic activities of Euphorbia resinifera and Euphorbia officinarum aqueous extracts and honeys were assessed. The physicochemical characteristics were also evaluated. Higher amounts of iron, copper and aluminium were detected in E. officinarum honey, which may indicate environmental pollution around the beehives or inadequate storage of honey samples. This honey sample showed higher amounts of total phenols and better capacity for scavenging superoxide anion free radicals and DPPH free radicals as compared with E. resinifera honey, but poorer capacity for inhibiting lipoxygenase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase and xanthine oxidase. The ratio plant mass:solvent volume (1:100) and extraction time (1 - 2 h) were associated with higher total phenols and better antioxidant activities and lipoxygenase, acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, regardless of the plant species. The aqueous extracts had systematically higher in vitro activities than the respective honey samples.


Assuntos
Euphorbia , Mel , Antioxidantes , Mel/análise , Marrocos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais
5.
Food Chem ; 339: 128098, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152883

RESUMO

Zantaz honey is a monofloral variety produced from the melliferous plant Bupleurum spinosum (Apiaceae), a shrub that grows mainly in the Atlas Moroccan Mountains. Determination of the polyphenol composition revealed that methyl syringate accounts for more than 50% of total polyphenols, which represents a very useful parameter for the characterization of this monofloral honey. Epicatechin, syringic acid and catechin are also abundant. Caco-2 and THP-1 cells were used for determination of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in Zantaz honey, respectively. All six commercial samples that were used for these studies exhibited antioxidant activity and inhibited cell proliferation. Interestingly, these activities had a positive correlation mainly with the content in methyl syringate and gallic acid. The recognition of health promoting activities in Zantaz honey should increase its commercial value, which would have a positive economic impact on the poor rural communities of Morocco where it is produced.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Mel , Antioxidantes/química , Células CACO-2 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Químicos , Ácido Gálico/análise , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Mel/análise , Humanos , Marrocos , Polifenóis/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 340: 128127, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032149

RESUMO

Pyrethroids insecticides may constitute a major hazard to honeybees, leading to colony collapse disorder. However, the determination of pyrethroids in honey has remained a challenging undertaking for analysts to date due to the high complexity of this matrix as well as the MRLs. This paper presents a fully automated method to overcome matrix influences using matrix-compatible overcoated SPME fiber for quantitative analysis of pyrethroids in diluted honey by GC-MS. The developed method was optimized using a multivariate approach providing LOQ values much lower than the stablished MRL (0.10-10 ng/g), while granting satisfactory linearity (R2 > 0.998) in a wide linear range of 0.1-2000 ng/g, repeatability with RSDs < 10%, reproducibility RSDs < 20%, and accuracy ranging from 75 to 118% and from 82 to 120 % for inter-day and intra-day assays, respectively by using five replicates. The method herein proposed overcomes challenges presented by complex matrices while minimizing sample handling and the overall complexity of the procedure.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Automação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Piretrinas/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Food Chem ; 338: 127936, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932081

RESUMO

The trace and rare earth elements content of 93 honeys of different botanical type and origin have been studied through ICP-MS. Discriminant Analysis (DA) was successful for botanical type and geographical origin classification while Cluster Analysis (CA) was successful only for botanical type. Through Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) analysis, 85.3% were correctly classified by the network according to their geographical origin and 73.3% according to their organic characterization. A Partial Least Squares (PLS) model was constructed, giving a prediction accuracy of more than 95%. Information obtained using Rare Earths (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) and trace elements (Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Sr, Ba, Pb) via chemometric evaluation facilitated classification of honey samples.


Assuntos
Quimioinformática , Geografia , Mel/análise , Metabolômica , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 334: 127547, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693334

RESUMO

Plastic food packages usually contain additives which may migrate from the package into the food and then be ingested by the consumer, representing a risk for their health. In this study, targeted and untargeted analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is proposed to monitor any contaminants of this type in honey. The application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) as a preconcentration technique allowed very low detection limits to be reached for all the substances. Fifteen target compounds, including styrene, phthalates, fatty acids, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, were quantified. Untargeted analyses were also carried out, allowing other migrants in the honey samples to be identified, such as two phthalates, four acids, three esters, one aldehyde, one hydrocarbon and two alkyl phenol compounds. The proposed method was seen to be a useful approach for the quantification and identification of potential migrants from plastics in challenging samples such as honey.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Mel/análise , Plásticos/química , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Migrantes
9.
Food Chem ; 336: 127758, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784062

RESUMO

Heather honey is highly appreciated by consumers for its sensorial profile, which varies depending on the flora used by the honeybees. Volatile compounds contribute to these qualities. Characterisation of the volatile profile related to the botanical origin is of great interest for the standardization of unifloral honey. For this reason, 33 heather honey samples from northwest of the Iberian Peninsula were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to identify the key volatile compounds in this type of honey. The aim of this research was to provide a descriptive analysis of these compounds, and to find whether there is any relationship with the main Erica species. A total of 58 volatile organic compounds were found, with hotrienol, phenylacetaldehyde, and cis-linalool being the most abundant. A principal component analysis and Spearman's rank correlation showed the homogeneity of the volatile profile in the samples, and their close relationship with the main pollen types.


Assuntos
Ericaceae/química , Mel/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Abelhas , Ericaceae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Pólen/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Espanha , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
10.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128182, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032254

RESUMO

Carbohydrates play a myriad of critical roles as key intermediaries for energy storage, cell wall constituents, or also fuel for organisms. The deciphering of multiple structural isomers based on the monosaccharides composition (stereoisomers), the type of glycosidic linkages (connectivity) and the anomeric configuration (α and ß), remains a major analytical challenging task. The possibility to discriminate 13 underivatized isomeric trisaccharides were reported using electrospray ionization coupled to trapped ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-TIMS). After optimization of scan ratio enhancing both the mobility resolving power (R) and resolution (r), fingerprints from 5 different honeys were obtained. Seven trisaccharides with relative content varying from 1.5 to 58.3%, were identified. It was demonstrated that their relative content and/or their ratio could be used to ascertain origin of the honeys. Moreover, such direct approach constitutes an alternative tool to current longer chromatographic runs, paving the way to a transfer as suitable routine analysis.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Trissacarídeos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Isomerismo , Estereoisomerismo , Trissacarídeos/química
11.
Food Chem ; 343: 128455, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129616

RESUMO

Mineral elements are important constituents in honey, which play vital roles in determining the quality and authenticity. The present work aims to systematically estimate the mineral profile of honeys, syrups, and adulterated honeys by syrup directly with chemometrics. Twelve mineral elements with higher contents were determined by ICP-OES in 67 honeys from 6 botanical origins, 17 syrups from 3 types, and 61 adulterations. Statistical analysis revealed honey was significantly different and higher than pale syrup in mineral profile except for barium. Five mono-floral models were established based on chemometrics analysis using the sPLS-DA method, and their discrimination accuracy were over 93% Although mineral contents in honeys from different botanical and geographical origins were quite different, the multi-floral model's classify accuracy was 87.7% as well as in blind test. The results revealed that mineral element chemometrics profiling can be a stable and robust tool to differentiate adulterated honey from pure honey.


Assuntos
Fraude , Mel/análise , Informática , Minerais/análise
12.
Chemosphere ; 266: 128954, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250227

RESUMO

Quality and safety of food, including honey, is one of the leading priorities regarding residues of anthropogenic chemicals with proven adverse health effects. In total, 61 honey samples of known botanical origin were collected in period 2018-2019 from Croatian registered organic and conventional beekeepers (N = 16 organic and N = 45 conventional honey samples). Eleven trace metal(loid)s (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn; quantitated by ICP-MS), 24 antibiotics (LC-MS/MS, ELISA, microbiological inhibition test), six indicator PCBs (GC-MS/MS) and 121 pesticides (LC-MS/MS, GC-MS/MS) originating from environment and/or beekeeping practice were measured to assess possible differences in contaminant residues between organic and conventional honeys. All honey samples had contaminant residues below the legal maximum levels and are considered safe for consumers. However, 2/16 organic and 34/45 conventional honeys contained one or two synthetic acaricides (most frequently coumaphos), while other pesticides, antibiotics and PCBs were not quantified. Also, organic honey contained lower levels of coumaphos, amitraz and amitraz metabolite N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl) formamide than conventional honeys, on average. Higher levels of Cr (p = 0.006) were detected in organic compared to conventional chestnut honeys. This study pinpointed beehive disease control treatment as prominent pesticide residue source, which was to some extent reduced in organic honeys. Quantified pesticide and metal(loid) levels were within range or lower than reported in recent literature regarding honey of the same botanical origin.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas , Mel , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Cromatografia Líquida , Croácia , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Mel/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(21): 5209-5218, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350237

RESUMO

Licorice has long been regarded as one of the most popular herbs, with a very wide clinical application range. Whether being used alone or as an ingredient in prescription, it has an important role which cannot be ignored. However, the efficacy and chemical constituents of licorice will change after honey-processing. Therefore, it is necessary to find quality markers before and after honey-processing to lay the foundation for a comprehensive evaluation of the differences between raw and processed licorice pieces. HPLC-DAD was employed to establish fingerprints of raw and processed licorice. Multivariate statistical analysis methods including principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis(OPLS-DA) were applied to screen out the differential components before and after processing of licorice. Based on network pharmacology, the targets and pathways corresponding to the differential components were analyzed with databases such as Swiss Target Prediction and Metascape, and the "component-target-pathway" diagram was constructed with Cytoscape 3.6.0 software to predict the potential quality markers. A total of 17 common peaks were successfully identified in the established fingerprint, and seven differential components were selected as potential quality markers(licoricesaponin G2, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritigenin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritin apioside and isoliquiritigenin). The HPLC fingerprint method proposed in this study was efficient and feasible. The above seven differential chemical components screened out as potential quality markers of licorice can help to improve and promote the overall quality. These researches offer more sufficient theoretical basis for scientific application of licorice and its corresponding products.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Glycyrrhiza , Mel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Glicirrízico/análise , Mel/análise
14.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115542, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254676

RESUMO

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are common phytotoxins. We performed the first comprehensive investigation on PA contamination in Chinese honeys. LC-MS analysis revealed that 58% of 255 honey samples purchased from 17 regions across Mainland China and Taiwan contained PAs with total content ranging over 0.2-281.1 µg/kg. Monocrotaline (from Crotalaria spp), a PA never found in honey in other regions, together with echimidine (Echium plantagineum) and lycopsamine (from Senecio spp.), were three predominant PAs in PA-contaminated Chinese honeys. Further, PAs present in honeys were found to have geographically distinct pattern, indicating possible control of such contamination in future honey production. Moreover, we proposed a new risk estimation approach, which considered both content and toxic potency of individual PAs in honeys, and found that 12% of the PA-contaminated Chinese honeys tested might pose potential health risk. This study revealed a high prevalence and potential health risk of PA contamination in Chinese honeys.


Assuntos
Mel , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina , China , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mel/análise , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina/toxicidade , Taiwan , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1634: 461665, 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181355

RESUMO

In this work, a covalent organic framework Schiff base network-1 (SNW-1), was synthesized based on the Schiff base reaction between terephthalaldehyde and melamine and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analyses. The prepared SNW-1 was employed as pipette tip solid phase extraction adsorbent for the extraction of sulfonamides (SAs) prior to high performance liquid chromatography analysis. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, including the salt concentration, sample pH, amount of adsorbent, and types and volume of eluent were investigated in detail. Good linearities were obtained between the peak area and SAs concentration ranging from 5 to 500 ng mL-1 with correlation coefficients (R2) higher than 0.9998. The limits of detection and RSDs were lower than 0.25 ng mL-1 and 1.9 %, respectively. The developed method was further applied for the determination of SAs in milk and honey samples with recoveries in the range of 85.8 % - 118.0 % and RSDs less than 9.5 %. The results demonstrate that the SNW-1 shows great potential for the enrichment of trace SAs in complex matrices.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Leite/química , Bases de Schiff/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Sulfonamidas/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Sulfonamidas/análise
16.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138197

RESUMO

The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently put the world under stress, resulting in a global pandemic. Currently, there are no approved treatments or vaccines, and this severe respiratory illness has cost many lives. Despite the established antimicrobial and immune-boosting potency described for honey, to date there is still a lack of evidence about its potential role amid COVID-19 outbreak. Based on the previously explored antiviral effects and phytochemical components of honey, we review here evidence for its role as a potentially effective natural product against COVID-19. Although some bioactive compounds in honey have shown potential antiviral effects (i.e., methylglyoxal, chrysin, caffeic acid, galangin and hesperidinin) or enhancing antiviral immune responses (i.e., levan and ascorbic acid), the mechanisms of action for these compounds are still ambiguous. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work exclusively summarizing all these bioactive compounds with their probable mechanisms of action as antiviral agents, specifically against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Mel/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Previsões , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240868, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112916

RESUMO

Honey can be categorized as monofloral and polyfloral honey. There is a strong interest in science and commerce, to further differentiate honey. In the present study, Schefflera abyssinica and polyfloral honey from Sheka Forest, Ethiopia was investigated. Botanical origin was determined based on Melissopalynology. Refractive index, moisture, sugars, ash, pH, free acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, optical density, diastase activity, protein, and color were determined based on the standard method of the international honey commission (IHC) and AOAC. Antioxidant activity and Antioxidant content were determined using UV- visible spectroscopy. The level of pollen dominancy for monofloral honey (Schefflera abyssinica) ranged from 76.2 to 85.8%. The polyfloral honey stuffed with a variety of pollen grain ranged from 2.2% (Coffea arabica) to 23.2% (Schefflera abyssinica). Schefflera abyssinica honey contained more total phenolic compounds (75.08 ± 2.40 mg GAE/100g), and total flavonoids (42.03 ± 1.49 mg QE/100 g), as well as had stronger DPPH (44.43 ± 0.97%) and hydrogen peroxide (78.00 ± 4.82%) scavenging activity. The principal component analysis revealed that Schefflera abyssinica honey associated with the antioxidant properties of total phenolic, total flavonoids, DPPH, and H2O2., which revealed that floral honey sources can essentially differentiated by antioxidant patterns. The higher electrical conductivity (0.42 ± 0.02 mS/cm), ash (0.41 ± 0.05 g/100g), pH (4.01 ± 0.08), optical density (0.26 ± 0.03) and diastase activity (5.21 ± 0.17 Schade units) were recorded in polyfloral honey. Schefflera abyssinica and polyfloral honey satisfy the requirement of national and international standards. The pollen analysis in combination with antioxidant properties distinguishes Schefflera abyssinica from polyfloral honeys.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Araliaceae/química , Coffea/química , Etiópia , Flavonoides , Flores/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Fenóis/análise , Pólen/química
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20181196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053103

RESUMO

Honey is a food of nutritional, medicinal and commercial importance. The physicochemical characteristics, pollen spectrum and mineral composition of eighteen honey samples obtained from regions (Cachoeira, Coqueiros, Maragojipe and Santiago do Iguape) near the Paraguaçu River, Bahia, Brazil were evaluated. Botanical families Asteraceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae and Palmae were most frequently found. Five samples had water contents above the maximum limit established by the Brazilian legislation (> 20%). The mineral composition was determined by ICP OES, after microwave digestion. Ca, K, Mg and Na were measured (mg Kg-1) in the range from: 18.85 to 79.61; 366.74 to 1214.98; 12.46 to 44.59 and 11.56 to 85.39, respectively. Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn had variable concentration ranges, between 0.05 and 6.13 mg Kg-1. Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and V showed values below the LOD. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) demonstrated that there are no similarities of mineral composition among honey samples.


Assuntos
Mel , Oligoelementos , Brasil , Mel/análise , Pólen/química , Rios , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/análise
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16269, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004933

RESUMO

This work aimed at the chemical and structural characterization of powders obtained from chestnut flower honey (HFCh) and honey with Inca berry (HBlu). Honey powders were obtained by spray drying technique at low temperature (80/50 °C) with dehumidified air. Maltodextrin (DE 15) was used as a covering agent. The isolation and evaluation of phenolic compounds and sugars were done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were performed to determine the morphology of the studied honey powders. The obtained results showed that the content of simple sugars amounted to 72.4 and 90.2 g × 100 g-1 in HFCh and HBlu, respectively. Glucose was found to be the dominant sugar with a concentration of 41.3 and 51.6 g × 100 g-1 in HFCh and HBlu, respectively. 3-Phenyllactic acid and ferulic acid were most frequently found in HFCh powder, whereas m-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and cinnamic acid were the most common in HBlu powder. The largest changes in the FTIR spectra occurred in the following range of wavenumbers: 3335, 1640, and below 930 cm-1. The X-ray diffraction profiles revealed wide peaks, suggesting that both honey powders are amorphous and are characterized by a short-range order only.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Fenóis/análise , Açúcares/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Pós , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872537

RESUMO

Honey is an extensively utilized sweetener containing sugars and water, together with small quantities of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and proteins. Naturally produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera) from floral nectar, honey is increasingly sold as a health food product due to its nutritious features. Certain honeys are retailed as premium, trendy products. Honeybees are regarded as environmental monitors, but few reports examine the impact of environment on Australian honey trace elements and minerals. In higher density urban and industrial environments, heavy metals can be common, while minerals and trace elements can have ubiquitous presence in both agricultural and urban areas. Honey hives are traditionally placed in rural and forested areas, but increasingly the trend is to keep hives in more urban areas. This study aimed to determine the levels of 26 minerals and trace elements and assess elemental differences between honeys from various regional Queensland and Australian sources. Honey samples (n = 212) were acquired from markets, shops and supermarkets in Queensland while urban honeys were purchased online. The honey samples were classified into four groups according to their regional sources: urban, rural, peri-urban and blend honey. Elemental analyses of honey were performed using ICP-MS and ICP-OES after microwave and hot block digestion. Considerable variations of essential trace elements (Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn) and mineral levels (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) were found in honeys surveyed. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between urban and rural honey samples for B, Na, P, Mn, K, Ca and Cu. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also found between blend and urban honey samples for K, Cu, P, Mn, Sr, Ni, B and Na. Peri-urban versus urban honeys showed significant differences in P, K and Mn. For rural and peri-urban honeys, the only significant difference (p < 0.05) was for Na. Toxic heavy metals were detected at relatively low levels in honey products. The study revealed that the Queensland/Australian honey studied is a good source of K and Zn and would constitute a good nutritional source of these elements.


Assuntos
Mel , Oligoelementos , Animais , Austrália , Abelhas , Mel/análise , Minerais/análise , Queensland , Oligoelementos/análise
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