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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210459

RESUMO

Globally, groupers (Epinephelidae) that form fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) are highly vulnerable to overfishing and often require site-specific approaches to management. Over 5-years (2009-2013), we conducted underwater visual censuses (UVC) at a well-known spawning site at Njari Island, Gizo, Western Province, Solomon Islands, that supports aggregations of squaretail coralgrouper (Plectropomus areolatus), camouflage grouper (Epinephelus polyphekadion) and brown-marbled grouper (E. fuscoguttatus). Findings show that while there were species-specific variations in the duration and timing of the spawning season, aggregation densities peaked from March to June, representing the main spawning season for all three species. For P. areolatus, gonad analysis from samples taken from 2008 to 2011 confirmed reproductive activity in support of density trends observed through UVC. Over the 5-year UVC monitoring period, FSA densities declined for P. areolatus and E. polyphekadion. Conversely, following the first year of monitoring, E. fuscoguttatus densities increased. These inter-specific differences may reflect variable responses to fishing as shown elsewhere, or for example, differences in recruitment success. In response to known declines in FSAs of these species, in 2018 the Solomon Islands government placed a nationwide ban on these species' harvest and sale between October and January. As this study shows, this ban does not encompass the peak aggregation period at Njari and will offer limited protection to other FSAs of these species that are known to vary in reproductive seasonality across the Solomon Islands. A more biologically meaningful and practical management strategy would be to implement a nationwide ban on the harvest and sale of these groupers each month between full and new moons when these FSAs form consistently throughout the country. Since effective management of FSAs typically requires a combined approach, spatial management that protects both spawning sites and reproductive migratory corridors is warranted.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Perciformes/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Melanesia
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(3): 667-675, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971147

RESUMO

Multifaceted interventions are important in improving neonatal quality of care and health outcomes. This study describes the implementation of an intervention to improve the quality of newborn care in Solomon Islands, a small island developing state and lower middle-income country in the Western Pacific. Inputs included training, equipment provision, and healthcare system organizational changes. For evaluation, we used a mixed-methods design, using quantitative (audits of health facility equipment, structure, and organization) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews and focused group discussions with healthcare workers) methods. Participants highlighted the practical, interactive, coaching style of training and its short duration as positive features in establishing skills. Training had indirect impacts through improving culture of the workplace, and the evaluation provided a valuable opportunity for reflection of the implementation process for healthcare workers. Facility limitations from equipment deficits and poor condition of clinical areas had implications by limiting the provision of quality care, as well as contributing to healthcare workers feeling undervalued. Resuscitation of a nonbreathing baby was a stressful experience for many health workers, compounded by geographic isolation and feeling unsupported. Our findings highlight the importance of training methodology, impact from structural limitations, and experience of resuscitation for the healthcare worker. Attention to these factors may help the design and implementation of newborn care programs in similar contexts.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Habitação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Melanesia
3.
Anthropol Med ; 27(1): 110-123, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373224

RESUMO

As described in ethnographies, the 'floating signifiers' of social anthropology appear akin to similar categories in contemporary Western societies such as energy. Both may be embodied in actual experience. The practice of ritual orgasm, Pra-Na, and its relation to the group's cosmology, are intrinsic to a religio-therapeutic community in San Francisco whose ideas derive from reified Western notions of 'vital energy' along with popular Chinese medicine, and in which the second author conducted fieldwork involving participant observation between 2008 and 2009. The article examines closely the formulations of 'energy' in the Western world, and similarities to non-Western concepts such as Melanesian mana, and asks whether the experience of ritualised orgasm by members of the group leads to their notion of cosmic energy, or whether the understanding of embodied energy is purely arbitrary from a somatic perspective. With reference to Durkheim's ([1912]1976. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. London: Allen & Unwin) -effervescence, we suggest the former is most likely.


Assuntos
Antropologia Médica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo , Orgasmo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanesia , São Francisco
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110589, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733899

RESUMO

To assess potential dispersion of pollutants around Honiara, Solomon Islands, and Port Vila, Vanuatu, 3D ocean circulation models were developed using Telemac-3D. A series of scenarios then explore the vulnerability of the system and test potential control measures. Results show that high coastal concentrations are most likely during the wet season, with increased volumes of discharge as well as favourable wind speed and direction. Buoyant plumes flow along the coastline, and high concentrations build up in enclosed bays. Control measures tested focus on consolidating existing outflows at depth off-shore. This results in an overall reduction of surface concentrations along the coastline. However, the reduction is dependent on the depth, off-shore positioning, and volume of outflow. With increased concentrations then found at depth, the subsequent impact on off-shore and benthic ecosystems would also need to be considered.


Assuntos
Baías , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Melanesia , Vanuatu , Vento
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110444, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778873

RESUMO

Tetepare Island in the Solomon Islands is the largest uninhabited island in the South Pacific and supports seagrass beds inside fringing reefs along its coastline. We monitored the diversity and abundance of seagrass species on Tetepare and nearby sparsely-populated Rendova Island over a 12 year period, 4 years before and up to 8 years after a major earthquake and tsunami event in January 2010. Both seagrass cover and diversity declined after the tsunami and had not reached pre-Tsunami levels after 8 years. Seagrass cover declined the fastest at sites on Rendova, closest to the epicentre, declining from 50% to <10% cover within 12 months of the earthquake. At sites within the Tetepare MPA, seagrass cover took longer to decline and dropped from an average of 50% to <10% within 2 years and became dominated by Halophila ovalis. Species richness declined from 9 to 4 species with some species such as Syringodium isoetifolium disappearing from monitoring sites. Community-based monitoring was an effective method of documenting long term changes in seagrass cover and long-term monitoring is required to determine if seagrass beds are permanently altered or return to pre-tsunami conditions.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tsunamis , Participação da Comunidade , Ilhas , Melanesia
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 135241, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843312

RESUMO

Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 seeks to "by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water", which is challenging particularly in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Pacific Island Countries (PIC). We report drinking water sources and services in the Solomon Islands and examine geographical inequalities. Based on two quantitative baseline datasets of n = 1,598 rural and n = 1,068 urban households, we analyzed different drinking water variables (source type, collection time, amount, use, perceived quality, storage, treatment) and a composite index, drinking water service level. We stratified data by urban and rural areas and by province, mapped, and contextualized them. There are substantive rural-urban drinking water inequalities in the Solomon Islands. Overall, urban households are more likely to: use improved drinking water sources, need less time to collect water, collect more water, store their water more safely, treat water prior to consumption, perceive their water quality as better and have an at least basic drinking water service than rural households. There are also provincial and center-periphery inequalities in drinking water access, with more centrally located provinces using piped water supplies and more distant and remote provinces using rainwater and surface water as their primary source. There are also inter-national inequalities. Out of all PICs, the Solomon Islands have among the lowest access to basic drinking water services: 92% of urban and 55% of rural households. Of all SIDS, PICs are least serviced. This study shows that drinking water inequality is a critical issue, and highlights that all identified dimensions of inequality - rural-urban, provincial, center-periphery and inter-national - need to be explicitly recognized and addressed and included in pro-equity monitoring, policy and programming efforts by the Solomon Islands Government and stakeholders to reduce inequalities as per the Agenda 2030.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Humanos , Melanesia , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
7.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 142: 106640, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605811

RESUMO

Molecular data sets and the increasing use of integrative systematics is revealing cryptic diversity in a range of taxa - particularly in remote and poorly sampled landscapes like the island of New Guinea. Green pythons (Morelia viridis complex) are one of the most conspicuous elements of this island's fauna, with large numbers taken from the wild to supply international demand for exotic pets. We test hypotheses about species boundaries in green pythons from across New Guinea and Australia with mitochondrial genomes, 389 nuclear exons, and comprehensive assessment of morphological variation. Strong genetic structuring of green python populations and species delimitation methods confirm the presence of two species, broadly occurring north and south of New Guinea's central mountains. Our data also support three subspecies within the northern species. Subtle but consistent morphological divergence among the putative taxa is concordant with patterns of molecular divergence. Our extensive sampling identifies several zones of hitherto unknown biogeographical significance on the island of New Guinea. We revise the taxonomy of the group, discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of Papuan biogeography and the implications of our systematic changes for the conservation management of these taxa.


Assuntos
Boidae/classificação , Animais , Austrália , Boidae/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Melanesia , Nova Guiné , Filogenia , Filogeografia
8.
Malar J ; 18(1): 416, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Solomon Island, the dominant malaria vector, Anopheles farauti, is highly anthropophagic and increasingly exophilic and early biting. While long-lasting insecticide-treated nets remain effective against An. farauti, supplemental vector control strategies will be needed to achieve malaria elimination. Presently, the only World Health Organization recommended supplemental vector control strategy is larval source management (LSM). Effective targeted larval source management requires understanding the associations between abiotic, chemical and biological parameters of larval habitats with the presence or density of vector larvae. METHODS: Potential and actual An. farauti larval habitats were characterized for presence and density of larvae and associated abiotic, chemical and biological parameters. RESULTS: A third of all sampled potential habitats harboured An. farauti larvae with 80% of An. farauti positive habitats being in three habitat classifications (swamps/lagoons, transient pools and man-made holes). Large swamps were the most abundant positive habitats surveyed (43% of all An. farauti positive habitats). Habitats with An. farauti larvae were significantly associated with abiotic (pH, nitrate, ammonia and phosphate concentrations and elevated temperature) and biotic (predators) parameters. CONCLUSION: Large swamps and lagoons are the largest and most abundant An. farauti habitats in the Solomon Islands. Positive habitats were more frequently associated with the presence of predators (vertebrates and invertebrates) and higher water temperatures. Cohabitation with predators is indicative of a complex habitat ecosystem and raises questions about the potential of biological control as an effective control strategy. Increased presence of An. farauti with higher water temperature suggests a potential explanation for the coastal distribution of this species which is not found inland at elevated altitudes where temperatures would be cooler.


Assuntos
Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Melanesia , Densidade Demográfica , Estresse Fisiológico , Áreas Alagadas
9.
Zootaxa ; 4564(2): zootaxa.4564.2.7, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716506

RESUMO

Twenty new species of Agrilus jewel beetles from the Oriental region are described and illustrated: Agrilus cicadelloides sp. nov. (Malaysia: Sarawak); A. draco sp. nov. (Malaysia: Sabah); A. hergovitsi sp. nov. (Malaysia: Johor); A. hik sp. nov.(Cambodia); A. ika sp. nov. (Solomon Islands); A. jankae sp. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra, Singapore); A. jum sp. nov. (Laos); A. kon sp. nov. (Cambodia); A. mimicus sp. nov. (Laos); A. qom sp. nov. (Laos); A. titi sp. nov. (Malaysia: Perak); A. uxo sp. nov. (Vietnam); A. wos sp. nov. (Laos); A. xen sp. nov. (Laos); A. xia sp. nov. (Laos); A. xis sp. nov. (Laos); A. yoa sp. nov. (Laos, Vietnam); A. yuk sp. nov. (Laos); A. zao sp. nov. (Indonesia: Java and Sumba Islands); A. zim sp. nov. (Malaysia: Pahang).


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Camboja , Indonésia , Laos , Malásia , Melanesia , Tamanho do Órgão , Singapura , Vietnã
10.
Zootaxa ; 4651(1): zootaxa.4651.1.4, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716922

RESUMO

A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955, probably an obligate associate of ghost shrimp burrows, is described based on material from Oman (type locality: Darsait near Muscat), Iran and the Philippines. Salmoneus durisi sp. nov. is characterised principally by both chelipeds enlarged, robust, with ventral and dorsal margins of chelae carrying long fine setae, and with minor chela fingers armed with a few large teeth on cutting edges. All specimens of Salmoneus durisi sp. nov. were collected either directly from burrows of larger decapod crustaceans with the aid of a suction pump, or by exposing burrows dug under large subtidal rocks. The Iranian specimen was found together with its presumed host, Neocallichirus calmani (Nobili, 1904). Two additional specimens from Indonesia and the Solomon Islands are tentatively assigned to S. cf. durisi sp. nov., awaiting further studies.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Indonésia , Irã (Geográfico) , Melanesia , Omã , Tamanho do Órgão , Filipinas
11.
Zootaxa ; 4647(1): zootaxa.4647.1.18, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716986

RESUMO

Five new species of Topalia (Nosybeidae) are described from Australia: Topalia caliginosa sp. nov. from Victoria, T. corinnensis sp. nov. from Tasmania, T. dunlopi sp. nov. and T. katyae sp. nov. from Norfolk Island and T. royi sp. nov. from New South Wales. The genus was known previously from Australia from unidentified specimens only. I revise the generic definition, provide a key to species and clarify the family placement and taxonomic status of Topalia, Nosybea, Lamellocepheus and Charassobates. From a phylogenetic analysis and identification of synapomorphies, I consider Topalia, Nosybea and Lamellocepheus are valid, morphologically related and included in the Nosybeidae. The superfamily Charassobatoidea is valid, and contains Charassobatidae, Nosybeidae and Microtegeidae. These families have synapomorphies of a narrow, elongate subcapitulum, minute notogastral setae with at least one pair in the d series retained in the adults (dm in Nosybeidae, dp or dm in Microtegeidae, full complement in Charassobates). Immatures of Nosybeidae and Microtegeidae are undescribed, but in Charassobates are eupheredermous, plicate, and the tritonymph has the full complement of setae in the d series. Charassobates and Topalia have the synapomorphy of a ventral plate tectum, providing strong evidence for their relatedness. By way of contrast, the Cepheoidea, in which Nosybeidae and Microtegeidae have been placed by various authors, have a broad subcapitulum, well-developed setiform notogastral setae positioned marginally and lacking the d series, and no ventral plate tectum. The immatures are eupheredermous but non-plicate and the tritonymph lacks setae in the d series. Based on these differences, Nosybeidae, Microtegeidae and Charassobatidae cannot be included in the Cepheoidea.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Animais , Melanesia , New South Wales , Filogenia , Tasmânia , Vitória
12.
Zootaxa ; 4604(2): zootaxa.4604.2.6, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717193

RESUMO

A small number of treefrog species (Litoria) from Melanesia are unusual amongst Anura in having distinctive fleshy rostral spikes. Here, we first present an extended description for Litoria pronimia Menzies, a small species that is widespread along the southern edge of the Central Cordillera of New Guinea, and in which males have a long and erectile rostral spike. Second, we describe Litoria pinocchio sp. nov. a new, morphologically similar, yet geographically disjunct species from the Foja Mountains in northern Papua Province, Indonesia. The new species differs from Litoria pronimia in aspects of body shape, proportions and colouration. A review of variation in the size, structure and degree of sexual dimorphism of the rostral spike across different species of Litoria suggests varying function including mate selection and camouflage.


Assuntos
Anuros , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Indonésia , Masculino , Melanesia , Nova Guiné
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 558, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ecology of many mosquitoes, including Anopheles farauti, the dominant malaria vector in the southwest Pacific including the Solomon Islands, remains inadequately understood. Studies to map fine scale vector distributions are biased when trapping techniques use lures that will influence the natural movements of mosquitoes by attracting them to traps. However, passive collection methods allow the detailed natural distributions of vector populations by sex and physiological states to be revealed. METHODS: The barrier screen, a passive mosquito collection method along with human landing catches were used to record An. farauti distributions over time and space in two Solomon Island villages from May 2016 to July 2017. RESULTS: Temporal and spatial distributions of over 15,000 mosquitoes, including males as well as unfed, host seeking, blood-fed, non-blood fed and gravid females were mapped. These spatial and temporal patterns varied by species, sex and physiological state. Sugar-fed An. farauti were mostly collected between 10-20 m away from houses with peak activity from 18:00 to 19:00 h. Male An. farauti were mostly collected greater than 20 m from houses with peak activity from 19:00 to 20:00 h. CONCLUSIONS: Anopheles farauti subpopulations, as defined by physiological state and sex, are heterogeneously distributed in Solomon Island villages. Understanding the basis for these observed heterogeneities will lead to more accurate surveillance of mosquitoes and will enable spatial targeting of interventions for greater efficiency and effectiveness of vector control.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Anopheles/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Habitação , Masculino , Melanesia , Fatores Sexuais , Análise Espaço-Temporal
14.
Science ; 366(6463)2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624180

RESUMO

Copy number variants (CNVs) are subject to stronger selective pressure than single-nucleotide variants, but their roles in archaic introgression and adaptation have not been systematically investigated. We show that stratified CNVs are significantly associated with signatures of positive selection in Melanesians and provide evidence for adaptive introgression of large CNVs at chromosomes 16p11.2 and 8p21.3 from Denisovans and Neanderthals, respectively. Using long-read sequence data, we reconstruct the structure and complex evolutionary history of these polymorphisms and show that both encode positively selected genes absent from most human populations. Our results collectively suggest that large CNVs originating in archaic hominins and introgressed into modern humans have played an important role in local population adaptation and represent an insufficiently studied source of large-scale genetic variation.


Assuntos
Introgressão Genética , Animais , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Humano , Haplótipos , Hominidae/genética , Humanos , Melanesia , Modelos Genéticos , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Seleção Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Malar J ; 18(1): 334, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito saliva elicits immune responses in humans following mosquito blood feeding. Detection of human antibodies recognizing the Anopheles gambiae salivary gland protein 6 (gSG6) or the gSG6-P1 peptide in residents of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia suggested the potential for these antibodies to serve as a universal marker to estimate human biting rates. Validating the utility of this approach requires concurrent comparisons of anopheline biting rates with antibodies to the gSG6 protein to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for monitoring changes in vector populations. This study investigated whether seroprevalence of anti-gSG6 antibodies in humans reflected the relative exposure to Anopheles farauti bites in the Solomon Islands as estimated from sympatric human landing catches. METHODS: Human biting rates by An. farauti were estimated by landing catches at 10 sampling sites in each of 4 villages during the wet and dry seasons. Human serum samples from these same villages were also collected during the wet and dry seasons and analysed for antibody recognition of the gSG6 antigen by the Luminex xMAP© platform. Antibody titres and prevalence were compared to HLCs at the sampling sites nearest to participants' residences for utility of anti-gSG6 antibodies to estimate human exposure to anopheline bites. RESULTS: In this study in the Solomon Islands only 11% of people had very high anti-gSG6 antibody titres, while other individuals did not recognize gSG6 despite nightly exposures of up to 190 bites by An. farauti. Despite clear spatial differences in the human biting rates within and among villages, associations between anti-gSG6 antibody titres and biting rates were not found. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies to date have concurrently measured anopheline biting rates and the prevalence of human antibodies to gSG6. The lack of association between anti-gSG6 antibody titres and concurrently measured human biting rates suggests that the assay for human anti-gSG6 antibodies lacks sufficient sensitivity to be a biomarker of An. farauti exposure at an epidemiologically relevant scale. These findings imply that an improvement in the sensitivity of serology to monitor changes in anopheline biting exposure may require the use of saliva antigens from local anophelines, and this may be especially true for species more distantly related to the African malaria vector An. gambiae.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Saliva/imunologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Melanesia , Mosquitos Vetores , Estações do Ano , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 803, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies, a parasitic disease of the skin, is a major public health problem, largely affecting children. Scabies is often complicated by impetigo which can result in serious complications including invasive infections and immune mediated diseases. Scabies and impetigo are reported to have high prevalence in tropical settings including the Solomon Islands. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional prevalence survey at Gizo Primary School in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands in August 2018. The diagnosis of scabies was based on criteria developed by the International Alliance for the Control of Scabies in 2018. Population attributable risk was calculated to determine the effect of scabies on the prevalence of impetigo, and both adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios were calculated to identify differences between sexes and age groups. RESULTS: A total of 324 students were assessed (47.5% of those enrolled at the school). The prevalence of scabies was 54.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 48.7-59.8) and most disease was mild (68.8%). The prevalence was higher in males (63.5%; adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), and in those aged 10-12 years (61.4%; ARR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9 when compared to those aged 4-6 years). The prevalence of impetigo was 32.1%, with males more likely to be affected (41.7%, ARR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4) but with no significant differences between age groups. 63.5% of those with impetigo had scabies, corresponding to a population attributable risk of 11.8%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a very high burden of scabies and impetigo among primary school students in Gizo. There is a critical need for the development and implementation of control programs in areas where scabies is endemic.


Assuntos
Impetigo/epidemiologia , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007635, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although scabies is estimated to be one of the most common skin conditions globally, prevalence data is not available in most settings. Disease mapping is required to develop and monitor successful control programs. Non-expert health workers are likely to play an important role in scabies mapping activities in endemic settings. METHODOLOGY: Four non-expert health workers were trained in the diagnosis of scabies and impetigo. The health worker diagnosis was compared to a reference consensus diagnosis of two doctors experienced in diagnosis. The study was conducted in a primary school in Gizo, Solomon Islands, in August 2018. The six examiners consecutively assessed school students, blinded to each other's findings. Training and diagnostic procedures followed criteria for scabies diagnosis established by the International Alliance for the Control of Scabies in 2018. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amongst the 171 students who underwent clinical assessment the prevalence of scabies and impetigo according to the reference standard was 55% and 45% respectively. Sensitivity of the non-expert health workers' diagnosis compared to the reference standard was 55.3% for scabies (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.1-60.4) with a specificity of 89.9% (95% CI 86-93.1) and 52.6% for impetigo (95% CI 46.9-58.3) with a specificity 97.8% (95% CI 95.7-99). Sensitivity for moderate to severe scabies was 93.5% (95% CI 86.3-97.6) with a specificity of 74% (95% CI 70.2-77.5). CONCLUSIONS: Following brief training, the diagnostic accuracy of non-expert health workers for scabies and impetigo was promising, especially for moderate to severe disease. Modifications to training and processes are recommended to further improve accuracy. The diagnosis by non-expert health workers may be acceptable for scabies and impetigo mapping in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Impetigo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Melanesia , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319480

RESUMO

Ongoing dietary transitions in the Solomon Islands has resulted in an over-reliance on commercially sourced foods, leading to food insecurity, and a subsequent rise in multiple forms of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the individual dietary diversity and food preferences of the adult population living in Auki, Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional study involving 133 adults was undertaken in the Auki district via an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Individual dietary diversity scores (DDS) were determined based on the results of a 24-h recall method. Overall mean DDS was 7.27 (range 2-12). Females and participants who lived outside the Auki town center had significantly higher dietary diversity scores. Low consumption of a variety of nutritious foods within food groups and high consumption of energy dense processed foods, indicates that diet quality is likely limited in some of this population. Participants desire for a diverse diet including local foods suggests that current dietary diversity status in this population may be influenced by food security rather than food preference.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanesia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Malar J ; 18(1): 208, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission varies in intensity amongst Solomon Island villages where Anopheles farauti is the only vector. This variation in transmission intensity might be explained by density-dependent processes during An. farauti larval development, as density dependence can impact adult size with associated fitness costs and daily survivorship. METHODS: Adult anophelines were sampled from six villages in Western and Central Provinces, Solomon Islands between March 2014 and February 2017. The size of females was estimated by measuring wing lengths, and then analysed for associations with biting densities and rainfall. RESULTS: In the Solomon Islands, three anopheline species, An. farauti, Anopheles hinesorum and Anopheles lungae, differed in size. The primary malaria vector, An. farauti, varied significantly in size among villages. Greater rainfall was directly associated with higher densities of An. farauti biting rates, but inversely associated with body size with the smallest mean sized mosquitoes present during the peak transmission period. A measurable association between body size and survivorship was not found. CONCLUSIONS: Density dependent effects are likely impacting the size of adult An. farauti emerging from a range of larval habitats. The data suggest that rainfall increases An. farauti numbers and that these more abundant mosquitoes are significantly smaller in size, but without any reduced survivorship being associated with smaller size. The higher malaria transmission rate in a high malaria focus village appears to be determined more by vector numbers than size or survivorship of the vectors.


Assuntos
Anopheles/anatomia & histologia , Anopheles/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/anatomia & histologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Feminino , Humanos , Melanesia , Chuva
20.
Rural Remote Health ; 19(2): 4918, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100202

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health challenge in Solomon Islands. Limited healthcare resources, geography, and sociocultural beliefs, coupled with lack of laboratory diagnostic tools, leads to diagnostic and treatment outcome uncertainty. METHODS: Kirakira Hospital (KKH) is the main provincial hospital of Makira-Ulawa Province in Solomon Islands. A retrospective clinical audit of hospitalised TB patients in KKH over a 2-year period between July 2015 and July 2017 was conducted. The cost of TB treatment was estimated by calculating the total number of inpatient bed days of treatment. RESULTS: Data were available for 42 of 78 listed TB patients including 23 males and 19 females, and 9 children aged less than 16 years. The average age was 35 years (range 9 months - 74 years). Thirty-five of these received a chest X-ray. All patients had at least one of the following: fever, night sweats, chronic cough and haemoptysis as part of their clinical TB presentation. Thirty-six completed the full 8-week duration of intensive HRZE treatment as inpatients of KKH. The audit shows the treatment of TB consumes 15% of the current healthcare budget of Makira-Ulawa Province. CONCLUSION: TB remains a common clinical diagnosis in KKH. TB consumes 15% of the current healthcare budget of Makira-Ulawa Province. The limited capacity and data about the management of TB in Makira province mean that it is not currently possible to measure if there has been any progress towards eradicating TB in Solomon Islands. Laboratory investigations for TB available in Makira including sputum analysis and the GeneXpert are required to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and identify multidrug resistant strains of TB. This needs to be coupled with robust monitoring and data collection of both inpatients and outpatients to ensure the current treatment protocols for TB are being followed in Makira-Ulawa Province. These steps are essential if TB is to be eradicated from the provinces of Solomon Islands by 2030.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Hospitais Rurais/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Melanesia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
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