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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115848, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272492

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Morus alba L. has long been used for beauty in many Asian countries and regions, including anti-aging and hyperpigmentation. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed at the inhibitory effect of Morus alba L. root on melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells and the mechanism involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study evaluated the anti-melanogenic effect of Morus alba L. root extract (MAR) on B16F10 melanoma cells by assessing cell viability, melanin accumulation, cellular tyrosinase activity, intra/inter-cellular S1P levels, cellular S1P-related metabolic enzyme activity, and western blot analysis. In addition, the potential S1P lyase (S1PL) inhibitory constituents in MAR were identified by LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: Without affecting the viability of B16F10 melanoma cells, MAR inhibited intracellular tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner, thereby reducing the accumulation of melanin. MAR also downregulated the expression level of MITF via activating the ERK signaling pathway. Furthermore, MAR increased the intra/inter-cellular S1P by inhibiting S1PL. Several compounds with inhibitory S1PL activity have been identified in MAR, such as mulberroside A and oxyresveratrol. CONCLUSIONS: The anti-melanogenic effects of MAR mainly involve promoting MITF degradation mediated via S1P-S1PR3-ERK signaling through increasing cellular S1P levels by inhibiting S1PL activity.


Assuntos
Melanoma Experimental , Melanoma , Morus , Animais , Melaninas/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transdução de Sinais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo
2.
Gene ; 850: 146894, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: GCMN is a sporadic disease with an incidence ranging from 1/20,000 to 1/500000. So far, several studies have found that GCMN is related to somatic mutations, but most of them have focused on known pathogenic genes, and transcriptome sequencing based on large datasets is relatively uncommon. At present, the use of next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatics platforms makes genomic information study more comprehensive and efficient. In this study, the transcriptome differences between GCMN lesions and surrounding normal skin tissues were investigated using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, and hub genes and pathways related to pathogenesis were identified, providing a theoretical foundation for further research into the pathogenesis of GCMN. METHODS: Pathological skin tissue and surrounding normal skin tissue from GCMN patients, namely the pathological group (PG) and the control group (CG), were obtained. 1. All specimens were stained with HE to ensure that the samples met the experimental requirements. 2. Ten pairs of specimens were selected for high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the PG and the CG were obtained. The DEGs were analyzed by clusterProfiler R software for Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The function of the subnetwork was analyzed and the hub genes were identified by the STRING database and Cytoscape software. 3. The expression differences of hub genes PTGS2, EGF, and SOX10 in pathological skin tissues and normal skin tissues were verified by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: 1. HE staining revealed a lot of melanocytes in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. They were found around the hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and blood vessel walls, or in a specific pattern. 2. The screening threshold was set at p < 0.01 and |log2fc|<1, and a total of 1163 DEGs were discovered between the PG and CG, with 519 genes up-regulated and 644 genes down-regulated in the pathological tissues. According to the GO functional analysis, 29 biological processes, 18 cell compositions, and 17 molecular functions were significantly enriched, with the majority of them being related to keratinocytes and the extracellular matrix. There were 779 nodes and 2359 interactions in the protein interaction network. Using the MCODE plug-in, the network was divided into 25 functional clusters. According to ClueGO results, Cluster5 was involved in melanin biosynthesis and melanocyte proliferation. Using 11 operation methods in the Cytohubba plug-in, PTGS2, EGF, and SOX10 in Cluster5 were chosen as hub genes. 3. qRT-PCR and immunofluorescent staining revealed that compared to normal skin tissue, the expression of SOX10 was significantly up-regulated, and the expression of PTGS2 and EGF was significantly down-regulated in pathological skin tissue(P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In GCMN, keratinocytes and extracellular matrix may directly and indirectly affect melanocyte activity. PTGS2, EGF, and SOX10 are important genes and significantly differentially expressed in pathological and normal skin tissues. These findings may serve as a springboard for future research.


Assuntos
Nevo Pigmentado , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/genética , Melaninas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , RNA Mensageiro
3.
Food Chem ; 401: 134117, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096001

RESUMO

Although nanocomposite films had shown excellent potential in antibacterial food packaging, their potential harmful impact limits their further application in reality. Therefore, exploring a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) nanomaterial that has antibacterial ability is the pioneer for the fabrication of a real edible nanocomposite-based antibacterial packaging film. Herein, for the first time by using the natural nanostructure extracted from cuttlefish ink, an edible antibacterial food packaging with high safety were constructed. The natural melanin nanoparticles (NMPs) in cuttlefish ink have good photothermal conversion ability. As such, by incorporating with natural pectin (PC) film and with near infrared (NIR) irradiation triggering, the results show that PC/NMPs films perform high-efficiency and short-term bactericidal activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria, including thermotolerant Listeria monocytogenes. The sterilization rate could reach more than 90 % within only 5 min. Also, this nanocomposite film showed better mechanical properties, thermal stability and barrier properties than the neat pectin film. Antibacterial test on food sample also proved the good antibacterial ability of the PC/NMPs films. Therefore, exploring GRAS natural functional nanocomposite film is expected to be the effective way to promote edible nano-antibacterial packaging.


Assuntos
Filmes Comestíveis , Nanopartículas , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Melaninas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Pectinas/química
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838935

RESUMO

This study was conducted to elucidate the influence of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) along the reproductive-axis in the female tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Administration of MCH (4 µg / 0.1 ml saline) for 22 days resulted in significantly lower gonadosomatic index compared to controls. Significant reduction in the mean numbers of follicles at different stages of development such as previtellogenic (stages I-III), vitellogenic (stage IV) and preovulatory (stage V) follicles was observed in MCH-treated fish compared with controls. On the other hand, the rate of atresia was significantly higher in follicles at stages II, III and IV in MCH-treated fish. In addition, in the pituitary gland, sparsely labelled gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive fibres were observed in MCH-treated fish in contrast to their intense labelling in controls. The serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH) showed significant decrease, but the serum cortisol level rose significantly following MCH treatment compared to those of controls. Collectively, these results indicate for the first time, that MCH treatment blocks follicular development during the ovarian cycle, possibly through the suppression of GnRH-LH axis in fish. The results also indicate that MCH may activate the stress-axis pathway in fish.


Assuntos
Hormônios Hipotalâmicos , Tilápia , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Gônadas/metabolismo , Hormônios Hipotalâmicos/metabolismo , Melaninas , Hipófise/metabolismo , Hormônios Hipofisários , Tilápia/fisiologia
5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(12): 5, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326727

RESUMO

Purpose: Uveal coloboma is a congenital eye malformation caused by failure of the optic fissure to close in early human development. Despite significant progress in identifying genes whose regulation is important for executing this closure, mutations are detected in a minority of cases using known gene panels, implying additional genetic complexity. We have previously shown knockdown of znf503 (the ortholog of mouse Zfp503) in zebrafish causes coloboma. Here we characterize Zfp503 knockout (KO) mice and evaluate transcriptomic profiling of mutant versus wild-type (WT) retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid. Methods: Zfp503 KO mice were generated by gene targeting using homologous recombination. Embryos were characterized grossly and histologically. Patterns and level of developmentally relevant proteins/genes were examined with immunostaining/in situ hybridization. The transcriptomic profile of E11.5 KO RPE/choroid was compared to that of WT. Results: Zfp503 is dynamically expressed in developing mouse eyes, and loss of its expression results in uveal coloboma. KO embryos exhibit altered mRNA levels and expression patterns of several key transcription factors involved in eye development, including Otx2, Mitf, Pax6, Pax2, Vax1, and Vax2, resulting in a failure to maintain the presumptive RPE, as evidenced by reduced melanin pigmentation and its differentiation into a neural retina-like lineage. Comparison of RNA sequencing data from WT and KO E11.5 embryos demonstrated reduced expression of melanin-related genes and significant overlap with genes known to be dynamically regulated at the optic fissure. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a critical role of Zfp503 in maintaining RPE fate and optic fissure closure.


Assuntos
Coloboma , Neuropeptídeos , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Coloboma/genética , Coloboma/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Melaninas/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362321

RESUMO

Overexpression of melanin contributes to darkening of plant and fruit tissues and skin hyperpigmentation, leading to melasma or age spots. Although melanin biosynthesis is complex and involves several steps, a single enzyme known as tyrosinase is key to regulating this process. The melanogenesis pathway is initiated by oxidation of the starting material l-tyrosine (or l-DOPA) to dopaquinone by tyrosinase; the resulting quinone then serves as a substrate for subsequent steps that eventually lead to production of melanin. Medicinal plants are considered a good source of tyrosinase inhibitors. This study investigated the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of A. mollis leaf extracts and their phytochemicals. Significant activity was verified in the ethanol extract -EEt (IC50 = 1.21 µg/mL). Additionally, a kinetic study showed that this tyrosinase inhibition occurs by DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) and verbascoside contribution through a non-competitive reaction mechanism. A synergistic effect on tyrosinase inhibition was observed in the binary combination of the compounds. In conclusion, both EEt and a mixture of two of its phytochemicals can be effective tyrosinase inhibitors and can be used as a bleaching agent for cosmetic formulations in the future.


Assuntos
Acanthaceae , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química
7.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364391

RESUMO

The browning of plant-based food is commonly understood to result from the enzymatic polymerization of phenolic compounds to pigments, called melanin. However, during the thermal treatment of food, enzymes are deactivated, and non-enzymatic reactions predominate. The extent of the contribution of phenolic compounds to these non-enzymatic reactions has been speculated ("melanin-like vs. melanoidin-like"), but the literature is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the heat-induced reactions of caffeic acid (CA), para-coumaric acid (CS), ferulic acid (FA), hydrocaffeic acid (HC), and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CGA) under dry conditions. The model systems were characterized by color formation, reactant conversion, and antioxidant properties. Reaction products were analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Decarboxylation could be classified as the driving force for the observed color formation and was significantly impacted by the substitution of the aromatic system. Reaction products were found to contribute to an increase in the antioxidant properties of the model systems. The oligomers described in this study could be incorporated into food melanoidins, contributing to the color and antioxidant properties observed in roasted food rich in phenolic compounds, such as coffee or cocoa.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácidos Cumáricos , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Reação de Maillard , Melaninas , Café/química , Fenóis/análise
8.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 21(11): 1206-1220, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Key cellular players regulating human skin pigmentation include melanocytes in the epidermis that synthesize melanin, neighboring keratinocytes that receive and distribute melanin in the upper layers, and fibroblasts in the dermis that affect overlying melanocytes and keratinocytes. In addition, endocrine factors from the blood supply (endothelial cells) and inflammation-related factors play a role. Thus, new strategies for affecting pigmentation need to consider these multiple cell lines to adequately cover various causes and disease processes associated with hyperpigmentation. METHODS: Pathophysiologic mechanisms and cellular pathways involved in melanogenesis were thoroughly reviewed with particular emphasis on the cellular interplay involved in the process. A complex system of interlinking and independent pathways was defined and described demonstrating differing pathways for altered pigmentary disorders - melasma associated with endothelial cell interactions; post inflammatory hyperpigmentation associated with keratinocyte inflammatory mediators (PGE2 in particular); and photodamage involving all 4 cell types. In vitro validation studies were then undertaken to define differing cell group gene expression profiles with selected peptides and other active agents. Melanocytic production of pigment was then tested with these agents to identify key potential players capable of limiting pigmentation. RESULTS: Hexapeptide-12 and lactoferrin (melanocytes), Hexapeptide-11 (in keratinocytes), and phosphatidylserine (endothelial cells) were identified as major inhibitors of melanogenesis based on their gene expression profiles. This was confirmed by secondary melanin production tests performed on melanocytic lines. Additional active agents were also identified as inhibitors of melanocytic production of melanin, and together, these constituents formed the basis for a novel formulation for use in pigmentary disorders. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive scientific narrative of the various facets relating to pigmentation has been presented including differing pathways affecting varied cell lines that effect pigment production. Based on this concept, actives were tested using gene expression studies as well as in vitro melanogenic model testing in different cell lines. Using this novel multi-faceted approach, we have selected and validated a series of active agents to be used in a formulation targeting the complex problem of hyperpigmentation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022;21(11):1206-1220. doi:10.36849/JDD.7013.


Assuntos
Hiperpigmentação , Melaninas , Humanos , Melaninas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Melanócitos , Queratinócitos , Pigmentação da Pele , Hiperpigmentação/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18484, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323747

RESUMO

Whether melanin-based plumage colouration accurately reflects a bird's quality is still controversial. To better understand potential mechanisms behind the observed variation in plumage colouration, we shifted our attention from a high-level expression of colour to low-level physiological phenomena by targeting the microstructure and pigment content of the feather. In a well-studied model system, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), we combined an experimental manipulation of birds' physiological condition and availability of resources that are key to the production of the studied colouration (phenylalanine and tyrosine (PT). We found that feathers from sparrows fed with the control diet had noticeably lower values of brightness, suggesting a higher quality of the ornamental "blackness" in comparison to those sampled from birds fed with a PT-reduced diet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy detected higher melanin concentrations in samples from the control than the PT-reduced group. Our multi-level analysis excluded mechanisms such as barbule density and melanosomes' distribution, clearly pointing to the finest-level proxy of colour: the concentration of melanin in melanosomes themselves. Despite melanins being manufactured by birds endogenously, the efficiency of melanogenesis can be noticeably limited by diet. As a result, the birds' plumage colouration is affected, which may entail consequences in social signalling.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Pardais , Animais , Melaninas/metabolismo , Pardais/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Dieta
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18553, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329126

RESUMO

Pump-probe imaging was first used for quantitative analysis of melanin in dark circles' skin to improve the ability to diagnose and treat dark circles on human skin. This study aimed to compare the distribution characteristics in melanin of lower eyelid skin tissues and to determine whether pump-probe imaging has potential for the classification of dark circles in vivo. Specimens obtained from 15 patients undergoing blepharoplasty were examined using pump-probe imaging. Furthermore, adjacent slices were respectively treated with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) staining for cross-references. Subsequently, the melanin content index (MCI) and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) were quantitatively analyzed by the pump-probe imaging. The distribution of melanin granules in the pump-probe image and FeSO4 staining was consistent. Meanwhile, the tissues of the skin with dark circles and normal skin demonstrated significant differences in MCI and MFI. These differences can be used to distinguish the skin with dark circles from the normal skin. Pump-probe imaging could be used for the analysis of the microstructure and spectral characteristics of melanin granules in skin with dark circles. Significant differences were noted between the pigmented type of dark circles and the other two groups (normal skin and the vascular type of dark circles), while no significant differences were found between normal skin and the vascular type of dark circles.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Pele , Humanos , Melaninas/análise , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/química , Pálpebras/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Imagem
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(22): e0138522, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342142

RESUMO

Transcription factors (TFs) bind to the promoters of target genes to regulate gene expression in response to different stimuli. The functions and regulatory mechanisms of transcription factors (TFs) in Verticillium dahliae are, however, still largely unclear. This study showed that a C2H2-type zinc finger TF, VdCf2 (V. dahliae chorion transcription factor 2), plays key roles in V. dahliae growth, melanin production, and virulence. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that VdCf2 was involved in the regulation of expression of genes encoding secreted proteins, pathogen-host interaction (PHI) homologs, TFs, and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Furthermore, VdCf2 positively regulated the expression of VdPevD1 (VDAG_02735), a previously reported virulence factor. VdCf2 thus regulates the expression of several pathogenicity-related genes that also contribute to virulence in V. dahliae. VdCf2 also inhibited the transcription of the Vd276-280 gene cluster and interacted with two members encoding proteins (VDAG_07276 and VDAG_07278) in the gene cluster. IMPORTANCE Verticillium dahliae is an important soilborne phytopathogen which can ruinously attack numerous host plants and cause significant economic losses. Transcription factors (TFs) were reported to be involved in various biological processes, such as hyphal growth and virulence of pathogenic fungi. However, the functions and regulatory mechanisms of TFs in V. dahliae remain largely unclear. In this study, we identified a new transcription factor, VdCf2 (V. dahliae chorion transcription factor 2), based on previous transcriptome data, which participates in growth, melanin production, and virulence of V. dahliae. We provide evidence that VdCf2 regulates the expression of the pathogenicity-related gene VdPevD1 (VDAG_02735) and Vd276-280 gene cluster. VdCf2 also interacts with VDAG_07276 and VDAG_07278 in this gene cluster based on a yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. These results revealed the regulatory mechanisms of a pivotal pathogenicity-related transcription factor, VdCf2 in V. dahliae.


Assuntos
Verticillium , Virulência/genética , Verticillium/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Melaninas/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
12.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 257, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411485

RESUMO

Hair graying, a prototypical sign of human aging, is a progressive loss of pigmentation from growing hair shafts caused by disease and as a side effect of medications. Cerebrolysin is a neuropeptide preparation that mimics the effect of endogenous neurotrophic factors. Cerebrolysin has been widely used in neurologic conditions, such as cerebral stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia, among others. Cerebrolysin treatment has achieved to regain or maintain the cognitive ability of affected patients; however, up to date, there are no reports about the reactivation of hair pigmentation. We describe a previously not described effect occurring on patients receiving Cerebrolysin treatment for neurologic diseases and whether this effect is associated in reactivation of melanocytes and melanin expression. Here, we report five patients (mean age, 70.6 years), who also had age-related hair graying and scalp hair repigmentation during Cerebrolysin treatment. Macroscopic analysis revealed hair repigmentation consisted in diffuse darkening of the scalp hair. Impregnation and immunostaining analysis were performed on scalp biopsies taken before and after Cerebrolysin treatment; the results showed greater melanin and melanocyte marker MART-1/Melan-A staining following Cerebrolysin treatment. We present, to our knowledge, the first report on hair repigmentation is a previously not described effect occurring following Cerebrolysin treatment.


Assuntos
Cor de Cabelo , Melaninas , Humanos , Idoso , Antígeno MART-1 , Cabelo
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 991594, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389813

RESUMO

Post-inflammatory skin hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is a common occurrence with unclear etiology. There is currently no reliable method to predict skin pigmentation outcomes after inflammation. In this study, we analyzed the 5 GEO datasets to screen for inflammatory-related genes involved in melanogenesis, and used candidate cytokines to establish different machine learning (LASSO regression, logistic regression and Random Forest) models to predict the pigmentation outcomes of post-inflammatory skin. Further, to further validate those models, we evaluated the role of these candidate cytokines in pigment cells. We found that IL-37, CXCL13, CXCL1, CXCL2 and IL-19 showed high predictive value in predictive models. All models accurately classified skin samples with different melanogenesis-related gene scores in the training and testing sets (AUC>0.7). Meanwhile, we mainly evaluated the effects of IL-37 in pigment cells, and found that it increased the melanin content and expression of melanogenesis-related genes (MITF, TYR, TYRP1 and DCT), also enhanced tyrosinase activity. In addition, CXCL13, CXCL1, CXCL2 and IL-19 could down-regulate the expression of several melanogenesis-related genes. In conclusion, evaluation models basing on machine learning may be valuable in predicting outcomes of post-inflammatory pigmentation abnormalities. IL-37, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL13 and IL-19 are involved in regulating post-inflammatory pigmentation abnormalities.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Pigmentação da Pele , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo
14.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 485, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402976

RESUMO

Currently, tumor treatments are characterized by intelligence, diversity and personalization, but the therapeutic reagents used are often limited in clinical efficacy due to problems with water solubility, targeting, stability and multidrug resistance. To remedy these shortcomings, the application of multifunctional nanotechnology in the biomedical field has been widely studied. Synthetic melanin nanoparticles (MNPs) surfaces which contain highly reactive chemical groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amine groups, can be used as a reaction platform on which to graft different functional components. In addition, MNPs easily adhere to substrate surface, and serve as a secondary reaction platform to modify it. The multifunctionality and intrinsic biocompatibility make melanin-like nanoparticles promising as a multifunctional and powerful nanoplatform for oncological applications. This paper first reviews the preparation methods, polymerization mechanisms and physicochemical properties of melanin including natural melanin and chemically synthesized melanin to guide scholars in MNP-based design. Then, recent advances in MNPs especially synthetic polydopamine (PDA) melanin for various medical oncological applications are systematically and thoroughly described, mainly focusing on bioimaging, photothermal therapy (PTT), and drug delivery for tumor therapy. Finally, based on the investigated literature, the current challenges and future directions for clinical translation are reasonably discussed, focusing on the innovative design of MNPs and further elucidation of pharmacokinetics. This paper is a timely and comprehensive and detailed study of the progress of MNPs in tumor therapy, especially PTT, and provides ideas for the design of personalized and customizable oncology nanomedicines to address the heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Melaninas/química , Terapia Fototérmica , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Nanomedicina , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(11): 5231-5239, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331184

RESUMO

Optical tissue phantoms present substantial value for medical imaging and therapeutic applications. We have developed an epidermal tissue phantom to mimic the optical properties of human skin from the ultraviolet to the infrared region, exceeding the breadth of existing studies. An epoxy matrix is combined with melanin-mimicking polydopamine via a cost-effective fabrication strategy. Reflectance and transmittance measurements enable calculation of the wavelength-dependent complex refractive index and absorption coefficient. Results are compared with literature data to establish agreement with a real human epidermis. By analyzing emissive power at a typical skin temperature, the epidermal tissue phantom is shown to accurately mimic the radiative properties of human skin. This simple, multifunctional material represents a promising substitute for human tissue for a variety of medical and bioengineering applications.


Assuntos
Epiderme , Pele , Humanos , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Células Epidérmicas , Engenharia Biomédica , Melaninas
16.
Biol Lett ; 18(11): 20220273, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382375

RESUMO

Scleractinian corals are essential ecosystem engineers, forming the basis of coral reef ecosystems. However, these organisms are in decline globally, in part due to rising disease prevalence. Most corals are dependent on symbiotic interactions with single-celled algae from the family Symbiodiniaceae to meet their nutritional needs, however, suppression of host immunity may be essential to this relationship. To explore immunological consequences of algal symbioses in scleractinian corals, we investigated constitutive immune activity in the facultatively symbiotic coral, Astrangia poculata. We compared immune metrics (melanin synthesis, antioxidant production and antibacterial activity) between coral colonies of varying symbiont density. Symbiont density was positively correlated to both antioxidant activity and melanin concentration, likely as a result of the dual roles of these pathways in immunity and symbiosis regulation. Our results confirm the complex nature of relationships between algal symbiosis and host immunity and highlight the need for nuanced approaches when considering these relationships.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Melaninas , Recifes de Corais
17.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 8(11): 4807-4818, 2022 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222713

RESUMO

Multimodal neural interfaces include combined functions of electrical neuromodulation and synchronic monitoring of neurochemical and physiological signals in one device. The remarkable biocompatibility and electrochemical performance of polystyrene sulfonate-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS) have made it the most recommended conductive polymer neural electrode material. However, PEDOT:PSS formed by electrochemical deposition, called PEDOT/PSS, often need multiple doping to improve structural instability in moisture, resolve the difficulties of functionalization, and overcome the poor cellular affinity. In this work, inspired by the catechol-derived adhesion and semiconductive properties of polydopamine melanin (PDAM), we used electrochemical oxidation polymerization to develop PDAM-doped PEDOT (PEDOT/PDAM) as a bioactive multimodal neural interface that permits robust electrochemical performance, structural stability, analyte-trapping capacity, and neural stem cell affinity. The use of potentiodynamic scans resolved the problem of copolymerizing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and dopamine (DA), enabling the formation of PEDOT/PDAM self-assembled nanodomains with an ideal doping state associated with remarkable current storage and charge transfer capacity. Owing to the richness of hydrogen bond donors/acceptors provided by the hydroxyl groups of PDAM, PEDOT/PDAM presented better electrochemical and mechanical stability than PEDOT/PSS. It has also enabled high sensitivity and selectivity in the electrochemical detection of DA. Different from PEDOT/PSS, which inhibited the survival of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells, PEDOT/PDAM maintained cell proliferation and even promoted cell differentiation into neuronal networks. Finally, PEDOT/PDAM was modified on a commercialized microelectrode array system, which resulted in the reduction of impedance by more than one order of magnitude; this significantly improved the resolution and reduced the noise of neuronal signal recording. With these advantages, PEDOT/PDAM is anticipated to be an efficient bioactive multimodal neural electrode material with potential application to brain-machine interfaces.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Humanos , Melaninas , Polímeros/farmacologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
18.
Skin Res Technol ; 28(6): 827-832, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36210488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although skin color has been suggested to be associated with the risk of some chronic disease, there has been no validated visual skin-color scale, with which subjects can self-report their skin color. Our objective was to develop a visual skin color evaluation scale for self-reporting that would be useful in large-scale epidemiological studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study participants were 99 university Japanese students aged 19-29. We developed a skin color evaluation scale consisting of six colors from light to dark. Participants were asked to choose one color that was the closest to their skin color. Their skin color was measured on the back of the hand and the inner upper arm by an examiner using a narrowband reflective spectrophotometer. Self-reported skin color was compared with the melanin and erythema indices. RESULTS: Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of self-reported color with the melanin index after adjusted for age, temperature, and humidity were moderate but significant at both sites for both men and women. The correlation coefficients with the erythema index were significant only on the back of the hand for men. The higher melanin index was significantly associated with the darker skin color in both sexes for both sites. The erythema index showed such a significant trend only in men and not in women. CONCLUSIONS: The validity of the skin color chart was moderate of melanin among Japanese people. It may be useful for large population studies examining the relationships between skin color and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Pigmentação da Pele , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Autorrelato , Eritema/diagnóstico , Pele , Cor
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(21): 7265-7283, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198867

RESUMO

Since the possibility to biotechnologically produce melanin by Streptomycetes using plant biomass has been so far poorly investigated, Posidonia oceanica egagropili, a marine waste accumulating along the Mediterranean Sea coasts, was explored as a renewable source to enhance extracellular melanin production by Streptomyces roseochromogenes ATCC 13400. Therefore, different amounts of egagropili powder were added to a culture medium containing glucose, malt extract, and yeast extract, and their effect on the melanin biosynthesis was evaluated. A 2.5 g·L-1 supplementation in 120-h shake flask growths at 26 °C, at pH 6.0 and 250 rpm, was found to enhance the melanin production up to 3.94 ± 0.12 g·L-1, a value 7.4-fold higher than the control. Moreover, 2-L batches allowed to reach a concentration of 9.20 ± 0.12 g·L-1 in 96 h with a productivity of 0.098 g·L-1·h-1. Further studies also demonstrated that the melanin production enhancement was due to the synergistic effect of both the lignin carbohydrate complex and the holocellulose components of the egagropili. Finally, the pigment was purified from the broth supernatant by acidic precipitation and reversed-phase chromatography, characterized by UV absorbance and one- and two-dimensional NMR, and also tested for its chemical, antioxidant, and photo-protective properties. KEY POINTS: • S. roseochromogenes ATCC 13400 produces extracellular soluble melanin. • Egagropili added to the growth medium enhances melanin production and productivity. • Both the lignin carbohydrate complex and the holocellulose egagropili components influence the melanin biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Alismatales , Melaninas , Antioxidantes , Lignina , Pós , Alismatales/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Carboidratos , Glucose
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 155: 113771, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271553

RESUMO

Memory storage in the brain is one of the most extensively studied subjects in neuroscience. However, due to the highly complex structure of the memory-related systems in the brain, the mystery remains unsolved. Consolidation is one of the most important parts of the memory process, and one that can be affected by numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neuronal activity has been of particular interest to researchers in terms of the association between sleep, neurodegenerative diseases, and memory consolidation. We used Pmch-Cre animals to investigate the role of MCH neuronal activity in memory consolidation. In order to observe the differences in memory consolidation, we chemogenetically inhibited MCH neurons using the DREADD method and measured hippocampus-dependent memory performance with a novel object recognition test applicable to early memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Our results revealed no significant improvement or worsening with MCH inhibition, suggesting that the role of MCH should now be evaluated in a wider setting.


Assuntos
Hormônios Hipotalâmicos , Animais , Camundongos , Hormônios Hipotalâmicos/fisiologia , Hormônios Hipofisários/fisiologia , Sono REM , Melaninas , Neurônios/fisiologia
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