Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.859
Filtrar
1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 123-139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918216

RESUMO

Melanoma and keratinocyte skin cancer (KSC) are the most common types of cancer in White-skinned populations. Both tumor entities showed increasing incidence rates worldwide but stable or decreasing mortality rates. Rising incidence rates of cutaneous melanoma (CM) and KSC are largely attributed to increasing exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the main causal risk factor for skin cancer.Incidence rates of KSC, comprising of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are much higher than that of melanoma. BCC development is mainly the cause of an intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence, while SCC development is related to chronic, cumulative UV exposure over decades. Although mortality is relatively low, KSC is an increasing problem for health care services causing significant morbidity.Cutaneous melanoma is rapidly increasing in White populations, with an estimated annual increase of around 3-7% over the past decades. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk is associated with intermittent and chronic exposure to sunlight. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 70 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show stabilization in the USA, Australia, and in European countries. In the USA even dropping numbers of death cases were recently reported, probably reflecting efficacy of the new systemic treatments.Among younger cohorts in some populations (e.g., Australia and New Zealand,), stabilizing or declining incidence rates of CM are observed, potentially caused by primary prevention campaigns aimed at reducing UV exposure. In contrast, incidence rates of CM are still rising in most European countries and in the USA. Ongoing trends towards thinner melanoma are largely ascribed to earlier detection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 155-170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918218

RESUMO

To shed further light on the ongoing debate whether sunbed use may increase melanoma risk, we have critically assessed the scientific literature that is at present available, focussing on a meta-analysis that we published recently. Our literature search identified several meta-analyses that report a weak association for ever-exposure to UV radiation from a solarium with melanoma risk. However, the quality of studies included in these meta-analyses and the resulting evidence levels and grades of recommendation were very low due to the lack of interventional trials and because of severe limitations of many of the observational studies. The results of cohort and case-control studies published until today do not prove causality, not even by the Hill criteria. The overall quality of these observational studies and the resulting evidence levels are low due to severe limitations (including unobserved or unrecorded confounding), which leads to bias. It must be recognized that in the majority of studies, published to date, many of the confounding factors, including sun exposure, sunburns and skin type, have not been adequately and systematically recorded and adjusted for. We conclude that the many limitations of the individual studies and the resulting low levels of evidence and grades of recommendation do at present not allow postulation of a causal relationship between solarium use and melanoma risk. At present, there is no convincing evidence that moderate/responsible solarium use increases melanoma risk.


Assuntos
Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Banho de Sol , Humanos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Queimadura Solar/epidemiologia
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 355-379, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918228

RESUMO

Incidence rates of nonmelanoma skin cancer and melanoma have been on the rise in the USA for the past 25 years. UV radiation (UVR) exposure remains the most preventable environmental risk factor for these cancers. Aside from sun avoidance, sunscreens continue to provide the best alternative protection. UVR directly damages DNA and causes indirect cellular damage through the creation of reactive oxygen species, the sum of which leads to cutaneous immunosuppression and a tumorigenic milieu. The current generation of sunscreens protect from UVR through two main mechanisms: absorption and deflection. In the USA, the Food and Drug Association (FDA) regulates sunscreen products which are considered over-the-counter drugs. With the release of new FDA testing and labeling requirements in 2011 and the enactment of the Sunscreen Innovation Act in 2014, sunscreen manufacturers are now required to evaluate their products not only on the sun protection factor (SPF) but also on broad-spectrum UVA protection. The American Academy of Dermatology Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics have provided specific recommendations for proper sun protection and sunscreen usage with the continual goal of increasing public awareness and compliance with appropriate sun protective measures. Antioxidants, photolyases, and plant polyphenols remain an interesting avenue of research as additives to sunscreens or stand-alone topical or oral products that appear to modulate the immunosuppressive effects of UVR on the skin. Additionally, although UVR induces endogenous cutaneous production of vitamin D, its damaging effects overshadow this positive benefit, especially in light of the ease of achieving recommended amounts of vitamin D through diet and supplementation.


Assuntos
Protetores Solares/normas , Humanos , Incidência , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/química , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
4.
Harefuah ; 159(8): 545-549, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, whose prevalence has been increasing in recent decades. Early diagnosis allows removal of the tumor prior to the metastatic stage and may lead to a complete recovery. OBJECTIVES: To compare melanoma incidence among different epidemiological groups in northern Israel, and to assess the impact of migration on the increase in incidence of the disease. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of the medical records of all patients diagnosed with melanoma and treated in the Plastic Surgery Department at the Rambam Health Care Campus in 2016. Demographic data of 130 patients and tumor characteristics were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: European and American immigrants were found to carry an increased risk for melanoma compared to African and Asian immigrants. Increased melanoma risk was also found among a large subset of European immigrants from the former Soviet Union. This sub-group accounted for 32% of study group patients, while they only comprise 9% of the population (p <0.05). Most melanoma tumors in this sub-group were found in upper and lower extremities (60%). Disease was diagnosed at a younger age compared to the other European immigrants (p <0.05), with a trend towards a more advanced disease than the rest of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings imply an increased melanoma risk in immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Raising awareness of this population to preventative measures and the importance of early diagnosis may reduce morbidity and mortality caused by the disease. Further research is needed to determine whether routine screening tests should be applied to this population.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , U.R.S.S./epidemiologia
5.
Saudi Med J ; 41(7): 709-714, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer for patients attended King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We are also assessing the most common category of skin cancer to be encountered among those patients. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective study including all patients (Saudi and non-Saudi) who attended King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) at the period of (2007-2018). Data were collected from archives of Pathology Department at KKUH and categorized into: melanoma skin cancer (MSC), non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), which included: basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), pre-neoplastic lesions, and non-neoplastic skin lesions. Results: A total of 111 patients were reported to have skin cancer out of 9828 cases, which had other skin pathology. Majority of cases were basal cell carcinoma with a total number of 76 (68.5%) of all cases. 18 patients (16.2%) were diagnosed with MSC. The remaining 17 patients (15.3%) were diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Skin cancer prevalence and incidence is increasing worldwide. In our study, BCC was the most common type of skin cancer to be reported in our institute, which is similar to the majority of other international studies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3411-3415, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is the least common subtype of cutaneous melanoma and typically occurs on the palms, soles, and nails. Tumor characteristics and disease severity in the US population are not well understood. Our aim was to analyze the characteristics of ALM of the extremities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We queried the National Cancer Database to identify patients with the diagnosis of ALM and common malignant melanoma located in the extremities (CMME). We compared demographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics between patients with ALM and those with CMME. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: We identified 5,203 patients with ALM and 118,485 with CMME. When compared with patients with CMME, those with ALM were more likely to be older than 80. years at diagnosis [odds ratio (OR)=2.85, 95% confidence intervaI (CI)=2.12-3.82; p<0.001], have stage III disease (OR=4.22, 95% CI=1.47-12.16; p=0.01), and have ulceration (OR=1.52, 95% CI=1.33-1.74; p<0.001). Moreover, patients with ALM were less likely to have a mitotic count of 1/mm2 or greater (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.48-0.67; p<0.001). No statistical difference was found for sex, lymph node involvement, regression, and use of surgery, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy between groups. CONCLUSION: Age, disease stage, ulceration, and mitotic count are independent factors associated with ALM. Knowledge of the disease characteristics may allow for better diagnosis and understanding of disease pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Pé/patologia , Mãos/patologia , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(2): 157-164, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125796

RESUMO

Antecedentes: los melanomas en cabeza y cuello (MCC) han sido asociados con factores pronósticos diferentes de aquellos en otras localizaciones. Objetivo: comparar características demográficas, clínicas y resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de pacientes con MCC y pacientes con melanomas en tronco y extremidades (MTE). Material y métodos: se llevó a cabo una revisión retrospectiva de las historias clínicas de pacientes operados por melanoma entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2017. Quince pacientes (22,3%) tuvieron MCC y 52 (77,7%) MTE. Resultados: ambos grupos tuvieron edad similar (63,8 ± 21,1 versus 58,5 ± 16), pero los MCC mostraron una tendencia con predominio masculino (80% versus 61,3%). Los MCC tuvieron menor espesor tumoral que los MTE (2,07 versus 5,5 mm) y mayor porcentaje de melanoma in situ, 5 (33,3%) versus 8 (15,3%), pero requirieron vaciamientos ganglionares más a menudo (33% versus 25%) así como reconstrucción del defecto primario con colgajos locales y miocutáneos. Durante el seguimiento, en el grupo de MCC, dos pacientes desarrollaron recidivas locales que fueron extirpadas, y otros tres desarrollaron metástasis a distancia en pulmón, intestino delgado y abdomen y fallecieron por la enfermedad; en el grupo de MTE un paciente tuvo recidiva local y cinco fallecieron de metástasis sistémicas. El tamaño de la muestra no permitió aplicar pruebas de significación entre las diferencias encontradas. Conclusión: los MCC se presentan en un amplio rango de edad y estadios, y tuvieron algunas diferencias clínicas con el MTE. Los defectos producidos por la extirpación de la lesión primaria requieren procedimientos reconstructivos más complejos la mayoría de las veces y se aconseja un abordaje multidisciplinario.


Background: Head and neck melanomas (HNMs) have been associated with prognostic factors different from those on other locations. Objective: The goal of the present study was to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics and the outcomes of surgical treatment between patients with HNM and those with trunk and extremity melanoma (TEM). Material and methods: The clinical records of patients undergoing surgery for melanoma between October 2014 and April 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen patients (22.3%) had HNM and 52 (77.7) presented TEM. Results: There were no differences in age between both groups (63.8 ± 21.1 versus 58.5 ± 16), but there was a trend toward higher percentage of men in the HNM group (80% versus 61.3%). Patients with HNM had lower tumor thickness than those with TEM (2.07 versus 5.5 mm), higher incidence of melanoma in situ [5 (33.3%) versus 8 (15.3%)]; lymph node resection was more common (33% versus 25%) as well as reconstruction of the primary defect with local and musculocutaneous flaps. During follow-up, two patients in the HNM group developed local recurrences that were excised and three presented distant metastases in the lung, small bowel and abdomen and finally died due to the disease. In the TEM group, one patient had local recurrence and five died due to systemic metastases. The sample size was not sufficient to assess statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Head and neck melanomas occur in a wide age range and stages and has some clinical differences with TEM. The defects produced after the excision of the primary lesion often require more complex procedures and should be managed with a multidisciplinary approach.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Extremidades/patologia , Tronco/patologia , Margens de Excisão , Melanoma/cirurgia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497148

RESUMO

Second primary breast cancer (SPBC) is becoming one of the major obstacles to breast cancer (BC) control. This study was aimed to determine the trend of SPBC incidence over time and the risk of developing SPBC in site-specific primary cancer survivors in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 13 registry (1992-2015) was used to identify SPBC patients with previous malignancies. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was computed to compare the incidence rates of the observed cases of SPBC in cancer survivors over the expected cases in the general population. Elevated risk of SPBC was observed in women with previous BC (SIR = 1.74) or thyroid cancer (SIR = 1.17). Women with initial skin melanoma in older age (≥50 years) (SIR = 1.11), or White race (SIR = 1.11) presented an elevated incidence of SPBC than the general female population. Besides, Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women with cancer of corpus uteri, ovary, bladder, or kidney were prone to developing SPBC when compared with the general population, with SIRs of 1.61, 1.35, 1.48, and 1.70, respectively. Male BC patients showed profound risk of developing SPBC (SIR = 34.86). Male leukemia patients also presented elevated risk of developing SPBC (SIR = 2.06). Our study suggests significant increase of SPBC in both sexes in the United States. Elevated risk of SPBC exists in survivors with primary BC, female thyroid cancer, male leukemia, and API female cancer patients with primary genitourinary cancer. Our study is helpful in developing strategies for BC control and prevention on specific first primary cancer survivors with an elevated risk of SPBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/epidemiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Programa de SEER , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 152: 102989, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485529

RESUMO

This study reviews the relevant epidemiological studies associating cutaneous melanoma and breast carcinomas and provides an overview of the possible genetic, biological and bias factors that underpin this relationship. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for primary cutaneous melanoma after breast carcinoma ranged from 1.16 to 5.13 and ranged from 1.03 to 4.10 for primary breast carcinoma after cutaneous melanoma. Epidemiological studies highlight age, gender and use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy as potential risk factors for second primary cancers (SPCs). Mutations in BRCA2, CDKN2A, CDK4 and BAP1 may partly underlie any SPC association. The impact of socio-cultural factors and surveillance bias may be attributed to the findings of SPC partially or entirely. In conclusion, this study has highlighted the association between breast carcinoma and melanoma and identified various factors for further research and the optimised management of patients with both cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Melanoma , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3325-3331, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: A variety of self-tests addressing individual skin cancer risk are available online. These are generally based on self-estimated measures, such as self-rated skin sensitivity to sun exposure, affecting its reliability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of objective variables, by means of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity phototesting and nevi count, could be of contributory value for the composition of a comprehensive risk score for skin cancer, and whether the use of such a score could contribute to change of behavior in the sun after assessment of individual risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A sample of 70 voluntary participants, all university students, were recruited for the study. The participants rated their sun exposure habits by filling out the Sun Exposure and Protection Index (SEPI) questionnaire, and their skin UV-sensitivity was decided both by self-estimation, using Fitzpatricks's skin type scale, and objectively, by the performance of a UV-sensitivity phototest. Finally, the number of pigmented nevi on the lower arm was counted both by the participants themselves and by a trained observer. A cumulated skin cancer risk score was calculated on the basis on these three variables (sun habits, UV-sensitivity and nevi count), and the outcome compared whether based on the participants' self-assessments or on the objective assessment. The individual risk score, based on objective measures, along with a tailored sun protection advice, was communicated to the participants, and after three weeks they once again filled-out the SEPI part addressing propensity to increase sun protection. RESULTS: The results showed good correlation between the self-assessed and trained observer performed nevi count, but poor agreement between self-estimated and objectively measured skin UV-sensitivity. For the cumulative risk score, the self-performed score was on average slightly lower than its reference, but no systematic difference could be observed. At follow-up, high-risk individuals showed a significant decrease in total SEPI score (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Objective assessment of nevi count and skin UV-sensitivity might be of significant value when estimating individual skin cancer risk, in order to communicate tailored sun protection advice.


Assuntos
Melanoma/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Autoavaliação , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(6): 537-547, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350689

RESUMO

We consider disease mapping of early- and late-stage cancer, in order to identify and monitor inequalities in early detection. Our method is demonstrated by mapping cancer incidence at high geographical resolution using data on 10,302 cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) cases within the 3.7 million population of South-West Sweden. The cases were geocoded into small-areas, each with a population size between 600 and 2600 and accessible socio-demographic data. Using the disease mapping application Rapid Inquiry Facility (RIF) 4.0, we produced regional maps to visualise spatial variations in stage I, II and III-IV CMM incidences, complemented by local maps to explore the variations within two urban areas. Pronounced spatial disparities in stage I CMM incidence were revealed by the regional and local maps. Stage I CMM incidence was markedly higher in wealthier small-areas, in particular within each urban area. A twofold higher stage I incidence was observed, on average, in the wealthiest small-areas (upper quintile) than in the poorest small-areas (lower quintile). We identified in the regional map of stage III-IV CMM two clusters of higher or lower than expected late-stage incidences which were quite distinct from those identified for stage I. In conclusion, our analysis of CMM incidences supported the use of this method of cancer stage incidence mapping for revealing geographical and socio-demographic disparities in cancer detection.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 26(5): 1289-1294, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423324

RESUMO

Outbreak of the new type coronavirus infection, known as coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19), has begun in December 2019, in Wuhan, China. As of today, 3 April 2020, 972,640 people affected and 50,325 people died from Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2. There is not any standard treatment for coronavirus infection 2019; however, there are promising data for hydroxychloroquine and some anti-retroviral drugs. Programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PDL-1) pathway is an important target for the cancer immunotherapy. However, there is a robust pre-clinical and clinical data regarding inhibitor effect of this pathway on the acute or chronic viral infections. Thus, blockade of this pathway may lead to an anti-viral effect and decrease viral load. Here, we report the clinical course of coronavirus infection 2019 infection of a patient in whom older aged, having multiple co-morbidities, and taking nivolumab for metastatic malignant melanoma. In contrast to her older age, comorbidities, and cancer diagnosis, she was in a good condition, and there was also no pneumonia finding. We think that this good clinical course of coronavirus infection 2019 infection may be related to blockade of PD-1/PDL-1 pathway with nivolumab. It is impossible to say that blockade of PD-1/PDL-1pathway is a treatment option for COVID-19; however, we want to share our experience.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Melanoma , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Oseltamivir/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/imunologia , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/epidemiologia , Nivolumabe/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(8): 787-794, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458137

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between smoking and the risk of skin cancers has been studied without reaching consistent findings. This study aims to assess this association through an updated meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We retrieved cohort studies that investigated the temporal association between smoking and the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and malignant melanoma (MM). Pooled relative risks (RRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of the included articles were calculated for current, former, and heavy smoking compared with never smoking. Publication bias was detected using the Egger's regression. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies, published between 1990 and 2018, were included. Current smoking was associated with a higher risk of SCC (pooled RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.15, 1.52) but with a lower risk of BCC (pooled RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.96) and MM (pooled RR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.64, 0.82). No publication bias was detected, and no single study had a substantial impact on the pooled results. Similar results were detected for heavy smoking, while former smoking was not associated with the risk of skin cancer. CONCLUSION: Current smoking and heavy smoking were associated with a higher risk of SCC but a decreased risk of BCC and MM, while former smoking was not associated with skin cancer risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Surg Res ; 254: 147-153, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the past 30 y, the incidence rate of malignant melanoma has risen steadily. Ultraviolet radiation exposure has been identified as the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for melanoma. Here, next-generation sequencing was used to analyze the relationship between multiple sun exposure factors and select cancer-related genes to determine the relationship of sun exposure on the molecular profiles of melanomas. METHODS: The collection and analysis of study samples were approved by the institutional review board. The patient cohort consisted of 173 patients whose melanoma tissue samples underwent next-generation sequencing analysis for somatic mutations of 50 cancer-related genes. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Patients with a history of blistering sunburn had an absolute mutation incidence of 1.67 mutations per patient, compared with patients without a history of blistering sunburn, who had an absolute mutation incidence of 1.16 mutations per patient (P = 0.028). A BRAF mutation was found in more tumors of patients who reported visiting a tanning salon (57.14%), compared with those who had not (18.75%; P = 0.0463). Patients with a previous history of skin cancer were more likely to have a CDKN2A mutation (20.83%), compared with those without a previous history of skin cancer (7.76%; P = 0.0292). CONCLUSIONS: The trends seen in the molecular profiles of melanomas with respect to various sun exposure factors suggest that sun exposure impacts genetic makeup. Considering the increase in absolute mutation incidence in patients with a history of blistering sunburn suggests that additional genes may contribute to the pathology of malignancy. Future studies will use the unique molecular profiles of melanomas to personalize patient treatments.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Melanoma/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Banho de Sol/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimadura Solar/genética , Curtume , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 1931-1942, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RhoA and its downstream effectors Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases (ROCK) 1 and 2 are central controllers of cytoskeleton dynamics, and therefore influence cell shape, adhesion and migration. Since modulation of these processes holds promise for an effective anticancer strategy, effects of ROCK inhibition have been evaluated in a number of malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, ROCK1 and ROCK2 expression was semi-quantitatively assessed in 129 patient-derived primary melanomas. RESULTS: There was a striking predilection for low melanocytic expression of both kinases in thick, ulcerated and mitogenic tumors, as well as in nodular histological type. ROCK1 and -2 expression in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was preferentially down-regulated in advanced and aggressive tumors. Moreover, diminished ROCK2 reactivity in melanoma cells and TILs was associated with shorter melanoma-specific and recurrence-free survival. CONCLUSION: This is the first analysis of ROCK1 and -2 protein expression in clinical melanoma samples and the results indicated the suppression of ROCK signaling in melanocytes of aggressive and late-stage tumors. Functional models that more accurately represent the clinical setting are necessary to dissect the role of ROCK1 and -2 in melanoma. Additionally, our study indicates that ROCK activity in TILs may be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer, and thus merits further investigations.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Quinases Associadas a rho/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Public Health ; 110(5): 731-733, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191523

RESUMO

Objectives. To determine the effect of new therapies and trends toward reduced mortality rates of melanoma.Methods. We reviewed melanoma incidence and mortality among Whites (the group most affected by melanoma) in 9 US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry areas that recorded data between 1986 and 2016.Results. From 1986 to 2013, overall mortality rates increased by 7.5%. Beginning in 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved 10 new treatments for metastatic melanoma. From 2013 to 2016, overall mortality decreased by 17.9% (annual percent change [APC] = -6.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -8.7%, -3.7%) with sharp declines among men aged 50 years or older (APC = -8.3%; 95% CI = -12.2%, -4.1%) starting in 2014. This recent, multiyear decline is the largest and most sustained improvement in melanoma mortality ever observed and is unprecedented in cancer medicine.Conclusions. The introduction of new therapies for metastatic melanoma was associated with a significant reduction in population-level mortality. Future research should focus on developing even more effective treatments, identifying biomarkers to select patients most likely to benefit, and renewing emphasis on public health approaches to reduce the number of patients with advanced disease.


Assuntos
Melanoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aprovação de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programa de SEER , Fatores Sexuais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA