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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955445

RESUMO

Zinc levels in serum and/or tissue are reported to be altered in melanoma with unknown effects on melanoma development and biology. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute chelation of free intracellular zinc pools in melanoma cell lines Bowes and A375, as well as selected melanoma tissue explants with high or low intracellular free zinc. Zinc chelating agent TPEN at the concentration of 25 µM was employed during 48 h, which significantly reduced intracellular free zinc while decreasing melanoma cell proliferation, inducing G1/S arrest and cell damage leading to mitochondrial, caspase-dependent apoptosis. Chelation of free zinc was also associated with increased generation of superoxide in cell lines but not marked lysosomal membrane damage. Conversely, melanoma explant cultures mostly displayed time-dependent loss of lysosomal membrane integrity in the presence of slowly growing superoxide levels. Loss of free zinc-dependent p53 activity was similarly disparate in individual melanoma models. Surviving melanoma cells were arrested in the cell cycle, and varying proportions of them exhibited features characteristic of premature senescence, which increased in time despite zinc reloading. The present results show that melanoma cells with varying free zinc levels respond to its acute loss in a number of individual ways, reflecting activated mechanisms including oxidative stress, lysosomal damage, and p53 activity leading to heterogenous outcomes including cell death, transient, and/or permanent cell cycle arrest and premature senescence.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Zinco , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Zinco/farmacologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955600

RESUMO

Sesamol is a compound reported to have anti-melanogenesis and anti-melanoma actions. Sesamol, however, has low intracellular drug concentration and fast excretion, which can limit its benefits in the clinic. To overcome this drawback and increase intracellular delivery of sesamol into the target melanoma, research has focused on L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1)-mediated prodrug delivery into melanoma cells. The sesamol prodrug was designed by conjugating sesamol with L-phenylalanine at the para position with a carbamate bond. LAT1 targeting was evaluated vis-à-vis a competitive [14C]-leucine uptake inhibition. The sesamol prodrug has a higher [14C]-leucine uptake inhibition than sesamol in human LAT1-transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, the sesamol prodrug was taken up by LAT1-mediated transport into SK-MEL-2 cells more effectively than sesamol. The sesamol prodrug underwent complete hydrolysis, releasing the active sesamol at 72 h, which significantly exerted its cytotoxicity (IC50 of 29.3 µM) against SK-MEL-cells more than sesamol alone. Taken together, the strategy for LAT1-mediated prodrug delivery has utility for the selective uptake of sesamol, thereby increasing its intracellular concentration and antiproliferation activity, targeting melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells that overexpress the LAT1 protein. The sesamol prodrug thus warrants further evaluation in an in vivo model.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Pró-Fármacos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Benzodioxóis , Transporte Biológico , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Transportador 1 de Aminoácidos Neutros Grandes/metabolismo , Leucina/metabolismo , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Fenóis , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Síndrome
3.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(8): 692, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941108

RESUMO

Metastatic malignant melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer, and it is characterised by its high resistance to apoptosis. The main melanoma driving mutations are part of ERK pathway, with BRAF mutations being the most frequent ones, followed by NRAS, NF1 and MEK mutations. Increasing evidence shows that the MST2/Hippo pathway is also deregulated in melanoma. While mutations are rare, MST2/Hippo pathway core proteins expression levels are often dysregulated in melanoma. The expression of the tumour suppressor RASSF1A, a bona fide activator of the MST2 pathway, is silenced by promoter methylation in over half of melanomas and correlates with poor prognosis. Here, using mass spectrometry-based interaction proteomics we identified the Second Mitochondria-derived Activator of Caspases (SMAC) as a novel LATS1 interactor. We show that RASSF1A-dependent activation of the MST2 pathway promotes LATS1-SMAC interaction and negatively regulates the antiapoptotic signal mediated by the members of the IAP family. Moreover, proteomic experiments identified a common cluster of apoptotic regulators that bind to SMAC and LATS1. Mechanistic analysis shows that the LATS1-SMAC complex promotes XIAP ubiquitination and its subsequent degradation which ultimately results in apoptosis. Importantly, we show that the oncogenic BRAFV600E mutant prevents the proapoptotic signal mediated by the LATS1-SMAC complex while treatment of melanoma cell lines with BRAF inhibitors promotes the formation of this complex, indicating that inhibition of the LATS1-SMAC might be necessary for BRAFV600E-driven melanoma. Finally, we show that LATS1-SMAC interaction is regulated by the SMAC mimetic Birinapant, which requires C-IAP1 inhibition and the degradation of XIAP, suggesting that the MST2 pathway is part of the mechanism of action of Birinapant. Overall, the current work shows that SMAC-dependent apoptosis is regulated by the LATS1 tumour suppressor and supports the idea that LATS1 is a signalling hub that regulates the crosstalk between the MST2 pathway, the apoptotic network and the ERK pathway.


Assuntos
Caspases , Melanoma , Apoptose , Caspases/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Hippo , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteômica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinase 3/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886997

RESUMO

Patients with Parkinson's disease are prone to a higher incidence of melanoma. Amantadine (an anti-Parkinson drug) possesses the antiproliferative potential that can be favorable when combined with other chemotherapeutics. Cisplatin (CDDP) and mitoxantrone (MTO) are drugs used in melanoma chemotherapy, but they have many side effects. (1) Clinical observations revealed a high incidence of malignant melanoma in patients with Parkinson's disease. Amantadine as an anti-Parkinson drug alleviates symptoms of Parkinson's disease and theoretically, it should have anti-melanoma properties. (2) To characterize the interaction profile for combinations of amantadine with CDDP and MTO in four human melanoma cell lines (A375, SK-MEL 28, FM55P and FM55M2), type I isobolographic analysis was used in the MTT test. (3) Amantadine produces the anti-proliferative effects in various melanoma cell lines. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that amantadine induced apoptosis and G1/S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blotting analysis showed that amantadine markedly decreased cyclin-D1 protein levels and increased p21 levels. Additionally, amantadine significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The combined application of amantadine with CDDP at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 exerted an additive interaction in the four studied cell lines in the MTT test. In contrast, the combination of amantadine with MTO (ratio of 1:1) produced synergistic interaction in the FM55M2 cell line in the MTT (* p < 0.05). The combination of amantadine with MTO was also additive in the remaining tested cell lines (A375, FM55P and SK-MEL28) in the MTT test. (4) Amantadine combined with MTO exerted the most desirable synergistic interaction, as assessed isobolographically. Additionally, the exposure of melanoma cell lines to amantadine in combination with CDDP or MTO augmented the induction of apoptosis mediated by amantadine alone.


Assuntos
Citostáticos , Melanoma , Doença de Parkinson , Amantadina/farmacologia , Amantadina/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Citostáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805902

RESUMO

Melanoma is a relatively rare disease worldwide; nevertheless, it has a great relevance in some countries, such as in Europe. In order to shed some light upon the transcriptional profile of skin melanoma, we compared the gene expression of six independent tumours (all progressed towards metastatic disease and with wild type BRAF) to the expression profile of non-dysplastic melanocytes (considered as a healthy control) in a pilot study. Paraffin-embedded samples were manually micro-dissected to obtain enriched samples, and then, RNA was extracted and analysed through a microarray-based approach. An exhaustive bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed transcripts between the two groups, as well as enriched functional terms. Overall, 50 up- and 19 downregulated transcripts were found to be significantly changed in the tumour compared to the control tissue. Among the upregulated transcripts, the majority belonged to the immune response group and to the proteasome, while most of the downregulated genes were related to cytosolic ribosomes. A Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), along with the RNA-Seq data retrieved from the TCGA/GTEx databases, confirmed the general trend of downregulation affecting cytoribosome proteins. In contrast, transcripts coding for mitoribosome proteins showed the opposite trend.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/enzimologia , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Projetos Piloto , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo
6.
J Immunol ; 209(3): 621-628, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831019

RESUMO

We had shown previously that the protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit PPP2R2D suppresses IL-2 production, and PPP2R2D deficiency in T cells potentiates the suppressive function of regulatory T (Treg) cells and alleviates imiquimod-induced lupus-like pathology. In this study, in a melanoma xenograft model, we noted that the tumor grew in larger sizes in mice lacking PPP2R2D in T cells (LckCreR2Dfl/fl) compared with wild type (R2Dfl/fl) mice. The numbers of intratumoral T cells in LckCreR2Dfl/fl mice were reduced compared with R2Dfl/fl mice, and they expressed a PD-1+CD3+CD44+ exhaustion phenotype. In vitro experiments confirmed that the chromatin of exhaustion markers PD-1, LAG3, TIM3, and CTLA4 remained open in LckCreR2Dfl/fl CD4 T conventional compared with R2Dfl/fl T conventional cells. Moreover, the percentage of Treg cells (CD3+CD4+Foxp3+CD25hi) was significantly increased in the xenografted tumor of LckCreR2Dfl/fl mice compared with R2Dfl/fl mice probably because of the increase in the percentage of IL-2-producing LckCreR2Dfl/fl T cells. Moreover, using adoptive T cell transfer in mice xenografted with melanoma, we demonstrated that PPP2R2D deficiency in T cells enhanced the inhibitory effect of Treg cells in antitumor immunity. At the translational level, analysis of publicly available data from 418 patients with melanoma revealed that PPP2R2D expression levels correlated positively with tumor-infiltration level of CD4 and CD8 T cells. The data demonstrate that PPP2R2D is a negative regulator of immune checkpoint receptors, and its absence exacerbates effector T cell exhaustion and promotes Treg cell expansion. We conclude that PPP2R2D protects against melanoma growth, and PPP2R2D-promoting regimens can have therapeutic value in patients with melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo
7.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 8723725, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35845132

RESUMO

Skp2 participates in the regulation of cell growth cycle and promotes the growth of tumor cells. It was speculated that miR-590-5p could regulate the expression of Skp2 and have therapeutic effects on malignant melanin. In this study, the expression of Skp2 was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot (WB), and the targeted binding between miR-590-5p and Skp2 was verified by dual luciferase reporting assay. Subsequently, cell proliferation activity was detected by CCK8, cell invasion was detected by Transwell, and cell apoptosis was detected by mitochondrial membrane potential assay. The results indicate that Skp2 is highly expressed in melanoma cells and inhibits the proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. However, miR-590-5p can bind to Skp2 in a targeted manner. miR-590-5p is underexpressed in melanoma cells, and its overexpression can inhibit Skp2 expression and proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. Our results showed that miR-590-5p could inhibit melanoma cell development by targeting Skp2. This study provides more therapeutic targets for the treatment of melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma , MicroRNAs , Proteínas Quinases Associadas a Fase S/metabolismo , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
8.
BMC Immunol ; 23(1): 35, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-7 signaling through CD127 is impaired in lymphocytes in cancers and chronic infections, resulting in CD8+ T cell exhaustion. The mechanisms underlying CD8+ T cell responses to IL-7 in melanoma remain not completely elucidated. We previously showed reduced IL-7 level in melanoma patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-7 regulation on CD127 expression and CD8+ T cell responses in melanoma. METHODS: Healthy controls and primary cutaneous melanoma patients were enrolled. Membrane-bound CD127 (mCD127) expression on CD8+ T cells was determined by flow cytometry. Soluble CD127 (sCD127) protein level was measured by ELISA. Total CD127 and sCD127 mRNA level was measured by real-time PCR. CD8+ T cells were stimulated with recombinant human IL-7, along with signaling pathway inhibitors. CD8+ T cells were co-cultured with melanoma cell line, and the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells was assessed by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase expression. RESULTS: Plasma sCD127 was lower in melanoma patients compared with controls. The percentage of CD8+ T cells expressing mCD127 was higher, while sCD127 mRNA level was lower in peripheral and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells from melanoma patients. There was no significant difference of total CD127 mRNA expression in CD8+ T cells between groups. IL-7 stimulation enhanced total CD127 and sCD127 mRNA expression and sCD127 release by CD8+ T cells. However, mCD127 mRNA expression on CD8+ T cells was not affected. This process was mainly mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. CD8+ T cells from melanoma patients exhibited decreased cytotoxicity. IL-7 stimulation promoted CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, while inhibition of PI3K dampened IL-7-induced elevation of CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: The current data suggested that insufficient IL-7 secretion might contribute to CD8+ T cell exhaustion and CD127 dysregulation in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-7/metabolismo , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Humanos , Interleucina-7/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886983

RESUMO

Melanoma is a highly metastatic and rapidly progressing cancer, a leading cause of mortality among skin cancers. The melanoma microenvironment, formed from the activity of malignant cells on the extracellular matrix and the recruitment of immune cells, plays an active role in the development of drug resistance and tumor recurrence, which are clinical challenges in cancer treatment. These tumoral metabolic processes are affected by proteins, including Galectin-3 (Gal-3), which is extensively involved in cancer development. Previously, we characterized a partially methylated mannogalactan (MG-Pe) with antimelanoma activities. In vivo models of melanoma were used to observe MG-Pe effects in survival, spontaneous, and experimental metastases and in tissue oxidative stress. Analytical assays for the molecular interaction of MG-Pe and Gal-3 were performed using a quartz crystal microbalance, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle tensiometer. MG-Pe exhibits an additive effect when administered together with the chemotherapeutic agent dacarbazine, leading to increased survival of treated mice, metastases reduction, and the modulation of oxidative stress. MG-Pe binds to galectin-3. Furthermore, MG-Pe antitumor effects were substantially reduced in Gal-3/KO mice. Our results showed that the novel Gal-3 ligand, MG-Pe, has both antitumor and antimetastatic effects, alone or in combination with chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Galectina 3 , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Animais , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dacarbazina/metabolismo , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Galectina 3/farmacologia , Galectina 3/uso terapêutico , Ligantes , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805888

RESUMO

Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) play a critical role in dendritic cells (DCs) ability to trigger a specific and efficient adaptive immune response for different physiological and pathological scenarios. We have previously identified constitutive DAMPs (HMGB1 and Calreticulin) as well as new putative inducible DAMPs such as Haptoglobin (HP), from a therapeutically used heat shock-conditioned melanoma cell lysate (called TRIMEL). Remarkably, HP was shown to be the most abundant protein in the proteomic profile of heat shock-conditioned TRIMEL samples. However, its relative contribution to the observed DCs phenotype has not been fully elucidated. Human DCs were generated from monocytes isolated from PBMC of melanoma patients and healthy donors. DC lineage was induced with rhIL-4 and rhGM-CSF. After additional stimulation with HP, the proteome of these HP-stimulated cells was characterized. In addition, DCs were phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry for canonical maturation markers and cytokine production. Finally, in vitro transmigration capacity was assessed using Transwell plates. Our results showed that the stimulation with HP was associated with the presence of exclusive and higher relative abundance of specific immune-; energy production-; lipid biosynthesis-; and DAMPs-related proteins. Importantly, HP stimulation enhanced the expression of specific DC maturation markers and pro-inflammatory and Th1-associated cytokines, and an in vitro transmigration of primary human DCs. Taken together, these data suggest that HP can be considered as a new inducible DAMP with an important role in in vitro DC activation for cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Monócitos , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteômica
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805905

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) can increase the efficacy of radiation therapy by sensitising tumor cells to radiation damage. When used in combination with radiation, AuNPs enhance the rate of cell killing; hence, they may be of great value in radiotherapy. This study assessed the effects of radiation and AuNPs on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cancer cells as an adjunct therapeutic target in addition to the DNA of the cell. Mitochondria are considered one of the primary sources of cellular ROS. High levels of ROS can result in an intracellular state of oxidative stress, leading to permanent cell damage. In this study, human melanoma and prostate cancer cell lines, with and without AuNPs, were irradiated with 6-Megavolt X-rays at doses of 0-8 Gy. Indicators of mitochondrial stress were quantified using two techniques, and were found to be significantly increased by the inclusion of AuNPs in both cell lines. Radiobiological damage to mitochondria was quantified via increased ROS activity. The ROS production by mitochondria in cells was enhanced by the inclusion of AuNPs, peaking at ~4 Gy and then decreasing at higher doses. This increased mitochondrial stress may lead to more effectively kill of AuNP-treated cells, further enhancing the applicability of functionally-guided nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ouro/metabolismo , Ouro/farmacologia , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Radiação Ionizante , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806253

RESUMO

Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural compound isolated from licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), has exhibited anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects in vitro. Dipotassium glycyrrhizinate (DPG), a dipotassium salt of GA, also has shown an anti-tumor effect on glioblastoma cell lines, U87MG and T98G. The study investigated the DPG effects in the melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-28). MTT assay demonstrated that the viability of the cells was significantly decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner after DPG (IC50 = 36 mM; 24 h). DNA fragmentation suggested that DPG (IC50) induced cellular apoptosis, which was confirmed by a significant number of TUNEL-positive cells (p-value = 0.048) and by PARP-1 [0.55 vs. 1.02 arbitrary units (AUs), p-value = 0.001], BAX (1.91 vs. 1.05 AUs, p-value = 0.09), and BCL-2 (0.51 vs. 1.07 AUs, p-value = 0.0018) mRNA compared to control cells. The proliferation and wound-healing assays showed an anti-proliferative effect on DPG-IC50-treated cells, also indicating an inhibitory effect on cell migration (p-values < 0.001). Moreover, it was observed that DPG promoted a 100% reduction in melanospheres formation (p-value = 0.008). Our previous microRNAs (miRs) global analysis has revealed that DPG might increase miR-4443 and miR-3620 expression levels. Thus, qPCR showed that after DPG treatment, SK-MEL-28 cells presented significantly high miR-4443 (1.77 vs. 1.04 AUs, p-value = 0.02) and miR-3620 (2.30 vs. 1.00 AUs, p-value = 0.01) expression compared to control cells, which are predicted to target the NF-kB, CD209 and TNC genes, respectively. Both genes are responsible for cell attachment and migration, and qPCR revealed significantly decreased CD209 (1.01 vs. 0.54 AUs, p-value = 0.018) and TNC (1.00 vs. 0.31 AUs, p-value = 2.38 × 10-6) mRNA expression levels after DPG compared to untreated cells. Furthermore, the migration of SK-MEL-28 cells stimulated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was attenuated by adding DPG by wound-healing assay (48 h: p-value = 0.004; 72 h: p-value = 7.0 × 10-4). In addition, the MMP-9 expression level was inhibited by DPG in melanoma cells stimulated by TPA and compared to TPA-treated cells (3.56 vs. 0.99 AUs, p-value = 0.0016) after 24 h of treatment. Our results suggested that DPG has an apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-migratory effect on SK-MEL-28 cells. DPG was also able to inhibit cancer stem-like cells that may cause cerebral tumor formation.


Assuntos
Melanoma , MicroRNAs , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806358

RESUMO

Hyperactivation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK/MEK/ERK signaling pathways is commonly observed in many cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and melanoma. Moreover, the compensatory upregulation of the MAPK/MEK/ERK pathway has been associated with therapeutic resistance to targeted inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and vice versa. The immune-modulatory effects of both PI3K and MAPK inhibition suggest that inhibition of these pathways might enhance response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). ICIs have become the standard-of-care for metastatic melanoma and are recently an option for TNBC when combined with chemotherapy, but alternative options are needed when resistance develops. In this review, we present the current mechanistic understandings, along with preclinical and clinical evidence, that outline the efficacy and safety profile of combinatorial or sequential treatments with PI3K inhibitors, MAPK inhibitors, and ICIs for treatment of malignant melanoma and metastatic TNBC. This approach may present a potential strategy to overcome resistance in patients who are a candidate for ICI therapy with tumors harboring either or both of these pathway-associated mutations.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
14.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 177: 157-174, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787429

RESUMO

Melanoma is a cancer of melanocytes present at the basal layer of the skin. Nanomedicine has armed us with competent platform to manage such fatal neoplastic diseases. Nevertheless, it suffers from numerous pitfalls such as rapid clearance and opsonization of surface-functionalized carriers, biocompatibility and idiopathic reactions which could be difficult to predict in the patient. Biomimetic approach, a novel step towards personalized medicine bridges these drawbacks by employing endogenous cell membranes to traverse physiological barriers. Camouflaged carriers coated with natural cell membranes possess unique characteristics such as high circulatory periods, and the absence of allogenic and xenogenic responses. Proteins residing on the cell membranes render a diverse range of utilities to the coated nanoparticles including natural efficiency to identify cellular targets, homologous targeting, reticuloendothelial system evasion, biocompatibility and reduced adverse and idiopathic effects. In the present article, we have focused on cell membrane camouflaged nanocarriers for melanoma management. We have discussed various types of biomimetic systems, their processing and coating approaches, and their characterization. We have also enumerated novel avenues in melanoma treatment and the combination of biomimetic systems with smart nanoparticulate systems with the potential to bring breakthroughs in the near future. Additionally, immunotherapy-based biomimetic systems to combat melanoma have been highlighted. Hurdles towards clinical translation and ways to overcome them have been explained in detail.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Nanopartículas , Biomimética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Nanomedicina , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico
15.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 331, 2022 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35879777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of MAPK pathway inhibitors (MAPKi) used to treat patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma is limited by a range of resistance mechanisms, including soluble TNF (solTNF)-mediated NF-kB signaling. solTNF preferentially signals through type-1 TNF receptor (TNFR1), however, it can also bind to TNFR2, a receptor that is primarily expressed on leukocytes. Here, we investigate the TNFR2 expression pattern on human BRAFV600E+ melanomas and its role in solTNF-driven resistance reprogramming to MAPKi. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to test TNFR1, TNFR2 and CD271 expression on, as well as NF-kB phosphorylation in human BRAF-mutant melanoma. The ability of melanoma cell lines to acquire MAPKi resistance in response to recombinant or macrophage-derived TNF was evaluated using the MTT cytotoxicity assay. Gene editing was implemented to knock out or knock in TNF receptors in melanoma cell lines. Knockout and knock-in cell line variants were employed to assess the intrinsic roles of these receptors in TNF-induced resistance to MAPKi. Multicolor immunofluorescence microscopy was utilized to test TNFR2 expression by melanoma in patients receiving MAPKi therapy. RESULTS: TNFR1 and TNFR2 are co-expressed at various levels on 4/7 BRAFV600E+ melanoma cell lines evaluated in this study. In vitro treatments with solTNF induce MAPKi resistance solely in TNFR2-expressing BRAFV600E+ melanoma cell lines. TNFR1 and TNFR2 knockout and knock-in studies indicate that solTNF-mediated MAPKi resistance in BRAFV600E+ melanomas is predicated on TNFR1 and TNFR2 co-expression, where TNFR1 is the central mediator of NF-kB signaling, while TNFR2 plays an auxiliary role. solTNF-mediated effects are transient and can be abrogated with biologics. Evaluation of patient specimens indicates that TNFR2 is expressed on 50% of primary BRAFV600E+ melanoma cells and that MAPKi therapy may lead to the enrichment of TNFR2-expressing tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that TNFR2 is essential to solTNF-induced MAPKi resistance and a possible biomarker to identify melanoma patients that can benefit from solTNF-targeting therapies.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , NF-kappa B , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
16.
Biofabrication ; 14(4)2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793612

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from immune cells have shown great anti-cancer therapeutic potential. However, inefficiency in EV generation has considerably impeded the development of EV-based basic research and clinical translation. Here, we developed a seesaw-motion bioreactor (SMB) system by leveraging mechanical stimuli such as shear stress and turbulence for generating EVs with high quality and quantity from natural killer (NK) cells. Compared to EV production in traditional static culture (229 ± 74 particles per cell per day), SMB produced NK-92MI-derived EVs at a higher rate of 438 ± 50 particles per cell per day and yielded a total number of 2 × 1011EVs over two weeks via continuous dynamic fluidic culture. In addition, the EVs generated from NK-92MI cells in SMB shared a similar morphology, size distribution, and protein profile to EVs generated from traditional static culture. Most importantly, the NK-92MI-derived EVs in SMB were functionally active in killing melanoma and liver cancer cells in both 2D and 3D culture conditionsin vitro, as well as in suppressing melanoma growthin vivo. We believe that SMB is an attractive approach to producing EVs with high quality and quantity; it can additionally enhance EV production from NK92-MI cells and promote both the basic and translational research of EVs.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Melanoma , Reatores Biológicos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Melanoma/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4000, 2022 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810190

RESUMO

Melanoma cells display distinct intrinsic phenotypic states. Here, we seek to characterize the molecular regulation of these states using multi-omic analyses of whole exome, transcriptome, microRNA, long non-coding RNA and DNA methylation data together with reverse-phase protein array data on a panel of 68 highly annotated early passage melanoma cell lines. We demonstrate that clearly defined cancer cell intrinsic transcriptomic programs are maintained in melanoma cells ex vivo and remain highly conserved within melanoma tumors, are associated with distinct immune features within tumors, and differentially correlate with checkpoint inhibitor and adoptive T cell therapy efficacy. Through integrative analyses we demonstrate highly complex multi-omic regulation of melanoma cell intrinsic programs that provide key insights into the molecular maintenance of phenotypic states. These findings have implications for cancer biology and the identification of new therapeutic strategies. Further, these deeply characterized cell lines will serve as an invaluable resource for future research in the field.


Assuntos
Melanoma , MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
18.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 51(7): 621-626, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35785832

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant cutaneous melanocytic lesions. Methods: Fifty-nine cases of melanoma (50 cases of skin primary melanoma, and 9 cases of metastatic melanoma) and 48 cases of melanocytic nevus (40 cases of common nevus and 8 cases of dysplastic nevus) were subject to PRAME immunohistochemistry staining.The difference of PRAME expression between melanoma and melanocytic nevus was analyzed. Results: Among the 50 patients with primary cutaneous melanoma, there were 23 males and 27 females ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (average age 62.4 years, median age 64.5 years). Among the 9 metastatic melanoma there were 7 males and 2 females ranging in age from 40 to 82 years (average age 64 years, median age 65 years). Twenty-six cases (26/50, 52.0%) of cutaneous primary melanoma and 4 cases (4/9) of metastatic melanoma showed diffuse positive PRAME staining. 40 cases (40/40, 100%) of common nevus and 8 (8/8) cases of dysplastic nevus were PRAME negative. Compared with melanocytic nevus group, the melanoma group included more cases with diffuse positive PRAME staining (P<0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of using PRAME to differentiate primary cutaneous melanoma from melanocytic nevus in the cohort is 52.0% and 100%. Conclusions: There is a significant difference in the expression of PRAME between melanoma and melanocytic nevus.Thus, PRAME can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic tool for differentiating benign from malignant cutaneous lesions.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Nevo Displásico , Melanoma , Nevo de Células Epitelioides e Fusiformes , Nevo Pigmentado , Nevo , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevo/metabolismo , Nevo/patologia , Nevo Pigmentado/diagnóstico , Nevo Pigmentado/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Coloração e Rotulagem
19.
FASEB J ; 36(8): e22426, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779042

RESUMO

As a major tea component, theabrownin represents a promising anti-cancer candidate. However, its effect on the melanoma is unknown. To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-melanoma efficacy of TB, we conducted cell viability, immunostaining, comet, and TUNEL assays on human A375 melanoma cells, and employed a zebrafish xenograft model of A375 cells. Real-time PCR (qPCR) and western blot were conducted to explore the molecular mechanisms of TB. In vitro, TB significantly inhibited the proliferation of A375 cells, and A375 cells showed the highest inhibitory rate among the other melanoma cell line (A875) and human dermal fibroblasts. TB triggered DNA damage and induced apoptosis of A375 cells and significantly inhibited the growth of A375 xenograft tumors in zebrafishes. Several key molecular events were activated by TB, including DNA damage-associated p53 and NF-κB pathways, through up-regulation of GADD45α, γ-H2A.X, phospho-ATM(p-ATM), phospho-ATR (p-ATR), phospho-p53 (p-p53), phospho-IKKα/ß (p-IKKα/ß), phospho-p65 (p-p65), etc. However, the TB-activated molecular events were counteracted by either knockdown of p53 or p65, and only dual knockdown of both p53 and p65 completed counteracted the anti-melanoma efficacy of TB. In conclusion, TB triggered DNA damage and thereby inhibited proliferation and induced cellular senescence and apoptosis of melanoma cells through mechanisms mediated by p53/NF-κB signaling crosstalk. This is the first report on the efficacy and mechanisms of TB on melanoma cells, making TB a promising candidate for anti-melanoma agent development.


Assuntos
Catequina , Melanoma , NF-kappa B , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
20.
Yi Chuan ; 44(7): 581-590, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858770

RESUMO

MC1R (melanocortin 1 receptor) encodes the melanocortin-1 receptor, which can activate intracellular cAMP synthesis under the stimulation of the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) ligand. Increased cAMP then activates the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, resulting in the up-regulation of the expression of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) which is a critical regulatory factor of melanin synthesis, and tyrosinase (TYR), the rate-limiting enzyme of melanin synthesis tyrosinase (TYR), and ultimately affects production of eumelanin and pheomelanin, and the coat color phenotype of mammalian species. Previous reports have indicated that the mutation A243T in the transmembrane domain 6 (TM6) of MC1R protein might disrupt the function of MC1R, contributing to the red phenotype in Duroc pig. However, functional analysis of the A243T mutation in MC1R has not yet been carried out. In this study, we attempted to used single-stranded oligo-deoxyribonucleotides (ssODN) as donor templates to introduce the c.727G>A (A243T) mutation into MC1R in human melanoma cell line SK-MEL-2 by CRISPR/Cas9 to analyze its effects on MC1R functions. We found the occurrence of ssODN recombination reached to 10%. Unfortunately, Sanger sequencing MC1R in six single-cell clones revealed that none carried the c.727G>A mutation, but all carried undesired mutations surrounding the target site. Cells transfected with CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids and ssODN presented significantly attenuated cAMP activation, and down-regulated MITF and TYR expression, indicating that the editing MC1R could affect the melanin synthesis function in cells. This study provides a basis for further investigation the mechanism of MC1R mutation on animal coat color.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Humanos , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Melaninas/genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Suínos
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