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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5403-5415, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tubugi-1 is a more stable and accessible synthetic counterpart of natural tubulysins. This study aimed to evaluate its cytotoxic potential against anaplastic human melanoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The viability of A-375 cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and crystal violet assay. The type of cell death and proliferative rate were investigated using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy, while the molecular background was evaluated by western blot. RESULTS: Tubugi-1 reduced the viability of A-375 cells, inducing massive micronucleation, followed by augmented expression of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB and caspase-2, typical of a mitotic catastrophe. Disturbed proliferation and G2M block with prominent caspase activity, weakened the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X transient up-regulation, coexisted with intensive autophagy. Specific inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine resulted in conversion from mitotic catastrophe to rapid apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Multilevel anticancer action of tubugi-1 is extended by co-application of an autophagy inhibitor, giving a new dimension in further preclinical advancement of this potential agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Caspase 2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 314: 108822, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580832

RESUMO

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is not only a valuable marker for cancer cells with stem-like features, but also plays a vital role in drug resistance and disease progression in many tumors including melanoma. However, the precise role of ALDH activity in patient prognosis remains unclear. In this study, using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-sequencing expression data, we analyzed gene expression of ALDH isozymes in melanoma tumors to define the expression patterns and the prognostic and predictive values of these enzymes. We found that ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 had both higher and broader expression ranges in melanoma patients, and that ALDH1A3 expression correlated with better overall survival in metastatic melanoma. Further, stratification of the TCGA cohorts by the mutational subtypes of melanoma specifically revealed that expression of ALDH1A3 correlated with better prognosis in metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma while expression of ALDH1A1 correlated with better prognosis in BRAF wild-type melanoma. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of these cohorts identified upregulation in oxidative phosphorylation, adipogenesis, and fatty acid metabolism signaling in ALDH1Alo patients, suggesting BRAF/MEK inhibitor resistance in that subset of patients. On the other hand, GSEA of ALDH1A3hi cohorts revealed upregulation in glycolysis, hypoxia and angiogenesis, suggesting BRAF/MEK inhibitor sensitivity in that subset of patients. Gene expression analysis using pre-treatment tumor samples supports high ALDH1A3 expression before BRAF/MEK inhibitor treatment as predictive of better treatment response in BRAF-mutant melanoma patients. Our study provides evidence that high ALDH1A3 mRNA expression is not only a prognostic marker but also a predictive marker for BRAF/MEK inhibitor treatment response in BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma patients.


Assuntos
Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Melanoma/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Idoso , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4995-5001, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) combined with non-myeloablative chemotherapy (NMA) has been shown to prolong survival in patients with metastatic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue harvesting was performed form a variety of sites. TILs were isolated, expanded and infused with bolus high-dose IL-2. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2018, 242 lesions were resected for TILs harvesting from a range of sites form 196 patients without mortality and with minimal morbidity. Of those harvested, 75 were unable to complete therapy because of clinical deterioration during the wait period. Of 121 evaluable treated patients, there was no effect of metastatic site biopsied on the mean fold TIL expansion. Those receiving prior ipilimumab had a higher TIL fold expansion but a lower TIL fold expansion than those exposed to anti-PD1 therapy. CONCLUSION: Harvesting may be safely performed with successful TIL expansion from most sites. Prior check point inhibitory immunotherapy may potentially influence TIL fold expansion.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(9): 1493-1500, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501955

RESUMO

Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors revolutionized melanoma treatment in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting, yet not all metastatic patients respond, and metastatic disease still often recurs among immunotherapy-treated patients with locally advanced disease. TNFSF4 is a co-stimulatory checkpoint protein expressed by several types of immune and non-immune cells, and was shown in the past to enhance the anti-neoplastic activity of T cells. Here, we assessed its expression in melanoma and its association with outcome in locally advanced and metastatic disease. We used publicly available data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), and RNA sequencing data from anti-PD1-treated patients at Sheba medical center. TNFSF4 mRNA is expressed in melanoma cell lines and melanoma samples, including those with low lymphocytic infiltrates, and is not associated with the ulceration status of the primary tumor. Low expression of TNFSF4 mRNA is associated with worse prognosis in all melanoma patients and in the cohorts of stage III and stage IIIc-IV patients. Low expression of TNFSF4 mRNAs is also associated with worse prognosis in the subgroup of patients with low lymphocytic infiltrates, suggesting that tumoral TNFSF4 is associated with outcome. TNFSF4 expression was not correlated with the expression of other known checkpoint mRNAs. Last, metastatic patients with TNFSF4 mRNA expression within the lowest quartile have significantly worse outcome on anti-PD1 treatment, and a significantly lower response rate to these agents. Our current work points to TNFSF4 expression in melanoma as a potential determinant of prognosis, and warrants further translational and clinical research.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Ligante OX40/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/farmacologia , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Ligante OX40/genética , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108789, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401089

RESUMO

The cytotoxicity of a dinuclear imine-copper (II) complex 2, and its analogous mononuclear complex 1, toward different melanoma cells, particularly human SKMEL-05 and SKMEL-147, was investigated. Complex 2, a tyrosinase mimic, showed much higher activity in comparison to complex 1, and its reactivity was verified to be remarkably activated by UVB-light, while the mononuclear compound showed a small or negligible effect. Further, a significant dependence on the melanin content in the tumor cells, both from intrinsic pigmentation or stimulated by irradiation, was observed in the case of complex 2. Similar tests with keratinocytes and melanocytes indicated a much lower sensitivity to both copper (II) complexes, even after exposition to UV light. Clonogenic assays attested that the fractions of melanoma cells survival were much lower under treatment with complex 2 compared to complex 1, both with or without previous irradiation of the cells. The process also involves generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as verified by EPR spectroscopy, and by using fluorescence indicators. Autophagic assays indicated a remarkable formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles in melanomas treated with complex 2, while this effect was not observed in similar treatment with complex 1. Monitoring of specific protein LC3 corroborated the simultaneous occurrence of autophagy. A balance interplay between different modes of cell death, apoptosis and autophagy, occurs when melanomas were treated with the dinuclear complex 2, in contrast to the mononuclear complex 1. These results pointed out to different mechanisms of action of such complexes, depending on its nuclearity.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Iminas/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Complexos de Coordenação/metabolismo , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Melaninas/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
6.
J Surg Oncol ; 120(6): 1031-1037, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This current study assessed the value of S-100B measurement to guide fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning for detecting recurrent disease in stage III melanoma patients. METHODS: This study included 100 stage III melanoma patients in follow-up after curative lymph node dissection. Follow-up visits included physical examination and S-100B monitoring. FDG PET/CT scanning was indicated by clinical symptoms and/or elevated S-100B. RESULTS: Of 100 patients, 13 (13%) had elevated S-100B without clinical symptoms, of whom 7 (54%) showed disease evidence upon FDG PET/CT scanning. Twenty-six patients (26%) had clinical symptoms with normal S-100B and FDG PET/CT revealed metastasis in 20 (77%). Three patients had clinical symptoms and elevated S-100B, and FDG PET/CT revealed metastasis in all three (100%). Overall, FDG PET/CT scanning revealed metastasis in 30 of the 42 patients (71.4%). For seven recurrences, elevated S-100B prompted early detection of asymptomatic disease; 10% of all asymptomatic patients in follow-up, 23% of all patients with recurrent disease. CONCLUSION: S-100B cannot exclude recurrent disease during follow-up of stage III melanoma. However, adding S-100B measurement to standard clinical assessment can guide FDG PET/CT scanning for detecting recurrent melanoma.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Melanoma/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Subunidade beta da Proteína Ligante de Cálcio S100/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
7.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(4): 663-673, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397440

RESUMO

Malignant cutaneous melanoma (CM) is an extremely aggressive cancer characterized by a high level of metastatic activity and unfavorable prognosis due to a high incidence of relapses, as well as resistance to standard chemotherapy. Cutaneous melanoma accounts for 80% of deaths from malignant skin tumors. Nucleolin/C23 and nucleophosmin/B23, which constitute altogether ~70% of the nucleolus volume, are promising targets for molecular therapy of melanoma. These proteins perform many important functions in the cell, so disruption of the NCL and/or NPM gene structure and abnormal expression of the C23 and B23 proteins they encode, can lead to unlimited cell proliferation and progression of a tumor. Therefore, investigation of the structure and expression of these genes is a topical problem, which is important for understanding the mechanisms of CM carcinogenesis and for the development of new therapeutic approaches. This paper describes new NCL and NPM polymorphisms, as well as the levels of C23 and B23 expression in normal tissues, CM and mucosal melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Nucléolo Celular/química , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Nucleares/biossíntese , Proteínas Nucleares/química , Fosfoproteínas/biossíntese , Fosfoproteínas/química , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 250, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297635

RESUMO

Melanoma is regarded as the fifth and sixth most common cancer in men and women, respectively, and it is estimated that one person dies from melanoma every hour in the USA. Unfortunately, the treatment of melanoma is difficult because of its aggressive metastasis and resistance to treatment. The treatment of melanoma continues to be a challenging issue due to the limitations of available treatments such as a low response rate, severe adverse reactions, and significant toxicity. Natural polyphenols have attracted considerable attention from the scientific community due to their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy. It has been suggested that poorly soluble polyphenols such as curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, coumarin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate may have significant benefits in the treatment of melanoma due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and chemoprotective efficacies. The major obstacles for the use of polyphenolic compounds are low stability and poor bioavailability. Numerous nanoformulations, including solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, and liposomes, have been formulated to enhance the bioavailability and stability, as well as the therapeutic efficacy of polyphenols. This review will provide an overview of poorly soluble polyphenols that have been reported to have antimetastatic efficacy in melanomas.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol/química , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Solubilidade
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9060-9069, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339696

RESUMO

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an active role in the development of drug resistance by numerous cancer cells, including melanoma cells, which is a major cause of chemotherapy failure. As part of our continuous effort to explore why dietary polyphenols bearing the catechol moiety (dietary catechols) show usually anticancer activity, catechol-type diphenylbutadiene (3,4-DHB) was selected as a model of dietary catechols to probe whether they work as pro-oxidative chemosensitizers via GST inhibition in melanoma cells. It was found that, in human melanoma A375 cells, 3,4-DHB is easily converted to its ortho-quinone via copper-containing tyrosinase-mediated two-electron oxidation along with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from the oxidation; the resulting ortho-quinone and ROS are responsible for its ability to sensitize the cisplatin-resistant cells by inhibiting GST, followed by induction of apoptosis in an ASK1-JNK/p38 signaling cascade and mitochondria-dependent pathway. This work provides further evidence to support that dietary catechols exhibit antimelanoma activity by virtue of their tyrosinase-dependent pro-oxidative role and gives useful information for designing polyphenol-inspired GST inhibitors and sensitizers in chemotherapy against melanoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Butadienos/farmacologia , Catecóis/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glutationa Transferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/enzimologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose , Butadienos/química , Butadienos/metabolismo , Catecóis/química , Catecóis/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2241-2250, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342168

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The tripartite motif (TRIM)16 acts as a tumour suppressor in both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma. TRIM16 is known to be secreted by keratinocytes, but no studies have been reported yet to assess the relationship between TRIM16 keratinocyte expression and melanoma development. METHODS: To study the role of TRIM16 in skin cancer development, we developed a keratinocyte TRIM16-specific knockout mouse model, and used the classical two-stage skin carcinogenesis challenge method, to assess the loss of keratinocyte TRIM16 on both papilloma, SCC and melanoma development in the skin after topical carcinogen treatment. RESULTS: Heterozygous, but not homozygous, TRIM16 knockout mice exhibited an accelerated development of skin papillomas and melanomas, larger melanoma lesions and an increased potential for lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that keratinocyte loss of the putative melanoma tumour suppressor protein, TRIM16, enhances melanomagenesis. Our data also suggest that TRIM16 expression in keratinocytes is involved in cross talk between keratinocytes and melanocytes, and has a role in melanoma tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Perda de Heterozigosidade/fisiologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Queratinócitos/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
11.
Gene ; 716: 144010, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352009

RESUMO

Alternative splicing can generate multiple protein messages from a single gene and has emerged as an important mechanism to regulate cancer pathways. The human SAT1 gene produces two transcript variants: one translates spermidine/spermine N-1 acetyltransferase (SSAT1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of polyamines, and the other generates SSATX, which has largely unknown biological functions. Here, we used experimental data and analyses of several melanoma transcriptome datasets to reveal that SSATX is weakly expressed in melanoma cells. SSATX knockdown promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human melanoma cells via the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in a manner that was independent of SSAT1 expression. Based on our data, we propose that SSATX functions as a long non-coding RNA prior to its degradation in melanoma cells. Overall, our findings indicate that SSATX acts as a tumor suppressor, which may aid the future diagnosis and treatment of melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Acetiltransferases/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
12.
Vet J ; 249: 33-40, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239162

RESUMO

Feline iris melanoma, the most common feline intraocular tumour, has a reported metastatic rate of 19-63%. However, there is a lack of knowledge about its molecular biology. Previous studies have reported that feline iris melanomas do not harbour mutations comparable to common mutations found in their human counterpart. Nevertheless, there are differences in the gene expression patterns. The aim of this study was to investigate the protein expression of B-RAF oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF), G protein subunit alpha q (GNAQ) and 11 (GNA11), KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT), and Ras association family member 1 (RASSF1) in feline iris melanomas. Fifty-seven formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) iris melanomas and 25 FFPE eyes without ocular abnormalities were stained with antibodies against the respective proteins using immunofluorescence. Averaged pixel intensities/µm2 and percentage of stained area from total tissue area were measured and the results were compared. Compared to the control group, iris melanomas showed overexpression of BRAF, GNAQ, GNA11 and KIT. The higher expression of BRAF, GNAQ, GNA11 and KIT in feline iris melanomas suggest that these proteins may play a key role in the development of feline iris melanomas and KIT may present a possible target for future therapies in cats with feline iris melanomas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Íris/veterinária , Melanoma/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/biossíntese , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Íris/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/biossíntese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/biossíntese , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/biossíntese
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 133-146, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252305

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma is amongst the most difficult types of cancer to treat, with current therapies mainly relying on the inhibition of the BRAFV600E mutant kinase. However, systemic inhibition of BRAF by small molecule drugs in cancer patients results - paradoxically - in increased wild-type BRAF activity in healthy tissue, causing side-effects and even the formation of new tumors. Here we show the development of BRAFV600E kinase inhibitors of which the activity can be switched on and off reversibly with light, offering the possibility to overcome problems of systemic drug activity by selectively activating the drug at the desired site of action. Based on a known inhibitor, eight photoswitchable effectors containing an azobenzene photoswitch were designed, synthesized and evaluated. The most promising inhibitor showed an approximately 10-fold increase in activity upon light-activation. This research offers inspiration for the development of therapies for metastatic melanoma in which tumor tissue is treated with an active BRAFV600E inhibitor with high spatial and temporal resolution, thus limiting the damage to other tissues.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Luz , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/química , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3190-3198, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy, and the prognosis of patients with advanced stage of UM is very dismal. The T cell receptor ectopic expression of butyrophilin-like 9 (BTNL9) has been observed in several types of cancers, but the expression and clinical significance of BTNL9 in UM is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In our study, we detected the expression of BTNL9 in 6 pairs of UM tissues and adjacent tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and further investigated BTNL9 expression with immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a retrospective cohort consisted of 62 UM patients. The correlations between BNTL9 expression and clinicopathological factors were analyzed with Fisher's test, and the prognostic significance of BTNL9 was evaluated with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Using experiments in vitro, we investigated the function of BTNL9 in UM proliferation and invasion. RESULTS BTNL9 mRNAs in adjacent tissues were remarkably higher than in UM tissues. The percentages of BTNL9 low expression and high expression were 56.45% and 43.55%, respectively. High expression of BTNL9 was significantly associated with favorable prognosis of UM. BTNL9 expression was identified as a prognostic biomarker predicting better outcome of UM patients. Moreover, BTNL9 could suppress invasion instead of proliferation in melanoma cell line. CONCLUSIONS BTNL9 was a favorable prognostic factor of UM and it could suppress invasion of UM, suggesting that BTNL9 detection could help stratify high-risk patients with UM after operation and guide more precise surveillance and treatment.


Assuntos
Butirofilinas/biossíntese , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uveais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Butirofilinas/genética , Butirofilinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Uveais/genética , Neoplasias Uveais/patologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060324

RESUMO

Antigen peptides and adjuvants have been extensively investigated for cancer immunotherapy, and they are expected to elicit specific immune responses for cancer treatment. However, the anti-cancer efficacy of antigen peptide and adjuvant-based cancer vaccines has been limited due to the inefficient delivery to draining lymph nodes after administration. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a suitable delivery system to transport antigen peptides and adjuvants. Here, we report a novel type of nanostructured lipovaccines for the treatment of melanoma by delivering antigen peptide (SL9) and oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant (CpG) to the lymphatic vessels and to the draining lymph node. The SL9-CpG lipovaccines were characterized using dynamic laser scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The lymph uptake, immune response elicitation and treatment effects were evaluated on melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice using flow cytometry (FCM), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tumor inhibitory efficacy. The SL9-CpG lipovaccines were uniform with a nanoscale size (~70 nm), had high encapsulation efficiency, and exhibited effective lymph uptake, resulting in activation of specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, and release of IFN-γ, and a robust inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, the nanostructured SL9-CpG lipovaccines offer a promising strategy for melanoma treatment.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Imunomodulação , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glicina/química , Glicina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peptídeos/química , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 402, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different 3D-cell culture approaches with varying degrees of complexity have been developed to serve as melanoma models for drug testing or mechanistic studies. While these 3D-culture initiatives are already often superior to classical 2D approaches, they are either composed of only melanoma cells or they are so complex that the behavior of individual cell types is hard to understand, and often they are difficult to establish and expensive. METHODS: This study used low-attachment based generation of spheroids composed of up to three cell types. Characterization of cells and spheroids involved cryosectioning, immunofluorescence, FACS, and quantitative analyses. Statistical evaluation used one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test or Student's t-test. RESULTS: The tri-culture model allowed to track cellular behavior in a cell-type specific manner and recapitulated different characteristics of early melanoma stages. Cells arranged into a collagen-IV rich fibroblast core, a ring of keratinocytes, and groups of highly proliferating melanoma cells on the outside. Regularly, some melanoma cells were also found to invade the fibroblast core. In the absence of melanoma cells, the keratinocyte ring stratified into central basal-like and peripheral, more differentiated cells. Conversely, keratinocyte differentiation was clearly reduced upon addition of melanoma cells. Treatment with the cytostatic drug, docetaxel, restored keratinocyte differentiation and induced apoptosis of external melanoma cells. Remaining intact external melanoma cells showed a significantly increased amount of ABCB5-immunoreactivity. CONCLUSIONS: In the present work, a novel, simple spheroid-based melanoma tri-culture model composed of fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and melanoma cells was described. This model mimicked features observed in early melanoma stages, including loss of keratinocyte differentiation, melanoma cell invasion, and drug-induced increase of ABCB5 expression in external melanoma cells.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/citologia
18.
Life Sci ; 230: 121-131, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125565

RESUMO

AIMS: Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer, derived from neoplastic transformation of melanocytes. Since several evidences highlighted the importance of a hierarchical model of differentiation among cancer cells, closely related to resistance mechanisms and tumor relapse, we investigated the effects of theophylline (Theo), a methylxanthine commonly used in treatment of respiratory diseases, on melanoma cells with different degree of differentiation, including patient-derived melanoma-initiating cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects of Theo was demonstrated by cell counting, adhesion and migration assays on A375 and SK-MEL-30 cells. Further, Theo ability to reduce cell growth was highly significant in A375-derived spheroids and in two patient-derived melanoma-initiating cells (MICs). In order to identify pathways potentially involved in the antineoplastic properties of Theo, a comparative mass spectrometry proteomic analysis was used. Then, melanin content, tyrosinase and tissue transglutaminase activities as differentiation markers and actin re-organization through confocal microscopy were evaluated. Furthermore, a secretome profile of MICs after Theo treatments was performed by multiplex immunoassay. KEY FINDINGS: Obtained results demonstrate inhibitory effects of Theo on melanoma cell proliferation and migration, mainly in MICs, together with the induction of differentiation parameters. Moreover, our data indicate that the known anti-melanoma effect of Theo is due also to its ability to interfere with cytoskeleton dynamics and to induce the secretion of inflammatory molecules involved in recruitment of immunosuppressive cells in tumor microenvironment. SIGNIFICANCE: Data strongly suggest that Theo supplement, either as drug or as dietary supply, may represent a potent additional weapon against melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Teofilina/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoesqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Proteômica , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Teofilina/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(7): 1541-1545, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic risk for uveal melanoma (UM) patients can be characterized by gene expression profiling (GEP) (Castle Biosciences, Friendswood, TX). Class 1A tumors carry low metastatic risk; class 1B tumors have intermediate risk; and class 2 tumors have high risk. Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a tumor-associated antigen which is expressed in various neoplasms including UM. Recently, PRAME expression in uveal melanoma was first recognized to confer an additional metastatic risk beyond GEP status. METHODS: This was a retrospective, consecutive, multicenter chart review study. All patients diagnosed with UM at two major ocular oncology centers from August 2016 to February 2018 who underwent both GEP and PRAME mRNA expression testing were included. Patient age at diagnosis, gender, and tumor variables such as thickness, largest basal diameter (LBD), tumor volume, TNM stage, and GEP class and PRAME status were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis was performed to analyze the association of PRAME +/- status with all clinical and molecular variables. RESULTS: One hundred forty-eight UM patients were identified. TNM was stage I in 51 (34.5%), stage IIA in 33 (22.3%), stage IIB in 34 (23%), stage IIIA in 20 (13.5%), and stage IIIB in 10 (6.8%) patients. Fifty-five patients (37%) were PRAME-positive, a significant fraction. There was no association between higher TNM stage and positive PRAME status (p = 0.129). PRAME expression was found to be independent of gender, patient age, and tumor thickness. PRAME expression was statistically associated with LBD and tumor volume. Higher GEP class was associated with higher TNM staging (p < 0.001). Worsening GEP class was associated with PRAME+ status with 28% of GEP class 1A tumors having PRAME+ status, 29% of GEP class 1B tumors having PRAME+ status, and 56% of GEP class 2 tumors having PRAME+ status. CONCLUSIONS: In this study cohort, PRAME+ status was significantly associated with LBD and tumor volume as well as worsening GEP class. Nearly a third of GEP class 1A tumors expressed PRAME. Given the recent published data on increased metastatic risk among patients with tumors expressing PRAME, this study suggests that a significant fraction of 1A patients may harbor an increased metastatic risk. Future large, multicenter studies with long-term follow-up will clarify this finding.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Neoplasias Uveais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia , Neoplasias Uveais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uveais/metabolismo
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(6): 2330-2335, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117125

RESUMO

Purpose: Melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR) is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Visual symptoms include night blindness, photopsia, and reduced-contrast sensitivity. An abnormal ERG b-wave and the presence of anti-bipolar cell autoantibodies, including autoantibodies reacting with the ON-bipolar cell TRPM1 channel, help to confirm the diagnosis. The goal of this study was to determine if CMM patients without visual symptoms also express anti-TRPM1 autoantibodies. Methods: Serum samples from 15 CMM patients were tested using three assays: immunofluorescent labeling of TRPM1-transfected HEK cells, immunofluorescent labeling of retinal sections from wild-type and TRPM1 knockout mice, and immunoblot detection of a bacterially produced recombinant TRPM1 peptide. Results: Serum specimens from 5 of the 15 CMM patients without declared visual symptoms were positive for anti-TRPM1 autoantibodies in at least one of the three assays. One of 50 control sera from patients not known to have cancer was also weakly reactive with the TRPM1 peptide. Conclusions: Autoantibodies against TRPM1 are present in CMM patient sera without self-reported visual symptoms. Most patients had advanced (stage III and IV) disease and were undergoing aggressive treatments, including immunotherapy. It is unknown if immunotherapy affects the expression of TRPM1 autoantibodies. The presence of TRPM1 autoantibodies may predispose patients for MAR.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPM/imunologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Melanoma/imunologia , Camundongos , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas Oculares/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia
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