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1.
Science ; 367(6482): 1131-1134, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139543

RESUMO

Episodic memory retrieval is thought to rely on the replay of past experiences, yet it remains unknown how human single-unit activity is temporally organized during episodic memory encoding and retrieval. We found that ripple oscillations in the human cortex reflect underlying bursts of single-unit spiking activity that are organized into memory-specific sequences. Spiking sequences occurred repeatedly during memory formation and were replayed during successful memory retrieval, and this replay was associated with ripples in the medial temporal lobe. Together, these data demonstrate that human episodic memory is encoded by specific sequences of neural activity and that memory recall involves reinstating this temporal order of activity.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e301, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896360

RESUMO

The ventral lateral parietal cortex (VLPC) shows robust activation during episodic retrieval, and is involved in content representation, as well as in the evaluation of memory traces. This suggests that the VLPC has a crucial contribution to the quality of recollection and the subjective experience of remembering, and situates it at the intersection of the core and attribution systems.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental , Lobo Parietal
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e299, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896373

RESUMO

The memory impairment of neurological and psychiatric patients is seen as occurring mainly in the autobiographical-episodic memory domain and this is considered to depend on limbic structures such as the amygdala or the septal nuclei. Especially the amygdala is a hub for giving an emotional flavor to personal memories. Bastin et al. fail to include the amygdala in their integrative memory model.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Emoções , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
4.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12867, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125469

RESUMO

The hippocampus is a subcortical structure in the medial temporal lobe involved in cognitive functions such as spatial navigation and reorientation, episodic memory, and associative learning. While much is understood about the role of hippocampal function in learning and memory in adults, less is known about the relations between the hippocampus and the development of these cognitive skills in young children due to the limitations of using standard methods (e.g., MRI) to examine brain structure and function in developing populations. This study used hippocampal-dependent trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC) as a feasible approach to examine individual differences in hippocampal functioning as they relate to spatial reorientation and episodic memory performance in young children. Three- to six-year-old children (N = 50) completed tasks that measured EBC, spatial reorientation, and episodic memory, as well as non-hippocampal-dependent processing speed abilities. Results revealed that when age was held constant, individual differences in EBC performance were significantly related to individual differences in performance on the spatial reorientation test, but not on the episodic memory or processing speed tests. When the relations between hippocampal-dependent EBC and different reorientation strategies were explored, it was found that individual differences in hippocampal function predicted the use of geometric information for reorienting in space as opposed to a combined strategy that uses both geometric information and salient visual cues. The utilization of eyeblink conditioning to examine hippocampal function in young populations and its implications for understanding the dissociation between spatial reorientation and episodic memory development are discussed.


Assuntos
Piscadela/fisiologia , Condicionamento Palpebral/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Aprendizagem , Masculino
5.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e260, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826755

RESUMO

Hoerl & McCormack argue that animals cannot represent past situations and subsume animals' memory-like representations within a model of the world. I suggest calling these memory-like representations as what they are without beating around the bush. I refer to them as event memories and explain how they are different from episodic memory and how they can guide action in animal cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Memória Episódica , Animais
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 58, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762923

RESUMO

Introduction: Five-word test (5WT) is a memory test to assess the verbal episodic memory. It measures the memory of subjects with memory impairment, in particular within the framework of the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, where it is sensitive and specific. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of different sociodemographic parameters on subject's performance, to set standards relevant to Tunisian population and to compare our results to previous studies. Methods: We report 5WT calibration in 315 normal subjects aged 40 to 90 years (169 men, 146 women), divided into four age groups (40-49,50-59,60-69 and 70 years) having three levels of education (I: primary, II:secondary and III:higher). We calculated the mean score (standard deviation) for the different scores: Total Score (TS), Total Weighted Score (TWS), Delayed Free Recall (DFR), Total Delayed Recall (TDR) and Total Free Recall (TFR). Results: The average age of subjects was 57.29 years (11.02). Performances appeared to be better in youngest and better educated subjects, without any significant difference between the two sexes. Standards were calculated on the basis of age and levels of education. Conclusion: Five-word test allows rapid screening of patients in whom complementary neuropsychological assessment is essential for the diagnosis of cognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Memória Episódica , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tunísia
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(4): 440-447, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined testimonies of women who were sexually assaulted multiple times by multiple unknown offenders. In these testimonial narratives, it is possible to detect specific modalities of traumatic event expression. This expression lacks any spatial, temporal, auditory or emotional determinants of the event. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: These fourteen women (out of 17) were imprisoned and forcefully isolated in detention camps or private houses in the occupied territories of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the war. At the same time, some of these women were raped by the offenders that were previously known to them. The average length of detention was 141 days among the seventeen victims (range of 7 to 395 days), while the average time from the first day of imprisonment to the first day of testimony was 311 days (range of 30 to 889 days). RESULTS: Based on the narrative descriptions of the events acquired from these testimonies, our analysis showed that these expressions differed when the offender was known to the victim, contrasted to the situation when the offender was completely unknown. This finding has a significant implication in victim's testimony at judicial hearings. Specifically, women that were raped by unknown perpetrator(s) were often unable to provide persuasive testimony and their recollection of the events was deemed insufficient for the further prosecution. Testimonies in these cases substantially lacked in vividness and were devoid of visuospatial determinants of the rape event. Consequently, this often resulted in the case's dismissal. CONCLUSION: The unusual and problematic expression of these traumatic memories might indicate that these events were not properly stored in the conceptual form of memory. Ultimately, victims could not make any coherent recollection or reconstruct the cascade of events by using perceptual information. We argue that this could be due to an aberrant mechanism of memory storage and difficulties that emerge on the level of sensory input. This problem needs to be further examined and correspondingly accounted for since it can exert significant influence on judicial outcomes in the domain of sexual assault cases worldwide.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Estupro/psicologia , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Crimes de Guerra/psicologia , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Croácia , Feminino , Humanos , Memória Episódica
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4900, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653847

RESUMO

The tau protein aggregates in aging and Alzheimer disease and may lead to memory loss through disruption of medial temporal lobe (MTL)-dependent memory systems. Here, we investigated tau-mediated mechanisms of hippocampal dysfunction that underlie the expression of episodic memory decline using fMRI measures of hippocampal local coherence (regional homogeneity; ReHo), distant functional connectivity and tau-PET. We show that age and tau pathology are related to higher hippocampal ReHo. Functional disconnection between the hippocampus and other components of the MTL memory system, particularly an anterior-temporal network specialized for object memory, is also associated with higher hippocampal ReHo and greater tau burden in anterior-temporal regions. These associations are not observed in the posteromedial network, specialized for context/spatial information. Higher hippocampal ReHo predicts worse memory performance. These findings suggest that tau pathology plays a role in disconnecting the hippocampus from specific MTL memory systems leading to increased local coherence and memory decline.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Córtex Entorrinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Compostos de Anilina , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Carbolinas , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Meios de Contraste , Córtex Entorrinal/metabolismo , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Tiazóis , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 833, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme borreliosis often include self-reported cognitive impairment. However, it remains unclear whether these symptoms can be substantiated by objective cognitive testing. METHODS: For this observational study, cognitive performance was assessed in 280 adults with persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme borreliosis (as part of baseline data collected for the Dutch PLEASE study). Cognitive testing covered the five major domains: episodic memory, working memory / attention, verbal fluency, information-processing speed and executive function. Patients' profiles of test scores were compared to a large age-, education- and sex-adjusted normative sample using multivariate normative comparison. Performance validity was assessed to detect suboptimal effort, and questionnaires were administered to measure self-reported cognitive complaints, fatigue, anxiety, depressive symptoms and several other psychological factors. RESULTS: Of 280 patients, one was excluded as the test battery could not be completed. Of the remaining 279 patients, 239 (85.4%) displayed sufficient performance validity. Patients with insufficient performance validity felt significantly more helpless and physically fatigued, and less orientated. Furthermore, they had a lower education level and less often paid work. Of the total study cohort 5.7% (n = 16) performed in the impaired range. Among the 239 patients who displayed sufficient performance validity, 2.9% (n = 7) were classified as cognitively impaired. No association between subjective cognitive symptoms and objective impairment was found. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small percentage of patients with borreliosis-attributed persistent symptoms have objective cognitive impairment. Performance validity should be taken into account in neuropsychological examinations of these patients. Self-report questionnaires are insufficiently valid to diagnose cognitive impairment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01207739 . Registered 23 September 2010.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Doença de Lyme/complicações , Doença de Lyme/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Atenção , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/diagnóstico , Função Executiva , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Autorrelato
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569467

RESUMO

Sleep significantly changes across the lifespan, and several studies underline its crucial role in cognitive functioning. Similarly, mental activity during sleep tends to covary with age. This review aims to analyze the characteristics of dreaming and disturbing dreams at different age brackets. On the one hand, dreams may be considered an expression of brain maturation and cognitive development, showing relations with memory and visuo-spatial abilities. Some investigations reveal that specific electrophysiological patterns, such as frontal theta oscillations, underlie dreams during sleep, as well as episodic memories in the waking state, both in young and older adults. On the other hand, considering the role of dreaming in emotional processing and regulation, the available literature suggests that mental sleep activity could have a beneficial role when stressful events occur at different age ranges. We highlight that nightmares and bad dreams might represent an attempt to cope the adverse events, and the degrees of cognitive-brain maturation could impact on these mechanisms across the lifespan. Future investigations are necessary to clarify these relations. Clinical protocols could be designed to improve cognitive functioning and emotional regulation by modifying the dream contents or the ability to recall/non-recall them.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição , Sonhos/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental , Sono/fisiologia , Humanos
12.
Psychiatr Pol ; 53(3): 589-597, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for drugresistant depression. In most studies, cognitive functions including working and semantic memory showed only transient impairment after ECT. However, the deficits of episodic (autobiographical) memory were demonstrated to be long-lasting. METHODS: We investigated autobiographical memory in 20 patients (8 male, 12 female), aged 21-64 years, with drug-resistant depression, treated with ECT, using the Polish adaptation of the Autobiographical Memory Interview-Short Form (AMI-SF). The assessments were performed before, immediately after 10-12 ECT sessions, and 3 months thereafter. RESULTS: Before the ECT, the mean severity of depression was 30 ± 6 points on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the treatment produced a significant clinical improvement in all patients. The indices of autobiographical memory, as assessed by the AMI-SF, were significantly lower immediately after ECT and 3 months thereafter. The impairment in autobiographical memory did not show correlation with clinical improvement and with any other clinical factors. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in patients with drug-resistant depression confirm that ECT treatment produces a significant impairment of autobiographical memory persisting also three months after the procedure, suggesting that it may be the most important adverse cognitive effect of the ECT.


Assuntos
Cognição , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Memória Episódica , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Brain Struct Funct ; 224(8): 2973-2982, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482268

RESUMO

Affect can directly influence memory storage and retrieval, which offers the opportunity to improve memory performance by changing affective responses. A promising target is the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), as it is functionally involved in both affect and memory. This study explores whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left dlPFC improves memory retrieval through the reduction of negative affect and if this interacts with age. We randomly assigned 94 healthy individuals (n = 43 young, n = 51 elderly) to either sham or active tDCS during encoding of a verbal episodic memory task. Participants completed two questionnaires assessing affective states pre- and post-stimulation. They had to recall items unexpectedly 20 min after encoding and to name which feelings were associated with this free recall. We applied mediation models to explore the relation between tDCS, change in affect, and memory retrieval. In young participants, the reduction of negative affect via anodal tDCS fully mediated the increase in memory retrieval (R2 = 57%; p < 0.001); that is, a stronger reduction of negative affect via tDCS led to better memory performance. We did not observe these effects in the elderly. Our study provides a further link between affect and memory: as increased activity in the dlPFC is crucial for successfully coping with affective interference, anodal tDCS seems to help preventing irrelevant negative thoughts, thus foster attention allocation. Studies applying anodal tDCS to the left dlPFC in healthy young participants should consider changes in affect when interpreting the effect of stimulation on memory performance.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(5): 1529-1547, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396816

RESUMO

Relative to younger adults, older adults tend to perform more poorly on tests of both free recall and item recognition memory. The age difference in performance is typically larger for recall tasks relative to those involving recognition. However, there have been reports of comparable age-related differences in free recall and item recognition performance. Further, a differential performance cost does not necessarily mean that processes involved in recall are specifically affected by age. Here we present a meta-analysis of 36 articles reporting 89 direct comparisons of free recall and item recognition in younger and older groups of participants. Standardized effect sizes reveal that age differences are larger for recall tasks (Hedges' g = 0.89, 95% confidence intervals [0.75, 1.03]) than for recognition tasks (0.54, [0.37, 0.72]). Further, Brinley analyses of the data suggest that distinct functions are needed to relate younger and older performance for the two tasks. These functions differ in intercept pointing to a disproportionate age difference in recall relative to recognition. This is in line with theories of memory and aging which posit specific deficits in processes related to search and retrieval from memory.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370283

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Episodic specific induction (ESI) is a manipulation shown to enhance episodic memory function. Episodic specificity induction involves thoroughly unpacking a recently encoded memory, with this enhanced retrieval-induced process helping to facilitate subsequent cognitions. In addition to ESI, emerging work suggests that acute exercise may also help to facilitate episodic memory function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential individual and combined effects of acute exercise and ESI on subsequent episodic memory performance. Materials and Methods: Participants (n = 120) were randomly assigned into one of four groups, (1) ESI and exercise (ESI + E), (2) ESI only (ESI), (3) exercise only (E), and (4) no ESI and no exercise (Control; C). The ESI protocol involved watching a short video and then recalling details about the setting, people, and actions in the video. The exercise protocol involved an acute bout (15 min) of treadmill exercise. After these tasks, episodic memory function was evaluated with an autobiographical interview assessment and a computerized episodic memory task involving what-where-when integration. Results: We did not observe significant main effects for exercise or ESI on memory function but did observe some suggestive evidence of an interaction effect of these two parameters on episodic memory. That is, for the exercise group, memory performance was higher when combined with ESI as opposed to without ESI. Conclusions: Acute exercise and ESI may interact to influence episodic memory function.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/normas , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3534, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388000

RESUMO

We are constantly interacting with our environment whilst we encode memories. However, how actions influence memory formation remains poorly understood. Goal-directed movement engages the locus coeruleus (LC), the main source of noradrenaline in the brain. Noradrenaline is also known to enhance episodic encoding, suggesting that action could improve memory via LC engagement. Here we demonstrate, across seven experiments, that action (Go-response) enhances episodic encoding for stimuli unrelated to the action itself, compared to action inhibition (NoGo). Functional magnetic resonance imaging, and pupil diameter as a proxy measure for LC-noradrenaline transmission, indicate increased encoding-related LC activity during action. A final experiment, replicated in two independent samples, confirmed a novel prediction derived from these data that emotionally aversive stimuli, which recruit the noradrenergic system, modulate the mnemonic advantage conferred by Go-responses relative to neutral stimuli. We therefore provide converging evidence that action boosts episodic memory encoding via a noradrenergic mechanism.


Assuntos
Locus Cerúleo/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Movimento/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Locus Cerúleo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(9): 1265-1270, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380673

RESUMO

How do we manage to shield our goals against distraction? Traditionally, this ability has been attributed to top-down cognitive control, which is assumed to monitor for and intervene in case of response conflicts. However, this account has been challenged by episodic-retrieval views, which attribute sequential modulations of conflict effects to bottom-up memory for stimulus and response features. Here we tested a new theory suggesting that that control and retrieval accounts are no alternatives but, rather, 2 sides of the same coin. According to this view, the control parameter can become stored in event files, together with stimulus, response, and context codes, so that cognitive control operations, independently from the stimulus-response codes the operate on, can come under mnemonic control. Using a novel design that eliminates any stimulus and response binding and at the same time disentangles conflict and retrieval of control states, we provide the strongest evidence to date that abstract control parameters are stored into trial-specific event files. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Elife ; 82019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383256

RESUMO

Remembering event sequences is central to episodic memory and presumably supported by the hippocampal-entorhinal region. We previously demonstrated that the hippocampus maps spatial and temporal distances between events encountered along a route through a virtual city (Deuker et al., 2016), but the content of entorhinal mnemonic representations remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that multi-voxel representations in the anterior-lateral entorhinal cortex (alEC) - the human homologue of the rodent lateral entorhinal cortex - specifically reflect the temporal event structure after learning. Holistic representations of the sequence structure related to memory recall and the timeline of events could be reconstructed from entorhinal multi-voxel patterns. Our findings demonstrate representations of temporal structure in the alEC; dovetailing with temporal information carried by population signals in the lateral entorhinal cortex of navigating rodents and alEC activations during temporal memory retrieval. Our results provide novel evidence for the role of the alEC in representing time for episodic memory.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(6): 1967-1973, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385205

RESUMO

Memories are able to update and adapt with new information about the world after they are reactivated. However, it is unknown whether the labile period following reactivation makes episodic memories more amenable to emotion regulation, an application that holds great clinical promise. Here, we investigated the efficacy of cognitive reappraisal to down regulate negative affect in response to reactivated memories. Healthy young adults (N = 119) rated the emotionality of negative pictures. After a partial reactivation of each picture 2 days later, participants voluntarily engaged in a spatial distancing regulation tactic by imagining the reactivated object extremely far away from them. Compared with no-regulation and no-reactivation controls, self-reported arousal for regulated pictures dropped significantly 2 days after the manipulation, despite no significant difference in memory accuracy or valence. These results open up a new line of work that capitalizes on reactivation-based lability to selectively alter enduring arousal responses to emotional memories.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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