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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 216: 103299, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799104

RESUMO

Attention and working memory (WM) are under high genetic regulation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CNR1 gene, that encode for CB1R, have previously been shown to be related with individual differences in attentional control and WM. However, it remains unclear whether there is an allele-dosage or a dominant contribution of polymorphisms of CNR1 affecting attention and WM performance. This study evaluated the associations between attention and WM performance and three SNPs of CNR1: rs1406977, rs2180619, and rs1049353, previously associated with both processes. Healthy volunteers (n = 127) were asked to perform the Attention Network Task (ANT) to evaluate their overall attention and alerting, orienting, and executive systems, and the n-back task for evaluating their WM. All subjects were genotyped using qPCR with TaqMan assays; and dominant and additive models were assessed using the risk alleles of each SNP as the predictor variable. Results showed an individual association of the three SNPs with attention performance, but the composite genotype by the three alleles had the greatest contribution. Moreover, the additive-dosage model showed that for each G-allele added to the genotypic configuration, there was an increase in the percentage of correct responses respect to carriers who have no risk alleles in their genotypic configuration. The number of risk alleles in the genotypic configurations did not predict efficiency in any of the attention systems, nor in WM performance. Our model showed a contribution of three single nucleotide polymorphisms of the CNR1 gene to explain 9% of the variance of attention in an additive manner.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Genótipo , Humanos , Receptores de Canabinoides
2.
Behav Processes ; 187: 104395, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839237

RESUMO

Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to stress and vulnerability to the manifestation of psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nevertheless, the relationship between stress during adolescence and ADHD is still unclear. Knowing that stress can have long-term consequences, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a single episode of restraint stress during adolescence on locomotion, risk behaviour and short-term memory in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a validated animal model of ADHD. A single episode of stress during adolescence increased risk behaviour and impaired short-term recognition memory, but did not alter locomotion in adult SHR. These findings show that stress during adolescence, even acute, may lead to long-term behavioural consequences in an animal model of ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Assunção de Riscos
3.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 38(2): 257-267, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913285

RESUMO

Fetal electrocardiogram signal extraction is of great significance for perinatal fetal monitoring. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of fetal electrocardiogram signal, this paper proposes a fetal electrocardiogram signal extraction method (GA-LSTM) based on genetic algorithm (GA) optimization with long and short term memory (LSTM) network. Firstly, according to the characteristics of the mixed electrocardiogram signal of the maternal abdominal wall, the global search ability of the GA is used to optimize the number of hidden layer neurons, learning rate and training times of the LSTM network, and the optimal combination of parameters is calculated to make the network topology and the mother body match the characteristics of the mixed signals of the abdominal wall. Then, the LSTM network model is constructed using the optimal network parameters obtained by the GA, and the nonlinear transformation of the maternal chest electrocardiogram signals to the abdominal wall is estimated by the GA-LSTM network. Finally, using the non-linear transformation obtained from the maternal chest electrocardiogram signal and the GA-LSTM network model, the maternal electrocardiogram signal contained in the abdominal wall signal is estimated, and the estimated maternal electrocardiogram signal is subtracted from the mixed abdominal wall signal to obtain a pure fetal electrocardiogram signal. This article uses clinical electrocardiogram signals from two databases for experimental analysis. The final results show that compared with the traditional normalized minimum mean square error (NLMS), genetic algorithm-support vector machine method (GA-SVM) and LSTM network methods, the method proposed in this paper can extract a clearer fetal electrocardiogram signal, and its accuracy, sensitivity, accuracy and overall probability have been better improved. Therefore, the method could extract relatively pure fetal electrocardiogram signals, which has certain application value for perinatal fetal health monitoring.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Algoritmos , Feminino , Monitorização Fetal , Humanos , Gravidez , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
4.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 38(2): 361-368, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913297

RESUMO

In order to solve the current problems in medical equipment maintenance, this study proposed an intelligent fault diagnosis method for medical equipment based on long short term memory network(LSTM). Firstly, in the case of no circuit drawings and unknown circuit board signal direction, the symptom phenomenon and port electrical signal of 7 different fault categories were collected, and the feature coding, normalization, fusion and screening were preprocessed. Then, the intelligent fault diagnosis model was built based on LSTM, and the fused and screened multi-modal features were used to carry out the fault diagnosis classification and identification experiment. The results were compared with those using port electrical signal, symptom phenomenon and the fusion of the two types. In addition, the fault diagnosis algorithm was compared with BP neural network (BPNN), recurrent neural network (RNN) and convolution neural network (CNN). The results show that based on the fused and screened multi-modal features, the average classification accuracy of LSTM algorithm model reaches 0.970 9, which is higher than that of using port electrical signal alone, symptom phenomenon alone or the fusion of the two types. It also has higher accuracy than BPNN, RNN and CNN, which provides a relatively feasible new idea for intelligent fault diagnosis of similar equipment.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Eletricidade
5.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(4): 1375-1390, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791942

RESUMO

Research within visual cognition has made tremendous strides in uncovering the basic operating characteristics of the visual system by reducing the complexity of natural vision to artificial but well-controlled experimental tasks and stimuli. This reductionist approach has for example been used to assess the basic limitations of visual attention, visual working memory (VWM) capacity, and the fidelity of visual long-term memory (VLTM). The assessment of these limits is usually made in a pure sense, irrespective of goals, actions, and priors. While it is important to map out the bottlenecks our visual system faces, we focus here on selected examples of how such limitations can be overcome. Recent findings suggest that during more natural tasks, capacity may be higher than reductionist research suggests and that separable systems subserve different actions, such as reaching and looking, which might provide important insights about how pure attentional or memory limitations could be circumvented. We also review evidence suggesting that the closer we get to naturalistic behavior, the more we encounter implicit learning mechanisms that operate "for free" and "on the fly." These mechanisms provide a surprisingly rich visual experience, which can support capacity-limited systems. We speculate whether natural tasks may yield different estimates of the limitations of VWM, VLTM, and attention, and propose that capacity measurements should also pass the real-world test within naturalistic frameworks. Our review highlights various approaches for this and suggests that our understanding of visual cognition will benefit from incorporating the complexities of real-world cognition in experimental approaches.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Visual , Cognição , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Memória de Longo Prazo
6.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(3): 442-453, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits following a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are a leading cause of disability in young adults and there is a critical need for novel approaches to improve cognitive outcomes in TBI survivors. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) paired with cognitive remediation has emerged as a viable, cost-effective, noninvasive approach for treating cognitive impairments in a wide variety of neurological conditions. Here, we report the first case study utilizing remotely supervised tDCS (RS-tDCS) protocol paired with cognitive remediation in a 29-year-old man with persisting cognitive and emotional sequelae following TBI. METHOD: Neuropsychological measures were administered before and after the patient completed 20 daily sessions of RS-tDCS (2.0 mA × 20 minutes, left anodal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex montage). During the daily stimulation period, he completed adaptive cognitive training. All treatment procedures were delivered at home and monitored in real time via videoconference with a study technician. RESULTS: Following 20 RS-tDCS and cognitive training sessions, he had significant improvements (>1 SD) on tests of attention and working memory, semantic fluency, and information processing speed. Mood was also improved. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration of at-home telerehabilitation with RS-tDCS and cognitive training to improve cognitive outcomes following TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Telerreabilitação , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Cognição , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806358

RESUMO

The driver's attentional state is a significant human factor in traffic safety. The executive control process is a crucial sub-function of attention. To explore the relationship between the driver's driving performance and executive control function, a total of 35 healthy subjects were invited to take part in a simulated driving experiment and a task-cuing experiment. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their driving performance (aberrant driving behaviors, including lapses and errors) by the clustering method. Then the performance efficiency and electroencephalogram (EEG) data acquired in the task-cuing experiment were compared among the three groups. The effect of group, task transition types and cue-stimulus intervals (CSIs) were statistically analyzed by using the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc simple effect analysis. The subjects with lower driving error rates had better executive control efficiency as indicated by the reaction time (RT) and error rate in the task-cuing experiment, which was related with their better capability to allocate the available attentional resources, to express the external stimuli and to process the information in the nervous system, especially the fronto-parietal network. The activation degree of the frontal area fluctuated, and of the parietal area gradually increased along with the increase of CSI, which implied the role of the frontal area in task setting reconstruction and working memory maintaining, and of the parietal area in stimulus-Response (S-R) mapping expression. This research presented evidence of the close relationship between executive control functions and driving performance.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Função Executiva , Atenção , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Tempo de Reação
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807425

RESUMO

This study analyzed response inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory in three groups of patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, considering some variables that may influence results (nonverbal reasoning, comorbidity, use of pharmacotherapy). Neuropsychological measures were completed using a computerized Wisconsin card sorting test, Stroop color word test, go/no-go task, digits and Corsi. Significant differences were obtained among groups in cognitive flexibility and working memory variables. The obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) group showed the worst results. The social anxiety disorder group obtained greater effect sizes in visuospatial memory. However, significant differences between groups in visuospatial memory were no longer present when nonverbal reasoning was controlled. Comorbidity influenced interference in the OCD and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) groups. In addition, the executive functions were differently influenced by the level of obsessions and anxiety, and the use of pharmacotherapy. Study limitations include a non-random selection of participants, modest sample size and design type (cross-sectional). The OCD group showed the worst results in flexibility cognitive and verbal working memory. Comorbidity, use of pharmacotherapy and level anxiety and obsessions were variables influencing the performance of executive functions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Fobia Social , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Fobia Social/epidemiologia
9.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 215: 103289, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711503

RESUMO

Previous research repeatedly found basic numerical abilities (e.g., magnitude understanding, arithmetic fact knowledge, etc.) to predict young students' current and later arithmetic achievement as assessed by achievement tests - even when controlling for the influence of domain-general abilities (e.g., intelligence, working memory). However, to the best of our knowledge, previous studies hardly addressed this issue in secondary school students. Additionally, they primarily assessed basic numerical abilities in a between-task approach (i.e., using different tasks for different abilities). Finally, their relevance for real-life academic outcomes such as mathematics grades has only rarely been investigated. The present study therefore pursued an approach using one and the same task (i.e., a within-task approach) to reduce confounding effects driven by between-task differences. In particular, we evaluated the relevance of i) number magnitude understanding, ii) arithmetic fact knowledge, and iii) conceptual and procedural knowledge for the mathematics grades of 81 students aged between ten and thirteen (i.e., in Grades 5 and 6) employing the number bisection task. Results indicated that number magnitude understanding, arithmetic fact knowledge, and conceptual and procedural knowledge contributed to explaining mathematics grades even when controlling for domain-general cognitive abilities. Methodological and practical implications of the results are discussed.


Assuntos
Logro , Compreensão , Humanos , Matemática , Memória de Curto Prazo , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 215: 103293, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743502

RESUMO

The main goal of the present study was to explore strategy selection in high mathematical anxiety (MA) individuals, and to test the role of development in the selection of strategy. We tested 2nd, 3rd and 5th graders with high or low MA in simple and complex addition problems. Participants first solved the problems and were then asked to report the strategy that they used. During elementary school, typically developing children change strategy use. In the first years backup strategies of counting are very frequent, but with maturation and schooling, they can shift to memory- based strategies. Hence, we tested finger counting and advanced memory based strategies in high MA children. In finger counting, high MA children showed developmental delay. For example, in the third grade, low MA children stopped using finger counting, while high MA participants continued to use it. However, in the case of advanced strategy use, we found a different pattern: regardless of age, high MA children used less advanced strategies than low MA participants. Moreover, usage of advanced memory based strategies was modulated by visuospatial working memory abilities in the two groups. The present results suggest that the MA participant has atypical developmental trajectories in strategy use.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Memória de Curto Prazo , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Humanos , Matemática
11.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(3): 1130-1149, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641504

RESUMO

This study examined the electroencephalograpy (EEG) coherence and working memory performance effects of a 9-week exercise program on a small group of adolescents at high suicide risk. We randomly assigned 26 adolescents at high suicide risk (based on their scores on the Adolescents Mental Health Inventory- AMHI) into equal sized exercise and no-exercise groups. Before and after the 9-week exercise program, all participants performed the Sternberg working memory task, during which we recorded their EEGs, with electrodes placed at F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4, T3, T4, O1, and O2 regions (using the International 10-20 system of EEG electrode placement). We measured working memory performance and inter-hemispheric (F3-F4, C3-C4, T3-T4, P3-P4, O1-O2) and intra-hemispheric (F3-C3, F3-T3, F3-P3, F3-O1, F4-C4, F4-T4, F4-P4, F4-O2) EEG coherence as an index of the participants' underlying neural efficiency. While we found no significant group differences in working memory performances, the exercise group, relative to the no-exercise group, exhibited lower inter- and intra-hemispheric EEG coherence while performing the working memory task. These EEG differences may reflect a mediating effect of aerobic exercise on these participants' neural efficiency.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Exercício Físico , Memória de Curto Prazo , Suicídio , Adolescente , Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
12.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(4): 1613-1628, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686590

RESUMO

It has been established that objects sharing color in a visual display can boost working memory. The capacity to encode singletons particularly benefits from the repetition of colors encoded as perceptual groups. We manipulated the algorithmic complexity of visual displays to test whether compressibility of information could account for the color-sharing bonus. This study used a free recall working memory task in which the participants were shown displays of 2 to 8 color items. We examined the influence of set size, complexity, number of same-color clusters and amount of color redundancy. The results showed that the probability of correct recall of the pattern and the proportion of similarity between the pattern and the response decreased with an increase of each manipulated variable, except for color redundancy in terms of probability of correct recall. The model performance of complexity did not differ from that of clusters, but complexity was found more accurate than either set size or color redundancy. The results also showed that similar items were more often recalled adjacently, and complexity correlated strongly with the number of extra color repetitions in the response, suggesting that more complex patterns encouraged the use of information compression. Moreover, color repetitions were more often recalled first and the probability of correct recall for singletons and sub-patterns could be predicted by the compressibility measure. We discuss the potential advantage of using compressibility measures to capture the effects of regularities in visual patterns, in particular to refine analysis of the color-sharing bonus.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Rememoração Mental , Cor , Percepção de Cores , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa
13.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 83(4): 1391-1396, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728509

RESUMO

Contrary to early proposals stating that we always store bound object features in visual working memory, more recent work has suggested that we can inhibit the encoding, or consolidation, of irrelevant features of objects into visual working memory. However, a number of theoretical proposals suggest that spatial location is a special feature of an object that might be obligatorily bound to objects stored in visual working memory. In this study, I used a masking paradigm to measure the efficiency of encoding into visual working memory while subjects were tasked with remembering the location, color, or both of these features of the objects. The measures of consolidation efficiency indicate that spatial location is not encoded into visual working memory unless it is relevant for the task at hand. Thus, the present experiments show that we can control which features of an object are selectively stored in working memory, including spatial location, a feature thought to be immune to such filtering.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Rememoração Mental , Cor , Humanos , Percepção Visual
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671754

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between burnout and cognitive functioning. The associations of depression, anxiety and family support with burnout and cognitive functioning were also examined both independently and as potential moderators of the burnout-cognitive functioning relationship. Seven different cognitive tasks were administered to employees of the general working population and five cognitive domains were assessed; i.e., executive functions, working memory, memory (episodic, visuospatial, prospective), attention/speed of processing and visuospatial abilities. Burnout, depression, anxiety and family support were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Family Support Scale respectively. In congruence with the first and fourth (partially) Hypotheses, burnout and perceived family support are significantly associated with some aspects of cognitive functioning. Moreover, in line with the third Hypothesis, perceived family support is inversely related to burnout. However, in contrast to the second and fourth Hypotheses, depression, anxiety and perceived family support do not moderate the burnout-cognitive functioning relationship. Additional results reveal positive associations between burnout depression and anxiety. Overall findings suggest that cognitive deficits, depression and anxiety appear to be common in burnout while they underpin the role of perceived family support in both mental health and cognitive functioning. Implications for practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Função Executiva , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Cognição , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 23, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed the protective effect of DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) against diseases associated with ischemic hypoxia. However, the role of NBP in animals with hypobaric hypoxia has not been elucidated. This study investigated the effects of NBP on rodents with acute and chronic hypobaric hypoxia. METHODS: Sprague-Dwaley rats and Kunming mice administered with NBP (0, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg for rats and 0, 90, 180, and 360 mg/kg for mice) were placed in a hypobaric hypoxia chamber at 10,000 m and the survival percentages at 30 min were determined. Then, the time and distance to exhaustion of drug-treated rodents were evaluated during treadmill running and motor-driven wheel-track treadmill experiments, conducted at 5800 m for 3 days or 20 days, to evaluate changes in physical functions. The frequency of active escapes and duration of active escapes were also determined for rats in a shuttle-box experiment, conducted at 5800 m for 6 days or 27 days, to evaluate changes in learning and memory function. ATP levels were measured in the gastrocnemius muscle and malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and lactate were detected in sera of rats, and routine blood tests were also performed. RESULTS: Survival analysis at 10,000 m indicated NBP could improve hypoxia tolerance ability. The time and distance to exhaustion for mice (NBP, 90 mg/kg) and time to exhaustion for rats (NBP, 120 and 240 mg/kg) significantly increased under conditions of acute hypoxia compared with control group. NBP treatment also significantly increased the time to exhaustion for rats when exposed to chronic hypoxia. Moreover, 240 mg/kg NBP significantly increased the frequency of active escapes under conditions of acute hypoxia. Furthermore, the levels of MDA and H2O2 decreased but those of SOD and GSH-Px in the sera of rats increased under conditions of acute and chronic hypoxia. Additionally, ATP levels in the gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased, while lactate levels in sera significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: NBP improved physical and learning and memory functions in rodents exposed to acute or chronic hypobaric hypoxia by increasing their anti-oxidative capacity and energy supply.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude/complicações , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Animais , Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 41, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 'doorway effect', or 'location updating effect', claims that we tend to forget items of recent significance immediately after crossing a boundary. Previous research suggests that such a forgetting effect occurs both at physical boundaries (e.g., moving from one room to another via a door) and metaphysical boundaries (e.g., imagining traversing a doorway, or even when moving from one desktop window to another on a computer). Here, we aimed to conceptually replicate this effect using virtual and physical environments. METHODS: Across four experiments, we measured participants' hit and false alarm rates to memory probes for items recently encountered either in the same or previous room. Experiments 1 and 2 used highly immersive virtual reality without and with working memory load (Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Experiment 3 used passive video watching and Experiment 4 used active real-life movement. Data analysis was conducted using frequentist as well as Bayesian inference statistics. RESULTS: Across this series of experiments, we observed no significant effect of doorways on forgetting. In Experiment 2, however, signal detection was impaired when participants responded to probes after moving through doorways, such that false alarm rates were increased for mismatched recognition probes. Thus, under working memory load, memory was more susceptible to interference after moving through doorways. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents evidence that is inconsistent with the location updating effect as it has previously been reported. Our findings call into question the generalisability and robustness of this effect to slight paradigm alterations and, indeed, what factors contributed to the effect observed in previous studies.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Memória de Curto Prazo , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Rememoração Mental
17.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(2): 740-747, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734823

RESUMO

Purpose Youth with cochlear implants (CIs) are at risk for delays in verbal short-term memory (STM)/working memory (WM), which adversely affect language, neurocognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Assessment of verbal STM/WM is critical for identifying and addressing these delays, but standard assessment procedures require face-to-face (FTF) administration. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and validity of remote testing methods (teleassessment) of verbal STM/WM in youth with CIs as a method of addressing COVID-19-related restrictions on FTF test administration. Method Tests of verbal STM/WM for nonwords, digit spans, letter-number sequences, sentences, and stories were individually administered by speech-language pathologists over a teleassessment platform to 28 youth (aged 9-22 years) with CIs and 36 same-aged normal-hearing peers. Examiners, parents, and participants completed quality and satisfaction ratings with the teleassessment procedure. Teleassessment scores were compared to results of tests obtained at FTF visits an average of 1.6 years earlier. Results Quality and satisfaction ratings for teleassessment were high and in almost all cases did not differ between the CI and normal-hearing samples. Youth with CIs scored lower than normal-hearing peers on measures of verbal STM/WM, and scores for digit span and letter-number sequencing did not differbetween teleassessment and FTF methods. Correlations across teleassessment and FTF visits were strong for digit span, letter-number sequencing, and sentence memory, but were more modest for nonword repetition. Conclusion With some caveats, teleassessment of verbal STM/WM was feasible and valid for youth with CIs.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção da Fala , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Implantes Cocleares/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the severity of disorders of executive functions in children with dyslexia and to assess the effectiveness of treatment of this pathology with cortexin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The main study group included 60 children, aged 8-11 years, with a specific reading disorder (F.81.0). Reading skills were assessed using methods of T.A. Fotekova, T.V. Akhutina. Diagnostic examination included neurological examination with dyspraxia test, electroencephalography with visual and quantitative analysis. To objectify the severity of memory impairments, the «Working memory¼ technique was used. Attention and impulsivity disorders were quantified using SNAP-IY and the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). The control group consisted of 60 children of the same age without symptoms of dyslexia. Cortexin was used to treat 30 patients from the study group, 30 patients received encephabol. A control study to analyze the effectiveness of the therapy was carried out one month after the end of therapy. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Children with dyslexia are characterized by a higher level of inattention and impulsivity, as well as significantly lower indicators of working memory compared to children from the control group. The decrease in attention and working memory as well as an increased level of impulsivity are manifestations of impaired executive functions in children with dyslexia. The results of the control study after treatment showed a significant increase in reading skills in both groups. In addition, there was an improvement in indicators of attention and working memory. However, the effectiveness of treatment with cortexin was slightly higher compared to encephabol (improvement was noted in 73.3% and 60.0%of patients, respectively). According to a comparative analysis of EEG results, after a course of treatment with cortexin, children with dyslexia have significant neurophysiological changes that indicate the activation of the brain regulatory systems.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Dislexia , Atenção , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24581, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663067

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common disease with both affective and cognitive disorders. Alterations in metabolic systems of MDD patients have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms still remains unclear. We sought to identify abnormal metabolites in MDD by metabolomics and to explore the association between differential metabolites and neurocognitive dysfunction.Plasma samples from 53 MDD patients and 83 sex-, gender-, BMI-matched healthy controls (HCs) were collected. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system was then used to detect metabolites in those samples. Two different algorithms were applied to identify differential metabolites in 2 groups. Of the 136 participants, 35 MDD patients and 48 HCs had completed spatial working memory test. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was applied to explore the relationship between differential metabolites and working memory in these 2 groups.The top 5 metabolites which were found in sparse partial least squares-discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) model and random forest (RF) model were the same, and significant difference was found in 3 metabolites between MDD and HCs, namely, gamma-glutamyl leucine, leucine-enkephalin, and valeric acid. In addition, MDD patients had higher scores in spatial working memory (SWM) between errors and total errors than HCs. Valeric acid was positively correlated with working memory in MDD group.Gamma-glutamyl leucine, leucine-enkephalin, and valeric acid were preliminarily proven to be decreased in MDD patients. In addition, MDD patients performed worse in working memory than HCs. Dysfunction in working memory of MDD individuals was associated with valeric acid.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Algoritmos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cromatografia Líquida , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Dipeptídeos/sangue , Encefalina Leucina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Pentanoicos/sangue , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores Sexuais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neuron ; 109(6): 916-917, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735614

RESUMO

In this issue of Neuron, Brincat et al. (2021) track in real time the working memory representations in prefrontal cortex of both hemispheres, as a saccade moves the remembered location from one hemifield to the other. They reveal a soft interhemispheric handover subserved by local rhythms and their interhemispheric synchronization.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Movimentos Sacádicos , Neurônios , Córtex Pré-Frontal
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