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1.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1687-1695, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551596

RESUMO

Working memory involves storing and/or manipulating previously encoded information over a short-term delay period, which is typically followed by a behavioral response based on the remembered information. Although working memory tasks often engage dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, few studies have investigated whether their subprocesses are localized to different cortical depths in this region, and none have done so in humans. Here we use high-resolution functional MRI to interrogate the layer specificity of neural activity during different periods of a delayed-response task in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We detect activity time courses that follow the hypothesized patterns: namely, superficial layers are preferentially active during the delay period, specifically in trials requiring manipulation (rather than mere maintenance) of information held in working memory, and deeper layers are preferentially active during the response. Results demonstrate that layer-specific functional MRI can be used in higher-order brain regions to noninvasively map cognitive processing in humans.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180181, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482997

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To measure listening effort using of a dual-task paradigm of working memory and analyze the clinical significance of the normal-hearing individuals' performance. METHODS: Participants were 10 young adults with similar socio-cultural level, aged 18-30 years, of both genders, classified as normal-hearing individuals based on the quadritonal average (500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz). The participants were submitted to audiological anamnesis, meatoscopy, and pure tone audiometry. Listening effort was measured using a dual-task paradigm comprising the tasks of speech perception and working memory with logatomes, real words, and meaningless sentences. Prior to measurement, the dual-task paradigm was carried out in audiometric booth in order to train the participants to perform the tasks properly. After the training stage, this paradigm was conducted under two different hearing situations with white noise: signal-to-noise ratios of +5 and -5dB. RESULTS: Performance comparison per ear, right or left, for the two signal-to-noise ratios significantly influenced the speech perception tasks with logatomes and meaningless sentences in both ears; however, significant difference was observed only for the right ear in the tasks of listening effort and working memory. CONCLUSION: Listening effort can be measured using the paradigm proposed, and this instrument was proven sensitive for the quantification of this auditory parameter.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Valores de Referência , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 805-820, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414857

RESUMO

In hybrid foraging tasks, observers search visual displays, so called patches, for multiple instances of any of several types of targets with the goal of collecting targets as quickly as possible. Here, targets were photorealistic objects. Younger and older adults collected targets by mouse clicks. They could move to the next patch whenever they decided to do so. The number of targets held in memory varied between 8 and 64 objects, and the number of items (targets and distractors) in the patches varied between 60 and 105 objects. Older adults foraged somewhat less efficiently than younger adults due to a more exploitative search strategy. When target items became depleted in a patch and search slowed down, younger adults acted according to the optimal foraging theory and moved on to the next patch when the instantaneous rate of collection was close to their average rate of collection. Older adults, by contrast, were more likely to stay longer and spend time searching for the last few targets. Within a patch, both younger and older adults tended to collect the same type of target in "runs." This behavior is more efficient than continual switching between target types. Furthermore, after correction for general age-related slowing, RT × set size functions revealed largely preserved attention and memory functions in older age. Hybrid foraging tasks share features with important real-world search tasks. Differences between younger and older observers on this task may therefore help to explain age differences in many complex search tasks of daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Atenção/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Memória , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
4.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(4): 531-544, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virtual reality (VR) technology may provide an effective means to integrate cognitive and functional approaches to TBI rehabilitation. However, little is known about the effectiveness of VR rehabilitation for TBI-related cognitive deficits. In response to these clinical and research gaps, we developed Neurocognitive Driving Rehabilitation in Virtual Environments (NeuroDRIVE), an intervention designed to improve cognitive performance, driving safety, and neurobehavioral symptoms. OBJECTIVE: This pilot clinical trial was conducted to examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy of NeuroDRIVE for rehabilitation of chronic TBI. METHODS: Eleven participants who received the intervention were compared to six wait-listed participants on driving abilities, cognitive performance, and neurobehavioral symptoms. RESULTS: The NeuroDRIVE intervention was associated with significant improvements in working memory and visual search/selective attention- two cognitive skills that represented a primary focus of the intervention. By comparison, no significant changes were observed in untrained cognitive areas, neurobehavioral symptoms, or driving skills. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that immersive virtual environments can provide a valuable and engaging means to achieve some cognitive rehabilitation goals, particularly when these goals are closely matched to the VR training exercises. However, additional research is needed to augment our understanding of rehabilitation for driving skills, cognitive performance, and neurobehavioral symptoms in chronic TBI.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/reabilitação , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Realidade Virtual
5.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(8): 1373-1385, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343232

RESUMO

Brady, Konkle, and Alvarez (2009) argued that statistical learning boosts the number of colors that can be held online in visual working memory (WM). They showed that when specific colors are consistently paired together in a WM task, subjects can take optimal advantage of these regularities to recall more colors, an effect they labeled memory compression. They proposed that memory compression is a product of visual statistical learning, an automatic apprehension of statistical regularities that has been shown in prior work to be disconnected from explicit learning. If statistical learning enables an expansion of the number of individuated representations in visual WM, it would require revision of virtually all models of capacity in this online memory system. That said, this provocative claim is inconsistent with multiple studies that have found no improvement in WM performance following numerous repetitions of specific sample displays (e.g., Logie, Brockmole, & Vandenbroucke, 2009; Olson & Jiang, 2004). Here, we replicate the Brady et al. (2009) findings but show that memory compression effects were restricted to subjects who had perfect explicit recall of the color pairs at the end of the study, suggesting that statistical regularities boosted performance by enabling contributions from long-term memory. Thus, while memory compression effects provide an interesting example of the tight collaboration between online and offline memory representations, they do not provide evidence that statistical regularities can augment the number of individuated representations that can be concurrently stored in visual WM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Cor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa
6.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(8): 1336-1344, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263205

RESUMO

Traversing sensory environments requires keeping relevant information in mind while simultaneously processing new inputs. Visual information is kept in working memory via feature-selective responses in early visual cortex, but recent work has suggested that new sensory inputs obligatorily wipe out this information. Here we show region-wide multiplexing abilities in classic sensory areas, with population-level response patterns in early visual cortex representing the contents of working memory alongside new sensory inputs. In a second experiment, we show that when people get distracted, this leads to both disruptions of mnemonic information in early visual cortex and decrements in behavioral recall. Representations in the intraparietal sulcus reflect actively remembered information encoded in a transformed format, but not task-irrelevant sensory inputs. Together, these results suggest that early visual areas play a key role in supporting high-resolution working memory representations that can serve as a template for comparison with incoming sensory information.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1159-1167, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182866

RESUMO

Recently it has been proposed that information in working memory (WM) may not always be stored in persistent neuronal activity but can be maintained in 'activity-silent' hidden states, such as synaptic efficacies endowed with short-term synaptic plasticity. To test this idea computationally, we investigated recurrent neural network models trained to perform several WM-dependent tasks, in which WM representation emerges from learning and is not a priori assumed to depend on self-sustained persistent activity. We found that short-term synaptic plasticity can support the short-term maintenance of information, provided that the memory delay period is sufficiently short. However, in tasks that require actively manipulating information, persistent activity naturally emerges from learning, and the amount of persistent activity scales with the degree of manipulation required. These results shed insight into the current debate on WM encoding and suggest that persistent activity can vary markedly between short-term memory tasks with different cognitive demands.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia
8.
Neuron ; 103(3): 520-532.e5, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230761

RESUMO

In economic decisions, we make a good-based choice first, then we transform the outcome into an action to obtain the good. To elucidate the network mechanisms for such transformation, we constructed a neural circuit model consisting of modules representing choice, integration of choice with target locations, and the final action plan. We examined three scenarios regarding how the final action plan could emerge in the neural circuit and compared their implications with experimental data. Our model with heterogeneous connectivity predicts the coexistence of three types of neurons with distinct functions, confirmed by analyzing the neural activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) of behaving monkeys. We obtained a much more distinct classification of functional neuron types in the ventral than the dorsal region of LPFC, suggesting that the action plan is initially generated in ventral LPFC. Our model offers a biologically plausible neural circuit architecture that implements good-to-action transformation during economic choice.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia
9.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(3): 451-456, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide normative data for the 5 Objects Test in a large Spanish community sample, as well as some validity evidence. METHODS: The sample was composed of 427 participants (of which 220 females, age 15 to 95 years old; educational level range: 2-17 years). Normative data are provided, as well as correlations with test scores from Benton Visual Retention test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and Mini Mental State Examination. RESULTS: No association was found between delayed recall score and level of education, age or gender. Immediate recall score was correlated with age. Both immediate and delayed recall significantly correlated with the criteria, evidencing concurrent validity. CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that the 5 Objects Test be used for assessing persons in primary care, including those from different linguistic backgrounds or with limited language use. Delayed recall scores are especially recommended given the lack of association with demographic variables.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Recognição (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(6): 1901-1912, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111454

RESUMO

A recent theory proposes that arousal amplifies the competition between stimulus representations, strengthening already strong representations and weakening already weak representations in perception and memory. Here, we report a stringent test of this arousal-biased competition theory in the context of visual attention and short-term memory. We examined whether pre-trial arousal enhances the bottom-up attentional bias toward physically salient versus less salient stimuli in a multi-letter identification task. Arousal was manipulated by presenting an arousing versus a neutral picture (Experiment 1) or sound (Experiment 2) at the start of each trial. Bayesian statistics revealed strong evidence for the null hypothesis in both experiments: Arousal did not modulate the effects of physical salience on letter identification. The experiments were repeated with EEG measurements and subjective stimulus ratings, which confirmed that the stimuli successfully manipulated physiological and subjective arousal. These results pose a challenge for the arousal-biased competition theory.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Neuron ; 103(1): 147-160.e8, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103359

RESUMO

Working memory is fundamental to cognition, allowing one to hold information "in mind." A defining characteristic of working memory is its flexibility: we can hold anything in mind. However, typical models of working memory rely on finely tuned, content-specific attractors to persistently maintain neural activity and therefore do not allow for the flexibility observed in behavior. Here, we present a flexible model of working memory that maintains representations through random recurrent connections between two layers of neurons: a structured "sensory" layer and a randomly connected, unstructured layer. As the interactions are untuned with respect to the content being stored, the network maintains any arbitrary input. However, in our model, this flexibility comes at a cost: the random connections overlap, leading to interference between representations and limiting the memory capacity of the network. Additionally, our model captures several other key behavioral and neurophysiological characteristics of working memory.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/citologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia
12.
Psychol Aging ; 34(4): 512-530, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045391

RESUMO

Normal adult aging is known to be associated with lower performance on tasks assessing the short-term storage of information. However, whether or not there are additional age-related deficits associated with concurrent storage and processing demands within working memory remains unclear. Methodological differences across studies are considered critical factors responsible for the variability in the magnitude of the reported age effects. Here we synthesized comparisons of younger and older adults' performance on tasks measuring storage alone against those combining storage with concurrent processing of information. We also considered the influence of task-related moderator variables. Meta-analysis of effect sizes revealed a small but disproportionate effect of processing on older adults' memory performance. Moderator analysis indicated that equating single task storage performance across age groups (titration) and the nature of the stimulus material were important determinants of memory accuracy. Titration of storage task difficulty was found to lead to smaller, and nonsignificant, age-differences in dual task costs. These results were corroborated by supplementary Brinley and state-trace analyses. We discuss these findings in relation to the extant literature and current working memory theory as well as possibilities for future research to address the residual heterogeneity in effect sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 197: 52-63, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100548

RESUMO

The question of whether visual working memory (VWM) stores individual features or bound objects as basic units is actively debated. Evidence exists for both feature-based and object-based storages, as well as hierarchically organized representations maintaining both types of information at different levels. One argument for feature-based storage is that features belonging to different dimensions (e.g., color and orientations) can be stored without interference suggesting independent capacities for every dimension. Here, we studied whether the lack of cross-dimensional interference reflects genuinely independent feature storages or mediated by common objects. In three experiments, participants remembered and recalled the colors and orientations of sets of objects. We independently manipulated set sizes within each feature dimension (making colors and orientations either identical or differing across objects). Critically, we assigned to-be-remembered colors and orientations either to same spatially integrated or to different spatially separated objects. We found that the precision and recall probability within each dimension was not affected by set size manipulations in a different dimension when the features belonged to integrated objects. However, manipulations with color set sizes did affect orientation memory when the features were separated. We conclude therefore that different feature dimensions can be encoded and stored independently but the advantage of the independent storages are mediated at the object-based level. This conclusion is consistent with the idea of hierarchically organized VWM.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biol Psychol ; 145: 167-173, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102670

RESUMO

Working memory can be enhanced by directing attention to task-relevant representations. Alpha oscillations are a neural correlate of spatial attention either to the perceptual or the mnemonic domain. Specifically, an enhancement of alpha power is observed in the ipsilateral posterior cortex to the locus of attention, along with a suppression in the contralateral hemisphere. In this study we aim to unravel the contribution of bottom-up processes in the top-down guidance of attention inside WM. In this way, emotionality of the memoranda was manipulated in a retro-cue task. Behaviorally, we found a recognition advantage for emotional cued items, and significantly, that the emotionality of the non-cued items did not influence accuracy. We found that bilateral alpha power was greater for the emotional irrelevant condition, which could be reflecting the greater demands to suppress an emotional item from the focus of attention. Critically, we found that alpha power lateralization was not modulated by neither the emotionality of the cued or the non-cued items. However, we found that the latency at which alpha lateralization emerged was modulated by the emotionality of the memory representations. In conclusion, we propose that while alpha power lateralization might be reflecting a general spatial orienting mechanism, in our experiment it is influenced by the selection of relevant information within WM.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Neural Netw ; 116: 237-245, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121421

RESUMO

Over the past decade, multivariate time series classification has received great attention. We propose transforming the existing univariate time series classification models, the Long Short Term Memory Fully Convolutional Network (LSTM-FCN) and Attention LSTM-FCN (ALSTM-FCN), into a multivariate time series classification model by augmenting the fully convolutional block with a squeeze-and-excitation block to further improve accuracy. Our proposed models outperform most state-of-the-art models while requiring minimum preprocessing. The proposed models work efficiently on various complex multivariate time series classification tasks such as activity recognition or action recognition. Furthermore, the proposed models are highly efficient at test time and small enough to deploy on memory constrained systems.


Assuntos
Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/classificação , Memória de Longo Prazo , Memória de Curto Prazo , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Análise Multivariada
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(5): 462-470, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089296

RESUMO

Brain areas that control gaze are also recruited for covert shifts of spatial attention1-9. In the external space of perception, there is a natural ecological link between the control of gaze and spatial attention, as information sampled at covertly attended locations can inform where to look next2,10,11. Attention can also be directed internally to representations held within the spatial layout of visual working memory12-16. In such cases, the incentive for using attention to direct gaze disappears, as there are no external targets to scan. Here we investigate whether the oculomotor system of the brain also participates in attention focusing within the internal space of memory. Paradoxically, we reveal this participation through gaze behaviour itself. We demonstrate that selecting an item from visual working memory biases gaze in the direction of the memorized location of that item, despite there being nothing to look at and location memory never explicitly being probed. This retrospective 'gaze bias' occurs only when an item is not already in the internal focus of attention, and it predicts the performance benefit associated with the focusing of internal attention. We conclude that the oculomotor system also participates in focusing attention within memorized space, leaving traces all the way to the eyes.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052284

RESUMO

Background and Objective: The present study was designed to investigate whether acute physical activity and psychological stress produce different effects on cortisol release and working memory performance. Materials and Methods: Male subjects (N = 12; 18-35 years) were recruited and scheduled to come four times to our lab (within-subject design). For each counterbalanced visit, they performed one of the following four protocols: control, moderate physical activity (MOD), vigorous physical activity (VIG), and acute stress. Heart rate was monitored during every protocol. MOD and VIG were performed for 15 min and were defined as 40-50% and 70-80%, respectively, of their maximum heart rate. Acute stress was imposed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary samples were collected before and after every protocol to assess cortisol concentrations. Working memory (WM) performance was evaluated through the 2N-Back task right after ending the protocol (early WM) and after a delay of 35 min (late WM). Results: VIG and stress, but not MOD, increased salivary cortisol concentrations. However, the increases of cortisol produced by VIG and stress were not significantly different. Also, there were no significant differences in working memory performance (late and early) in any of the experimental protocols tested. Conclusions: These results show that exercise (VIG) and stress produce similar effects on cortisol release and do not support the hypothesis that working memory capacity is influenced by elevated cortisol levels, either from varying exercise intensities or psychological stress.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(3): 989-997, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038094

RESUMO

Adverse caregiving, for example, previous institutionalization (PI), is often associated with emotion dysregulation that increases anxiety risk. However, the concept of developmental multifinality predicts heterogeneity in anxiety outcomes. Despite this well-known heterogeneity, more work is needed to identify sources of this heterogeneity and how these sources interact with environmental risk to influence mental health. Here, working memory (WM) was examined during late childhood/adolescence as an intra-individual factor to mitigate the risk for separation anxiety, which is particularly susceptible to caregiving adversities. A modified "object-in-place" task was administered to 110 youths (10-17 years old), with or without a history of PI. The PI youths had elevated separation anxiety scores, which were anticorrelated with morning cortisol levels, yet there were no group differences in WM. PI youths showed significant heterogeneity in separation anxiety symptoms and morning cortisol levels, and WM moderated the link between caregiving and separation anxiety and mediated the association between separation anxiety and morning cortisol in PI youth. Findings suggest that (a) institutional care exerts divergent developmental consequences on separation anxiety versus WM, (b) WM interacts with adversity-related emotion dysregulation, and (c) WM may be a therapeutic target for separation anxiety following early caregiving adversity.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Saliva/química
19.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(6): 531-539, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101138

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Working memory is an essential executive function for flying an aircraft and its limitations may jeopardize flight safety. This function is particularly critical when pilots have to struggle with spatial disorientation (SD) cues. This research aimed to assess the combined effect of the auditory N-back task (NBT) and simulator-induced SD cues on pilots' flight performance.METHODS: Using an SD simulator, 39 male military pilots (control N = 20; age M = 31.6; SD = 8.22, experimental N = 19; age M = 26.9; SD = 8.67) were exposed to 12 flight sequences, where 6 contained an SD conflict-3 with vestibular illusions and 3 with visual illusions. Additionally, the pilots from the experimental group were asked to perform an auditory NBT involving sound stimuli (the sequential letter memory task) as they performed during oriented and disoriented flight conditions.RESULTS: Pilots' flight performance from the NBT group were significantly worse than the control group in the approach and landing profiles involving visual illusions (for both nonconflict and conflict flight), and in the profile involving the false horizon illusion (only for the conflict flight). No increase in a pilot's susceptibility to SD was observed with any other profiles.DISCUSSION: The current study provides support that pilots' cognitive workload can negatively impact flight performance. Pilots are not always aware of altered flight parameters, which may indicate that they have lost spatial orientation, mainly as a result of visual illusion. If problems occur in maintaining proper flight parameters, pilots should direct all available mental resources to regain their orientation and withdraw from any other parallel tasks.Lewkowicz R, Strózak P, Balaj B, Francuz P. Auditory verbal working memory load effects on a simulator-induced spatial disorientation event. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(6):531-539.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Conscientização/fisiologia , Confusão/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Confusão/etiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Ilusões/fisiologia , Masculino , Militares , Pilotos , Treinamento por Simulação , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075908

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Cardiorespiratory fitness is an important predictor of cardiovascular and cardiometabolic health. To extend our knowledge on the health effects associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cardiorespiratory fitness on memory function. Materials and Methods: Embase/PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Sports Discus, and PsychInfo databases were searched. Inclusionary criteria included: (1) were conducted among adult humans (18+ years), (2) evaluated cardiorespiratory fitness as the independent variable, (3) measured cardiorespiratory fitness with an objective device (e.g., indirect calorimetry), (4) evaluated memory function (any type) as the outcome measure, and (5) included either a cross-sectional, prospective, or experimental-study design. Information on the participant's characteristics, study design, cardiorespiratory fitness assessment, memory type, whether the study statistically controlled for exercise behavior, and study results were extracted. The relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and memory was synthesized while considering the data extraction parameters. Results: In total, 17 articles met the inclusionary criteria, including two prospective cohort studies and 15 cross-sectional studies. The main findings of this review are twofold: (1) across the 17 evaluated studies, 15 (88.2%) studies demonstrated some evidence of a positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and memory function, and (2) none of these 17 studies statistically controlled for physical activity behavior. Conclusion: CRF appears to be positively associated with memory function, however, it is uncertain as to whether this association occurs independently of physical activity or is mediated via physical activity behavior.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos
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