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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(1): 68-74, 2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of early intervention electroacupuncture (EA) at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on the learning-memory ability and the expression of phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, so as to provide reference for the intervening period of EA for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 36 3-month old SAMP8 mice were randomly divided into a model group, a 3-month-old EA group and a 9-month-old EA group, 12 mice in each group. Twelve normal SAMR1 mice with the same age were taken as the control group. The mice in the 3-month-old EA group and 9-month-old EA group were treated with EA at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) separately 3 months old and 9 months old (continuous wave, 2 Hz, 1.5-2 mA), 20 min each time, once a day, 8 days as a course of treatment, with an interval of 2 days between courses, totally 3 courses of treatment were given. The mice sample in each group was collected at the age of 10 months after the learning-memory ability tested by Morris water maze. The expression of phosphorylated Tau protein in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, and the expression of Tau mRNA was detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, in the model group, the escape latency was significantly increased (P<0.01), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were reduced (P<0.01), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA in hippocampus were increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the 3-month-old EA group and 9-month-old EA group, the escape latency was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA in hippocampus were reduced (P<0.05). Compared with the 9-month-old EA group, in the 3-month-old EA group, the escape latency was significantly reduced (P<0.05), the time of stay in the original platform quadrant and the number of crossing the platform quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the expressions of phosphorylated Tau protein and Tau mRNA were reduced (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The early EA intervention could more effectively improve the learning-memory ability and inhibit phosphorylation of Tau protein in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo , Aprendizagem , Memória , Camundongos , Proteínas tau
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18866, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease, affecting both the sensorimotor and cognitive systems. The typical pattern of cognitive impairment includes reduced speed of information processing, decreased phonological and semantic speech fluency, deficits in verbal and visual episodic memory, as well as attention and executive dysfunctions. We aimed to investigate the influence of the neurologic music therapy (NMT) on mood, motivation, emotion status, and cognitive functions in patients with MS. METHODS: Thirty patients with MS were randomly divided in 2 groups: the control group (CG) undergoing conventional cognitive rehabilitation (CCR), 6 times a week for 8 weeks, and the experimental group (EG) undergoing CCR 3 times a week for 8 weeks plus NMT techniques, performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. All the participants were submitted to the same amount of treatment. Each patient was evaluated before (baseline: T0) and immediately after the end of each training (T1). MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: We used as main outcome measure: the brief repeatable battery of neuropsychological test to assess various cognitive abilities; and the multiple sclerosis quality of life-54 (MSQoL-54). RESULTS: Both the groups benefit from 8 weeks of CR. In particular, the EG got better results in cognitive function, with regard to selective reminding test long term storage (P < .000), long term retrieval (P = .007), and delayed recall of the 10/36 spatial recall test (P = .001), as compared with the CG. Moreover, the improvement in emotional status, motivation, mood and quality of life (with regard to the mental component; P < .000) was more evident in the EG. CONCLUSIONS: NMT could be considered a complementary approach to enhance CCR in patients affected by MS.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Musicoterapia/métodos , Afeto , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e297, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896350

RESUMO

According to Bastin et al.'s integrative memory model, familiarity may be attributed to both entity representations and relational representations. However, the model does not specify what triggers familiarity for relational representations. I argue that fluency is a key player in the attribution of familiarity regardless of the type of representation. Two lines of evidence are reviewed in support of my claim.


Assuntos
Memória , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental , Percepção Social
4.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e290, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896351

RESUMO

Although the integrative memory model proposed by Bastin et al. is interesting, particularly for Alzheimer's disease, it may benefit from incorporating the subjective experience of recollection. We therefore offer complementary lines of interpretation to explain how recollection and familiarity in Alzheimer's disease can be dissociated based not only on accounts of their neural correlates but, critically, on the subjective experience of memory in patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Memória , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
5.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e282, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896352

RESUMO

The integrative memory model contains multiple subsystems. In this commentary, the processes within these subsystems are questioned. First, the assumption that familiarity largely reflects perceptual fluency is examined. Next, the distinction between "process" and "representational" models of temporal lobe function is challenged. Finally, the "relational representation core system" (or "extended hippocampal system"), which is central to the model, is especially sketchy. Here, I highlight key questions to be addressed in order to understand this system's role in trace formation.


Assuntos
Memória , Rememoração Mental , Hipocampo , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Lobo Temporal
6.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e294, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896353

RESUMO

Bastin et al. propose a dual-process model to understand memory deficits. However, results from state-trace analysis have suggested a single underlying variable in behavioral and neural data. We advocate the usage of unidimensional models that are supported by data and have been successful in understanding memory deficits and in linking to neural data.


Assuntos
Memória , Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e292, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896354

RESUMO

Theoretical models of memory retrieval have focused on processes of recollection and familiarity. Research suggests that there are still other processes involved in memory reconstruction, leading to experiences of knowing and inferring the past. Understanding these experiences, and the cognitive processes that give rise to them, seems likely to further expand our understanding of the neural substrates of memory.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Memória , Transtornos da Memória
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e287, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896355

RESUMO

The target article carefully describes the memory system, centered on the temporal lobe that builds specific memory traces. It does not, however, mention the laterality effects that exist within this system. This commentary briefly surveys evidence showing that clear asymmetries exist within the temporal lobe structures subserving the core system and that the right temporal structures mainly underpin face familiarity feelings.


Assuntos
Memória , Emoções , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
9.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e296, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896357

RESUMO

In this commentary on Bastin et al., we suggest that spatial context plays a critical role in the encoding and retrieval of events. Specifically, the translation process between the viewpoint-independent content of a memory and the viewpoint-dependent stimuli activating the retrieval (mental frame syncing) plays a critical role in spatial memory recollection. This perspective also provides an explanatory model for pathological disturbances such as Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Memória , Transtornos da Memória
10.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e284, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896358

RESUMO

The integrative memory model combines five core memory systems with an attributional system. We agree with Bastin et al. that this melding is the most novel aspect of the model. But we await further evidence that the model's substantial complexity informs our understanding of false memories or of the development of recollection and familiarity.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Memória , Transtornos da Memória
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e289, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896359

RESUMO

We argue that while the proposed memory model by Bastin et al. can explain familiarity-based memory judgements through the interaction of a core representation system and an attribution system, recollection-based memory judgements are not based on non-mnemonic signals being attributed to memory.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Memória , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e300, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896362

RESUMO

The syndrome of semantic dementia represents the "other side of the coin" to Alzheimer's disease, offering convergent evidence to help refine Bastin et al.'s integrative memory model. By considering the integrative memory model through the lens of semantic dementia, we propose a number of important extensions to the framework, to help clarify the complex neurocognitive mechanisms underlying recollection and familiarity.


Assuntos
Demência Frontotemporal , Humanos , Memória , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
13.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e285, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896363

RESUMO

Although Bastin et al. propose a useful model for thinking about the structure of memory and memory deficits, their distinction between entities and relational encoding is incompatible with data showing that even individual objects - prototypical "entities" - are made up of distinct features which require binding. Thus, "entity" and "relational" brain regions may need to solve fundamentally the same problems.


Assuntos
Memória , Compreensão , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
14.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e303, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896364

RESUMO

In the integrative memory model proposed by Bastin et al., familiarity is thought to arise from attribution of fluency signals. We suggest that, from a computational and anatomical perspective, this conceptualization converges with a global-matching account of familiarity assessment. We also argue that consideration of global matching and evidence accumulation in decision making could help further our understanding of the proposed attribution system.


Assuntos
Memória , Formação de Conceito , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
15.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e286, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896366

RESUMO

Despite highlighting the role of the attribution system and proposing a coherent large-scale architecture of declarative memory, the integrative memory model would be more "integrative" if the temporal dynamics of the interactions between its components was clarified. This is necessary to make predictions in patients with brain injury and hypothesize dissociations.


Assuntos
Memória , Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e288, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896367

RESUMO

We fully support dissociating the subjective experience from the memory contents in recognition memory, as Bastin et al. posit in the target article. However, having two generic memory modules with qualitatively different functions is not mandatory and is in fact inconsistent with experimental evidence. We propose that quantitative differences in the properties of the memory modules can account for the apparent dissociation of recollection and familiarity along anatomical lines.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Memória , Transtornos da Memória
17.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e304, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896368

RESUMO

The integrative memory model formalizes a new conceptualization of memory in which interactions between representations and cognitive operations within large-scale cerebral networks generate subjective memory feelings. Such interactions allow to explain the complexity of memory expressions, such as the existence of multiples sources for familiarity and recollection feelings and the fact that expectations determine how one recognizes previously encountered information.


Assuntos
Memória , Rememoração Mental
18.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e302, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896371

RESUMO

Bastin and colleagues present an integrative model of how recollection- and familiarity-based memories are represented in the brain. While they emphasize the role of attribution mechanisms in shaping memory retrieval, prior work examining implicit memory suggests that memory deficits may be better understood by separating attributional biases from the underlying memory traces.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Viés , Humanos , Memória , Transtornos da Memória
19.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e298, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896383

RESUMO

Bastin et al. present a framework that draws heavily on existing ideas of dual processes in memory in order to make predictions about memory deficits in clinical populations. It has been difficult to find behavioral evidence for multiple memory processes but we offer some evidence for dual processes in a related domain: memory for the time-of-occurrence of events.


Assuntos
Memória , Rememoração Mental , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória
20.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e291, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896384

RESUMO

Cognitive control constrains retrieval processing and so restricts what comes to mind as input to the attribution system. We review evidence that older adults, patients with Alzheimer's disease, and people with traumatic brain injury exert less cognitive control during retrieval, and so are susceptible to memory misattributions in the form of dramatic levels of false remembering.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Memória , Idoso , Cognição , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
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