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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4358, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868768

RESUMO

Learned fear and safety are associated with distinct oscillatory states in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To determine if and how these network states support the retrieval of competing memories, we mimicked endogenous oscillatory activity through optogenetic stimulation of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in mice during retrieval of contextual fear and extinction memories. We found that exogenously induced 4 Hz and 8 Hz oscillatory activity in the BLA exerts bi-directional control over conditioned freezing behavior in an experience- and context-specific manner, and that these oscillations have an experience-dependent ability to recruit distinct functional neuronal ensembles. At the network level we demonstrate, via simultaneous manipulation of BLA and mPFC, that experience-dependent 4 Hz resonance across BLA-mPFC circuitry supports post-extinction fear memory retrieval. Our findings reveal that post-extinction fear memory retrieval is supported by local and interregional experience-dependent resonance, and suggest novel approaches for interrogation and therapeutic manipulation of acquired fear circuitry.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica , Medo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Animais , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Condicionamento Psicológico , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Camundongos , Optogenética/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008186, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941425

RESUMO

Identifying heterogeneous cognitive impairment markers at an early stage is vital for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. However, due to complex and uncertain brain connectivity features in the cognitive domains, it remains challenging to quantify functional brain connectomic changes during non-pharmacological interventions for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients. We present a quantitative method for functional brain network analysis of fMRI data based on the multi-graph unsupervised Gaussian embedding method (MG2G). This neural network-based model can effectively learn low-dimensional Gaussian distributions from the original high-dimensional sparse functional brain networks, quantify uncertainties in link prediction, and discover the intrinsic dimensionality of brain networks. Using the Wasserstein distance to measure probabilistic changes, we discovered that brain regions in the default mode network and somatosensory/somatomotor hand, fronto-parietal task control, memory retrieval, and visual and dorsal attention systems had relatively large variations during non-pharmacological training, which might provide distinct biomarkers for fine-grained monitoring of aMCI cognitive alteration. An important finding of our study is the ability of the new method to capture subtle changes for individual patients before and after short-term intervention. More broadly, the MG2G method can be used in studying multiple brain disorders and injuries, e.g., in Parkinson's disease or traumatic brain injury (TBI), and hence it will be useful to the wider neuroscience community.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Disfunção Cognitiva , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Distribuição Normal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Conectoma , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Memória/fisiologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4220, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839437

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by emotional hypermnesia on which preclinical studies focus so far. While this hypermnesia relates to salient traumatic cues, partial amnesia for the traumatic context can also be observed. Here, we show in mice that contextual amnesia is causally involved in PTSD-like memory formation, and that treating the amnesia by re-exposure to all trauma-related cues cures PTSD-like hypermnesia. These findings open a therapeutic perspective based on trauma contextualization and the underlying hippocampal mechanisms.


Assuntos
Amnésia/prevenção & controle , Amnésia/terapia , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia
4.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 605-613, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744844

RESUMO

Inhibitory theory suggests that a major determinant of individual differences in cognitive performance (including differences that are typically observed with increasing age) is the ability to dampen down goal-irrelevant stimuli, thoughts, and actions. While this theory has garnered a lot of support over the years, it has also seen several challenges. This special issue of Psychology and Aging entitled "Aging and Inhibition: The View Ahead" continues with this theme and includes 14 articles by top researchers in the field of cognitive aging. While most of the articles included here lend support to the theory, some challenge it or provide limiting conditions. We organize our overview of these articles according to the different functions, or stages, of inhibition, which we refer to as access, deletion, and restraint, followed by a discussion of potential moderators, including practice, motivation, and arousal. In our view, these articles contribute to our understanding of how and when age differences in inhibitory control are observed and the wider implications (both positive and negative) for cognition. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Memória/fisiologia , Humanos
5.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 697-709, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744851

RESUMO

Retroactive interference refers to the impairing effects of new learning on earlier memories. The memory-for-change framework posits that being reminded of earlier information when learning new information can alleviate such retroactive interference and lead to facilitation. Such effects have been shown in younger adults, but the extent to which remindings play a role in retroactive effects of memory for older adults has not been examined. We address this issue here in two experiments using variants of an A-B, A-C paired associate paradigm. Participants studied two lists containing associated word pairs that: repeated across lists (A-B, A-B), included the same cue with a changed response in List 2 (A-B, A-C), or only appeared in List 1 (A-B), and then completed a cued-recall test of List 1. Participants reported List 1 reminding during List 2 study and recollection of reminding at test. Neither age group showed retroactive interference in overall List 1 recall, but younger adults showed poorer source monitoring by producing more List 2 intrusions onto List 1 recall than older adults. For both age groups, reminding was associated with retroactive facilitation for List 1 recall, whereas the absence of reminding was associated with retroactive interference. The benefits associated with reminding and recollection of reminding were greater for younger than older adults, partly because younger adults were able to recollect remindings more often than older adults. Together these results implicate a role for reminding in retroactive effects of memory that is more facilitative for younger than older adults. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 773-779, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744857

RESUMO

Hyper-binding refers to the spontaneous formation of target-distractor associations in older adults, with consequences for subsequent memory. While hyper-binding reflects a loss of attentional and mnemonic selectivity in aging, a growing literature suggests that motivational states modulate cognitive performance in both younger and older adults. In the current study, healthy younger and older adults (N = 48 in both age groups) completed a face-name hyper-binding task with or without motivational incentives during incidental encoding. Results revealed a motivation-related decrease in hyper-binding in older adults, leading to a paradoxical motivation-related memory decrement in this age group. These findings suggest that reward motivation can counteract age-related deficits in inhibition and attentional selectivity, without necessarily boosting memory performance. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nomes
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4040, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788583

RESUMO

Children from lower income backgrounds tend to have poorer memory and language abilities than their wealthier peers. It has been proposed that these cognitive gaps reflect the effects of income-related stress on hippocampal structure, but the empirical evidence for this relationship has not been clear. Here, we examine how family income gaps in cognition relate to the anterior hippocampus, given its high sensitivity to stress, versus the posterior hippocampus. We find that anterior (but not posterior) hippocampal volumes positively correlate with family income up to an annual income of ~$75,000. Income-related differences in the anterior (but not posterior) hippocampus also predicted the strength of the gaps in memory and language. These findings add anatomical specificity to current theories by suggesting a stronger relationship between family income and anterior than posterior hippocampal volumes and offer a potential mechanism through which children from different income homes differ cognitively.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Renda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Grupos Minoritários , Tamanho do Órgão , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability refers to the ability to receive, process, store, and extract information. It is the most important psychological condition for people to successfully complete activities. Previous studies have shown that the design of the human-computer interface of the command and control system cannot exceed the cognitive ability of the operator of the command and control system, and it must match the cognitive ability of the operator in order to reduce the mental load intensity, and improve the accuracy, timeliness and work efficiency. However, previous researchers in the field of cognitive science have not put forward a core index system that can represent the cognitive ability of ship command and control system operators and the importance of each index, and there are few achievements that can be used for reference. OBJECTIVE: To explore the core index system of cognitive ability that affecting the cognitive process of command and control system operators, and to verify the index system. METHODS: Based on the classic O*NET questionnaire, two indexes of O*NET were revised, three indexes of response ability were added, and then a questionnaire on the importance evaluation of cognitive abilities index was formed. The questionnaire includes 24 indexes in six aspects: verbal abilities, idea generation and reasoning abilities, quantitative abilities, visual perception abilities, mnemonic and attentive abilities, and response abilities. The cognitive ability importance evaluation data of 202 people from different positions in the ship command and control system were collected. These data reflect the overall level of cognitive ability of operators in the whole ship command and control field. RESULTS: The data analysis results show that: firstly, the most important cognitive abilities affecting command and control system operators were visual perception abilities, mnemonic and attentive abilities, and response abilities. Secondly, the results of confirmatory factor analysis show that CMIN/DF, GFI, CFI, TLI, RMSEA, RMR and other indicators used in the model test all meet the requirements. The model has a good fitting degree, and the overall index extraction method is feasible. Thirdly, the independence T test results show that for beginners and experienced experts, there is a significant difference in the important evaluation of mnemonic and attentive abilities, while there is no significant difference in the important evaluation of response and visual perception abilities. Fourthly, the results of Bi-group confirmatory factor analysis experiment show that the structural model has good stability and factor invariance. CONCLUSIONS: Through the research of this paper, the index system which can express the core cognitive ability of the commander of command and control system is successfully constructed, and the index system has been fully verified by mathematics. The 3 abilities and 10 indexes in the index system are closely related to the work tasks of operators, which also reflects the correctness of our construction results to a certain extent. According to the results of data analysis, there are differences between assistant commanders and professional commanders in the evaluation of the importance of some indexes, which reflects the importance of working age and experience to the promotion of position skills. The results of this research are of great significance for the subsequent acquisition of cognitive ability data and assessment of post cognitive ability of command and control system operators.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Militares/psicologia , Navios/instrumentação , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0219233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790667

RESUMO

Our aim was to examine the effect of a smartphone's presence on learning and memory among undergraduates. A total of 119 undergraduates completed a memory task and the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS). As predicted, those without smartphones had higher recall accuracy compared to those with smartphones. Results showed a significant negative relationship between phone conscious thought, "how often did you think about your phone", and memory recall but not for SAS and memory recall. Phone conscious thought significantly predicted memory accuracy. We found that the presence of a smartphone and high phone conscious thought affects one's memory learning and recall, indicating the negative effect of a smartphone proximity to our learning and memory.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/tendências , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição , Dependência Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Smartphone , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(4): 305-320, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615892

RESUMO

The Effect of a Short-Term Mindfulness Program on Memory Performance in School-Aged Children A one-week mindfulness-based intervention designed to improve 8- to 10-year-old children's memory performance was investigated. Seventy-three children were quasi-randomly assigned either to one of two mindfulness-based intervention groups (breathing meditation or yoga), or to an active control group. The sessions were held on six consecutive days. Prior to intervention and after completing the intervention, children's short-term and long-term memory performance were assessed. In confirmation of prior studies, breathing meditation and yoga showed positive effects on memory performance when compared with the control group. Moreover, differences in the effectiveness of breathing meditation and yoga were found: While both interventions had comparable effects on long-term memory, only breathing meditation showed improvements in short-term memory performance. The present study provides valuable evidence on the effectiveness of meditation on cognitive functions in childhood and shows that school-aged children can already benefit from short-term meditation programs.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Atenção Plena , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Meditação , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ioga
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3318, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620879

RESUMO

Decision-making is guided by memories of option values. However, retrieving items from memory renders them malleable. Here, we show that merely retrieving values from memory and making a choice between options is sufficient both to induce changes to stimulus-reward associations in the hippocampus and to bias future decision-making. After allowing participants to make repeated choices between reward-conditioned stimuli, in the absence of any outcome, we observe that participants prefer stimuli they have previously chosen, and neglect previously unchosen stimuli, over otherwise identical-valued options. Using functional brain imaging, we show that decisions induce changes to hippocampal representations of stimulus-outcome associations. These changes are correlated with future decision biases. Our results indicate that choice-induced preference changes are partially driven by choice-induced modification of memory representations and suggest that merely making a choice - even without experiencing any outcomes - induces associative plasticity.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Viés , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3467, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651378

RESUMO

Modulation of gap junction-mediated electrical synapses is a common form of neural plasticity. However, the behavioral consequence of the modulation and the underlying molecular cellular mechanisms are not understood. Here, using a C. elegans circuit of interneurons that are connected by gap junctions, we show that modulation of the gap junctions facilitates olfactory learning. Learning experience weakens the gap junctions and induces a repulsive sensory response to the training odorants, which together decouple the responses of the interneurons to the training odorants to generate learned olfactory behavior. The weakening of the gap junctions results from downregulation of the abundance of a gap junction molecule, which is regulated by cell-autonomous function of the worm homologs of a NMDAR subunit and CaMKII. Thus, our findings identify the function of a gap junction modulation in an in vivo model of learning and a conserved regulatory pathway underlying the modulation.


Assuntos
Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3492, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661319

RESUMO

Ventral hippocampal CA1 (vCA1) projections to the amygdala are necessary for contextual fear memory. Here we used in vivo Ca2+ imaging in mice to assess the temporal dynamics by which ensembles of vCA1 neurons mediate encoding and retrieval of contextual fear memories. We found that a subset of vCA1 neurons were responsive to the aversive shock during context conditioning, their activity was necessary for memory encoding, and these shock-responsive neurons were enriched in the vCA1 projection to the amygdala. During memory retrieval, a population of vCA1 neurons became correlated with shock-encoding neurons, and the magnitude of synchronized activity within this population was proportional to memory strength. The emergence of these correlated networks was disrupted by inhibiting vCA1 shock responses during memory encoding. Thus, our findings suggest that networks of cells that become correlated with shock-responsive neurons in vCA1 are essential components of contextual fear memory ensembles.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Medo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3380, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665586

RESUMO

Eyewitness misidentification accounts for 70% of verified erroneous convictions. To address this alarming phenomenon, research has focused on factors that influence likelihood of correct identification, such as the manner in which a lineup is conducted. Traditional lineups rely on overt eyewitness responses that confound two covert factors: strength of recognition memory and the criterion for deciding what memory strength is sufficient for identification. Here we describe a lineup that permits estimation of memory strength independent of decision criterion. Our procedure employs powerful techniques developed in studies of perception and memory: perceptual scaling and signal detection analysis. Using these tools, we scale memory strengths elicited by lineup faces, and quantify performance of a binary classifier tasked with distinguishing perpetrator from innocent suspect. This approach reveals structure of memory inaccessible using traditional lineups and renders accurate identifications uninfluenced by decision bias. The approach furthermore yields a quantitative index of individual eyewitness performance.


Assuntos
Crime , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Face , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Life Sci ; 257: 118020, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603820

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. ß-amyloid peptide (Aß) is currently assumed to be the main cause of synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairments in AD, but the molecular signaling pathways underlying its neurotoxic consequences have not yet been completely explored. Additional investigations regarding these pathways will contribute to development of new therapeutic targets. In context, developing evidence suggest that Aß decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mostly by lowering phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) protein. In fact, it has been observed that brain or serum levels of BDNF appear to be beneficial markers for cognitive condition. In addition, the participation of transcription mediated by CREB has been widely analyzed in the memory process and AD development. Designing pharmacologic or genetic therapeutic approaches based on the targeting of CREB-BDNF signaling could be a promising treatment potential for AD. In this review, we summarize data demonstrating the role of CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in cognitive status and mediation of Aß toxicity in AD. Finally, we also focus on the developing intervention methods for improvement of cognitive decline in AD based on targeting of CREB-BDNF pathway.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609778

RESUMO

Advances in computer and communications technology have deeply affected the way we communicate. Social media have emerged as a major means of human communication. However, a major limitation in such media is the lack of non-verbal stimuli, which sometimes hinders the understanding of the message, and in particular the associated emotional content. In an effort to compensate for this, people started to use emoticons, which are combinations of keyboard characters that resemble facial expressions, and more recently their evolution: emojis, namely, small colorful images that resemble faces, actions and daily life objects. This paper presents evidence of the effect of emojis on memory retrieval through a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study. A total number of fifteen healthy volunteers were recruited for the experiment, during which successive stimuli were presented, containing words with intense emotional content combined with emojis, either with congruent or incongruent emotional content. Volunteers were asked to recall a memory related to the stimulus. The study of the reaction times showed that emotional incongruity among word+emoji combinations led to longer reaction times in memory retrieval compared to congruent combinations. General Linear Model (GLM) and Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods have been tested in assessing the influence of the emojis on the process of memory retrieval. The analysis of the fMRI data showed that emotional incongruity among word+emoji combinations activated the Broca's area (BA44 and BA45) in both hemispheres, the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) and the inferior prefrontal cortex (BA47), compared to congruent combinations. Furthermore, compared to pseudowords, word+emoji combinations activated the left Broca's area (BA44 and BA45), the amygdala, the right temporal pole (BA48) and several frontal regions including the SMA and the inferior prefrontal cortex.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Simbolismo , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Comunicação , Compreensão , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Leitura , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Redação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 18029-18036, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665437

RESUMO

Memory reconsolidation occurs when a retrieving event destabilizes transiently a consolidated memory, triggering thereby a new process of restabilization that ensures memory persistence. Although this phenomenon has received wide attention, the effect of new information cooccurring with the reconsolidation process has been less explored. Here we demonstrate that a memory-retrieving event sets a neural tag, which enables the reconsolidation of memory after binding proteins provided by the original or a different contiguous experience. We characterized the specific temporal window during which this association is effective and identified the protein kinase A (PKA) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2) pathways as the mechanisms related to the setting of the reconsolidation tag and the synthesis of proteins. Our results show, therefore, that memory reconsolidation is mediated by a "behavioral tagging" process, which is common to different memory forms. They represent a significant advance in understanding the fate of memories reconsolidated while being adjacent to other events, and provide a tool for designing noninvasive strategies to attenuate (pathological/traumatic) or improve (education-related) memories.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Consolidação da Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Síntese de Proteínas/farmacologia , Ratos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692764

RESUMO

Interrogative suggestibility, as measured with Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales, consists of an individual's tendency to yield to misleading questions (Yield) and to change answers after negative feedback (Shift). This study aimed to determine whether reinforced self-affirmation (RSA), a technique that aims to boost self-confidence in order to increase the tendency to rely on one's own memory instead of external cues, can reduce interrogative suggestibility. RSA consists of self-affirmation induced by means of writing down one's greatest achievements in life and of manipulated positive feedback. The efficacy of two kinds of positive feedback was explored. Shift was reduced by positive feedback relating both to memory and to the feeling that a person is very independent in their judgements, while only feedback related to memory reduced Yield. The results are discussed in terms of the different mechanisms underlying Yield and Shift. Inducing independence of judgements might not have been effective in the case of Yield because to some extent it taps opinions but not the quality of a cognitive process such as memory. An individual may believe in their own opinions and views but still be unsure about the quality of their own memory.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Julgamento , Memória/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico , Autoimagem , Sugestão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Life Sci ; 257: 118046, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622948

RESUMO

Orexin-A is an endogenous peptide with receptors throughout the brain. According to some recent research, learning and memory are affected by the central administration of orexin; however, no study so far has investigated the long-term inhibition of the orexinergic system. The present study has evaluated the effect of pretraining administration of orexin 1 receptor (OXR1) antagonist, SB-334867, on the acquisition of memory. The Morris water maze (MWM) task was used for training and trial purposes in all groups. Memory performance was analyzed by measuring escape latency, traveled distance, and time spent in the target quadrant. Moreover, the effect of SB-334867 on phospholipase Cß3 (PLCß3) levels in the CA1 region of hippocampus slices was examined. Hippocampus slices were prepared using an immunohistochemistry (IHC) approach. SB-334867 (20 mg/kg) increased escape latency in SB-treated rats compared to SB-vehicle group (P < 0.01). SB-treated rats spent less time in the target quadrant compared to the SB-vehicle group (P < 0.001). Distance traveled in the target quadrant was significantly more in SB-treated rats compared to the SB-vehicle group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, SB-334867 decreased PLCß3 levels in the CA1 of the hippocampus (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Put together, our results suggest that the long-term inhibition of OXR1 plays a prominent role in spatial learning and memory, probably by attenuating PLCß3 in CA1 neurons.


Assuntos
Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/fisiologia , Fosfolipase C beta/metabolismo , Animais , Benzoxazóis/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Orexina/metabolismo , Orexinas/metabolismo , Fosfolipase C beta/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/farmacologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17338-17347, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647057

RESUMO

Coordinated, purposeful movements learned with one effector generalize to another effector, a finding that has important implications for tool use, sports, performing arts, and rehabilitation. This occurs because the motor memory acquired through learning comprises representations that are effector-independent. Despite knowing this for decades, the neural mechanisms and substrates that are causally associated with the encoding of effector-independent motor memories remain poorly understood. Here we exploit intereffector generalization, the behavioral signature of effector-independent representations, to address this crucial gap. We first show in healthy human participants that postlearning generalization across effectors is principally predicted by the level of an implicit mechanism that evolves gradually during learning to produce a temporally stable memory. We then demonstrate that interfering with left but not right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) using high-definition cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation impedes learning mediated by this mechanism, thus potentially preventing the encoding of effector-independent memory components. We confirm this in our final experiment in which we show that disrupting left PPC but not primary motor cortex after learning has been allowed to occur blocks intereffector generalization. Collectively, our results reveal the key mechanism that encodes an effector-independent memory trace and uncover a central role for the PPC in its representation. The encoding of such motor memory components outside primary sensorimotor regions likely underlies a parsimonious neural organization that enables more efficient movement planning in the brain, independent of the effector used to act.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto Jovem
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