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1.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 1): 441-449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to determine the clinical and morphological dependencies, which are important for diagnostics, treatment and prediction of outcomes of pathological processes in the region of the LTM with complicated eruption, as based on the study of histopathological changes of paradental tissue (mucous membrane, walls of retromolar pocket, alveolar bone tissue). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The materials of the study were 34 biopsy specimens of pathologically altered soft tissue and parodontium obtained as a result of pericoronectomy, extraction of the LTM and other surgical interferences performed based on the relevant indications in 28 patients in the region of the LTM with complicated eruption. Morphological and statistical research methods were used. RESULTS: Results: The local pathological processes, which chronologically precede the destructive changes in the hard tissue of a tooth (caries), are developed in patients of both genders with complicated LTM eruption in soft tissue of parodontium and the adjacent bone tissue of the alveolar wall in the majority of cases. As per biopsy examinations, the frequency of the main pathological processes in paradental tissue in case of complicated LTM eruption varies from 25 to 60 % of the number of biopsy specimens and occurs in various combinations in patients with different values of clinical parameters. The correlation relationships between the patients' clinical data and the morphological parameters of damage to paradental tissue are weak, multidirectional and uncertain in the majority of combinations (considering the available number of biopsy specimens studied). The close certain positive dependence between the damage of the squamous epithelium and the inflammation activity in the lamina propria mucosae, covering the tooth: in the vast majority of cases, the presence of damaged epithelium (within the biopsy specimen) is associated with the inflammation of high activity, was established as based on correlation relationships between the morphological parameters of damage to paradental tissue. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The found pathological changes and the correlations justify surgical tactics on paradental soft and osseous tissues that are directed on the LTM sparing.


Assuntos
Dente Serotino , Erupção Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dente Molar , Dente Serotino/cirurgia , Membrana Mucosa , Periodonto
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819335

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate facial peri-implant tissue dimensions for implants connected to either convex or concave final abutments. Patients (n = 28) were randomly allocated to receive a single implant with an abutment of either convex (Group CX) or concave (Group CV) emergence shape. Twelve months after implant placement, CBCT scans were taken and reference points were identified: first visible bone-to-implant contact, implant shoulder (IS), bone crest (BC), and marginal mucosal level (MML). Mucosal thickness was evaluated at the level of IS (MT1), above the level of BC (MT2), and at the mid-distance of BC-MML (MT3). The mean total vertical peri-implant mucosa height was 3.26 ± 0.77 mm for Group CX and 3.70 ± 0.99 mm for Group CV (P = .23). The mean vertical peri-implant mucosa height below the bone crest was 0.62 ± 0.57 mm for Group CX and 1.26 ± 0.95 mm for Group CV (P = .04). Group CV had greater mean MT2 (4.09 ± 0.72 mm vs 3.36 ± 0.81 mm; P = .02) and MT3 (2.81 ± 0.66 mm vs 2.03 ± 0.60 mm; P = .005) compared to Group CX. Abutment macrodesign may have an effect on vertical and horizontal peri-implant tissue dimensions.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico Espiral , Coroas , Dente Suporte , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa
3.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(4): 145, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913042

RESUMO

Incorporation of permeation enhancers is one of the most widely employed approaches for delivering drugs across biological membranes. Permeation enhancers aid in delivering drugs across various physiological barriers such as brain capillary endothelium, stratum corneum, corneal epithelium, and mucosal membranes that pose resistance to the entry of a majority of drugs. Borneol is a natural, plant-derived, lipophilic, volatile, bicyclic monoterpenoid belonging to the class of camphene. It has been used under the names "Bing Pian" or "Long Nao" in Traditional Chinese Medicine for more than 1000 years. Borneol has been incorporated predominantly as an adjuvant in the traditional Chinese formulations of centrally acting drugs to improve drug delivery to the brain. This background knowledge and anecdotal evidence have led to extensive research in establishing borneol as a permeation enhancer across the blood-brain barrier. Alteration in cell membrane lipid structures and modulation of multiple ATP binding cassette transporters as well as tight junction proteins are the major contributing factors to blood-brain barrier opening functions of borneol. Owing to these mechanisms of altering membrane properties, borneol has also shown promising potential to improve drug delivery across other physiological barriers as well. The current review focuses on the role of borneol as a permeation enhancer across the blood-brain barrier, mucosal barriers including nasal and gastrointestinal linings, transdermal, transcorneal, and blood optic nerve barrier.


Assuntos
Canfanos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Canfanos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Permeabilidade
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2147, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846309

RESUMO

Tissue mononuclear phagocytes (MNP) are specialised in pathogen detection and antigen presentation. As such they deliver HIV to its primary target cells; CD4 T cells. Most MNP HIV transmission studies have focused on epithelial MNPs. However, as mucosal trauma and inflammation are now known to be strongly associated with HIV transmission, here we examine the role of sub-epithelial MNPs which are present in a diverse array of subsets. We show that HIV can penetrate the epithelial surface to interact with sub-epithelial resident MNPs in anogenital explants and define the full array of subsets that are present in the human anogenital and colorectal tissues that HIV may encounter during sexual transmission. In doing so we identify two subsets that preferentially take up HIV, become infected and transmit the virus to CD4 T cells; CD14+CD1c+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells and langerin-expressing conventional dendritic cells 2 (cDC2).


Assuntos
Canal Anal/citologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Genitália/citologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Forma Celular , Colagenases/metabolismo , Derme/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
5.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 87, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665761

RESUMO

The commitment of the existent study was to develop a mucoadhesive in situ gel systems of vitamin B12 for the management of dry eye disease. The gels were prepared using pluronic F-127 and either of chitosan, carbapol 971P, sodium alginate, or hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose. Drug-excipients compatibility was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The gels were characterized for pH, clarity, gelling capacity, viscosity, and adhesion. In vitro release of vitamin B12 from the selected gels was investigated. In vivo effectiveness of the selected gel was determined in rabbit models using Schirmer's and fluorescein tests. The compatibility studies revealed the possibility of incidence of drug/polymer interaction in some formulations. F2-containing pluronic F127 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose showed the most appropriate physical characterization and in vitro release profile. The prepared gels showed prolonged drug release with drug release mechanism of combined diffusion and erosion. The in vivo study revealed good effectiveness of the prepared mucoadhesive in situ gel system of vitamin B12 in the treatment of dry eye disease that was comparable to that of the marketed drops.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adesivos , Animais , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Excipientes , Feminino , Géis , Derivados da Hipromelose , Masculino , Membrana Mucosa , Poloxâmero , Coelhos , Viscosidade , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
6.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 320(5): F859-F865, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749323

RESUMO

Bladder afferents play a pivotal role in bladder function such as urine storage and micturition as well as conscious sensations such as urgency and pain. Endocannabinoids are ligands of cannabinoid 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors but can influence the activity of a variety of G protein-coupled receptors as well as ligand-gated and voltage-gated channels. It is still not known which classes of bladder afferents are influenced by CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists. This study aimed to determine the role of CB2 receptors in two major classes of afferents in the guinea pig bladder: mucosal and muscular-mucosal. The mechanosensitivity of these two classes was determined by an ex vivo extracellular electrophysiological recording technique. A stable analog of endocannabinoid anandamide, methanandamide (mAEA), potentiated the mechanosensitivity of mucosal bladder afferents in response to stroking. In the presence of a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonist (capsazepine), the effect of mAEA switched from excitatory to inhibitory. A selective CB2 receptor agonist, 4-quinolone-3-carboxyamide (4Q3C), significantly inhibited the mechanosensitivity of mucosal bladder afferents to stroking. In the presence of a CB2 receptor antagonist, the inhibitory effect of 4Q3C was lost. mAEA and 4Q3C did not affect responses to stretch and/or mucosal stroking of muscular-mucosal afferents. Our findings revealed that agonists of CB2 receptors selectively inhibited the mechanosensitivity of capsaicin-sensitive mucosal bladder afferents but not muscular-mucosal afferents. This may have important implications for understanding of the role of endocannabinoids in modulating bladder function and sensation in health and diseases.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This article describes, for the first time, to our knowledge, the direct inhibitory effect of cannabinoid 2 receptor agonists on guinea pig mucosal bladder afferents. The cannabinoid 2 receptor is involved in pain and inflammation, suggesting that this may be a viable target for treatment of bladder disorders such as cystitis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Araquidônicos/farmacologia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/inervação , Músculo Liso/inervação , Neurônios Aferentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Animais , Canfanos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Feminino , Cobaias , Ligantes , Neurônios Aferentes/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 259, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431815

RESUMO

Although identified as the key environmental driver of common cutaneous melanoma, the role of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage in mucosal melanoma is poorly defined. We analyze 10 mucosal melanomas of conjunctival origin by whole genome sequencing and our data shows a predominance of UVR-associated single base substitution signature 7 (SBS7) in the majority of the samples. Our data shows mucosal melanomas with SBS7 dominance have similar genomic patterns to cutaneous melanomas and therefore this subset should not be excluded from treatments currently used for common cutaneous melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Raios Ultravioleta , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430497

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract contains multiple types of immune cells that maintain the balance between tolerance and activation at the first line of host defense facing non-self antigens, including dietary antigens, commensal bacteria, and sometimes unexpected pathogens. The maintenance of homeostasis at the gastrointestinal tract requires stringent regulation of immune responses against various environmental conditions. Dietary components can be converted into gut metabolites with unique functional activities through host as well as microbial enzymatic activities. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that gastrointestinal metabolites have significant impacts on the regulation of intestinal immunity and are further integrated into the immune response of distal mucosal tissue. Metabolites, especially those derived from the microbiota, regulate immune cell functions in various ways, including the recognition and activation of cell surface receptors, the control of gene expression by epigenetic regulation, and the integration of cellular metabolism. These mucosal immune regulations are key to understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we review recent advancements in our understanding of the role of gut metabolites in the regulation of gastrointestinal immunity, highlighting the cellular and molecular regulatory mechanisms by macronutrient-derived metabolites.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Colo/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
9.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 45(5): 627-637, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481384

RESUMO

Choledochal cyst (CC) is believed to be a mostly Asian disorder. As a clinically defined entity, its pathologic correlates are poorly characterized. Eighty-four resected CCs from the West were reanalyzed. After applying established Japanese criteria, 9/66 with available imaging were disqualified and 10/39 with preoperative cyst typing had to be recategorized. None had been diagnosed with, or evaluated for, pancreatobiliary maljunction, but on retrospective analysis of radiologic images, 12/66 were found to have pancreatobiliary maljunction. The clinical findings were: F/M=5.7; mean age, 48; most (77%) presented with abdominal pain; mean size, 2.9 cm; choledocholithiasis 11%. Gross/histologic examination revealed 3 distinct pathology-based categories: (I) Cystic dilatation of native ducts (81%). (II) Double bile duct (13%), almost all of which were found in women (10/11); all were diagnosed by pathologic examination, and not preoperative diagnosis. (III) Gastrointestinal (GI) duplication type (6%). Microscopic findings of the entire cohort included mucosal-predominant lymphoplasmacytic inflammation (50%), follicular cholangitis (7%), mucosal hyperplasia (43%; 13% with papillae), intestinal metaplasia (10%), BilIN-like hyperplasia (17%), erosion/ulceration (13%), and severe dysplasia-mimicking atypia including "detachment atypia" and micropapillary degeneration (11%). Carcinomatous changes were seen in 14 cases (17%) (high-grade dysplasia/carcinoma in situ in 7, intraductal papillary neoplasm 1, and invasive carcinoma 6); and 13/14 of these occurred in pathologic category I, all with cyst size >1 cm. In conclusion, diagnostic imaging guidelines used in Asia are not routinely used (but should be adopted) in the West. Pathologically, cases designated as CC are classifiable in 3 groups: category 1 (dilated native duct type), more prone to carcinomatous change; category 2, double-duct phenomenon (all but 1 being female in this study); and category 3, GI-type duplication. Overall, 17% of CCs show carcinomatous change (50% of them invasive). CC specimens should be carefully examined with this classification and submitted entirely for assessment of at-risk mucosa and cancerous transformation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Cisto do Colédoco/patologia , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Ductos Biliares/anormalidades , Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Carcinoma in Situ/patologia , Cisto do Colédoco/cirurgia , Dilatação Patológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/anormalidades , Membrana Mucosa/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(1): 39-44, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare endoscopic epitympanic exploration with conventional canal wall up (cortical) mastoidectomy for mucosal chronic otitis media in terms of post-operative outcomes. METHODS: Seventy-six patients diagnosed with chronic otitis media (mucosal variety) were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: endoscopic epitympanic exploration and conventional canal wall up (cortical) mastoidectomy. The groups were compared in terms of: post-operative anatomical outcomes (graft uptake), middle-ear physiological outcomes (post-operative tympanometry), audiological outcomes (air-bone gap), surgical time, post-operative pain, vertigo, and long-term complications such as retraction pocket and re-perforation. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of mean air-bone gap at 12 months, surgical time, and median post-operative pain measured at 6 hours (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were noted in terms of: graft uptake at 1, 3 and 6 months, mean air-bone gap at 3 and 6 months, tympanometry at 3, 6 and 12 months, vertigo at 1 week, or long-term complications. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic epitympanic exploration resulted in significantly better long-term audiological outcomes, shorter operating time and less pain compared with conventional canal wall up (cortical) mastoidectomy.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Mastoidectomia , Otite Média/patologia , Otite Média/cirurgia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Membrana Timpânica
11.
Scand J Immunol ; 93(2): e13017, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351196

RESUMO

The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was first recognized for its role in transfer of maternal IgG to the foetus or newborn, providing passive immunity early in life. However, it has become clear that the receptor is versatile, widely expressed and plays an indispensable role in both immunological and non-immunological processes throughout life. The receptor rescues immunoglobulin G (IgG) and albumin from intracellular degradation and shuttles the ligands across polarized cell barriers, in all cases via a pH-dependent binding-and-release mechanism. These processes secure distribution and high levels of both IgG and albumin throughout the body. At mucosal sites, FcRn transports IgG across polarized epithelial cells where it retrieves IgG in complex with luminal antigens that is delivered to tissue-localized immune cells. In dendritic cells (DCs), FcRn orchestrates processing of IgG-opsonized immune complexes (ICs) in concert with classical Fcγ receptors, which results in antigen presentation and cross-presentation of antigenic peptides on MHC class II and I to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, respectively. Hence, FcRn regulates transport of the ligands within and across different types of cells, but also processing of IgG-ICs by immune cells. As such, the receptor is involved in immune surveillance and protection against infections. In this brief review, we highlight how FcRn expressed by hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells contributes to immune regulation at mucosal barriers-biology that can be utilized in development of biologics and subunit vaccines for non-invasive delivery.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Receptores Fc/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2183: 447-459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959259

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria comprise a large group of Gram-positive organisms capable of converting sugar into lactic acid. They have been studied due to their therapeutic potential on the mucosal surface. Among the species, Lactococcus lactis is considered the model bacterium and it has been explored as an important vehicle for providing therapeutic molecules and antigens in the mucosa. They can be genetically engineered to produce a variety of molecules as well as deliver heterologous DNA and protein. DNA vaccines consist of the administration of a bacterial plasmid under the control of a eukaryotic promoter encoding the antigen of interest. The resulting proteins are capable of stimulating the immune system, becoming a promising technique for immunization against a variety of tumors and infection diseases and having several advantages compared to conventional nucleic acid delivery methods (such as bioballistic delivery, electroporation, and intramuscular administration).


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Lactobacillales , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Administração Sublingual , Animais , Camundongos , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia
13.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(1): e94-e100, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201080

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Surgery remains the gold standard in cholesteatoma treatment. However, the rate of recurrence is significant and the development of new nonsurgical treatment alternatives is warranted. One of the possible molecular pathways to target is the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the JAK/STAT pathway in the middle ear mucosa in patients with acquired cholesteatoma compared with middle ear mucosa from healthy controls. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Linköping University Hospital, Sweden, and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Sampling period: February 2011 to December 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Middle ear mucosa from 26 patients with acquired cholesteatoma undergoing tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy, and 27 healthy controls undergoing translabyrinthine surgery for vestibular schwannoma or cochlear implantation was investigated. MAIN OUTCOMES/MEASURES: The expression of Interleukin-7 receptor alpha, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT5A, STAT5B, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, expression level of cyclin D2, transforming growth factor beta 1, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, CD3, and CD19 was evaluated. RESULTS: In cholesteatoma-adjacent mucosa, SOCS1 was significantly upregulated (p= 0.0003) compared with healthy controls, whereas STAT5B was significantly downregulated (p = 0.0006). The expression of JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and STAT5A did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first article reporting dysregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway in cholesteatoma-adjacent mucosa. The main finding is that important players of the aforementioned pathway are significantly altered, namely SOCS1 is upregulated and STAT5B is downregulated compared with healthy controls.


Assuntos
Colesteatoma , Janus Quinases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Suécia , Transdutores
14.
Int J Urol ; 28(3): 346-352, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate voiding behavior characteristics in intact and sham mice, and to examine whether intact mice show changes in "normal" micturition with aging. METHODS: A total of 72 8-week-old mice were divided into two groups - intact and sham - and the latter group was subjected to a sham of partial bladder outlet obstruction surgery. Urination frequency was evaluated (through metabolic cages) at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgery (or at the equivalent time points for the intact mice). To address possible mechanisms for aging and surgical effects on urinary behavior, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were carried out. Primary data were evaluated using scatter plots and descriptive statistics. RESULTS: In sham mice, urination frequency showed strong variation at the earlier post-surgical time points (especially at 1 month), with variation decreasing with time. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the serotonin 2C receptor-encoding mRNA accumulated to >28-fold higher levels at 24 months compared with 3 months in intact mice. A major limitation of the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments was that we did not separate whole bladder into muscle and mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: Although a sham operation is typically used in partial bladder outlet obstruction experiments to provide control animals, the sham group might itself show increased variation in micturition frequency at early times after surgery, compared with intact animals.


Assuntos
Obstrução do Colo da Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Camundongos , Membrana Mucosa , RNA Mensageiro , Micção
15.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 84(4): 946-952, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited information exists on mucocutaneous disease and its relation to course of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of mucocutaneous findings, characterize morphologic patterns, and describe relationship to course in hospitalized adults with COVID-19. METHODS: Prospective cohort study at 2 tertiary hospitals (Northwell Health) between May 11, 2020 and June 15, 2020. RESULTS: Among 296 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, 35 (11.8%) had at least 1 disease-related eruption. Patterns included ulcer (13/35, 37.1%), purpura (9/35, 25.7%), necrosis (5/35, 14.3%), nonspecific erythema (4/35, 11.4%), morbilliform eruption (4/35, 11.4%), pernio-like lesions (4/35, 11.4%), and vesicles (1/35, 2.9%). Patterns also showed anatomic site specificity. A greater proportion of patients with mucocutaneous findings used mechanical ventilation (61% vs 30%), used vasopressors (77% vs 33%), initiated dialysis (31% vs 9%), had thrombosis (17% vs 11%), and had in-hospital mortality (34% vs 12%) compared with those without mucocutaneous findings. Patients with mucocutaneous disease were more likely to use mechanical ventilation (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.86); P < .001). Differences for other outcomes were attenuated after covariate adjustment and did not reach statistical significance. LIMITATIONS: Skin biopsies were not performed. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct mucocutaneous patterns were identified in hospitalized adults with COVID-19. Mucocutaneous disease may be linked to more severe clinical course.


Assuntos
/complicações , Dermatopatias/virologia , Pele/patologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , Idoso , Vesícula/virologia , Pérnio/virologia , Eritema/virologia , Exantema/virologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa , Necrose/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Púrpura/virologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Úlcera Cutânea/virologia , Trombose/virologia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1009097, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362285

RESUMO

Alterations to the mucosal environment of the female genital tract, such as genital inflammation, have been associated with increased HIV acquisition in women. As the microbiome and hormonal contraceptives can affect vaginal mucosal immunity, we hypothesized these components may interact in the context of HIV susceptibility. Using previously published microbiome data from 685 women in the CAPRISA-004 trial, we compared relative risk of HIV acquisition in this cohort who were using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), and combined oral contraceptives (COC). In women who were Lactobacillus-dominant, HIV acquisition was 3-fold higher in women using DMPA relative to women using NET-EN or COC (OR: 3.27; 95% CI: 1.24-11.24, P = 0.0305). This was not observed in non-Lactobacillus-dominant women (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.44-2.15, P = 0.895) (interaction P = 0.0686). Higher serum MPA levels associated with increased molecular pathways of inflammation in the vaginal mucosal fluid of Lactobacillus-dominant women, but no differences were seen in non-Lactobacillus dominant women. This study provides data suggesting an interaction between the microbiome, hormonal contraceptives, and HIV susceptibility.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Contraceptivos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(20): 4991-4996, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350274

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on the epithelial barrier of vaginal mucosa in mice with vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC). Seventy-two female SPF Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank group, VVC model group, fluconazole group, and BAEB treatment groups(high, middle and low dose groups). Estradiol benzoate was injected subcutaneously qd alt, and Candida albicans(2×10~6 CFU·mL~(-1)) was inoculated into the vagina of mice during the pseudo estrus period for 7 days to construct a VVC model, followed by drug treatment for 7 days. Gram staining was used to observe the morphology of C. albicans in the vaginal secretions of mice; the amount of fungal load on the vaginal mucosa of mice was detected on agar plate; the pathological status of murine vaginal mucosa was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining(HE); the integrity of mice vaginal mucosal epithelial barrier was observed by Masson's trichrome staining(MT), HE and periodic acid-schiff staining(PAS). Mucin-1 and mucin-4 protein expression levels of vaginal mucosal epithelial cells in mice were detected by immunohistochemistry; mucin-1 and mucin-4 protein expression levels on mucosal epithelial cells at 0 d, 3 d, and 7 d were determined by Western blot. The results showed that, in VVC model group, there were a large number of C. albicans hyphae and higher fungal load in vagina, within complete mucosal structure, cornified layer shed off, and the protein expression levels of mucin-1 and mucin-4 were significantly increased. After BAEB treatment, the hyphae in the vagina decreased; the fungal load decreased; the vaginal mucosal tissue damages were improved; the epithelial barrier was repaired, and mucin-1 and mucin-4 protein expression levels were down-regulated. The above results indicated that BAEB may play a role in the treatment of VVC by remodeling the integrity of the vaginal mucosal epithelial barrier.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , 1-Butanol , Animais , Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Membrana Mucosa , Vagina
18.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(5): 46-49, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034176

RESUMO

The results of a comparative assessment of the state of hemomicrocirculation and oxygen metabolism in the mucous membrane of the alveolar crest after contour plastics of the gums during dental implantation using a connective tissue graft from the upper jaw, a connective tissue transplant from the palate and the collagen matrix collagen matrix are presented. During contouring with the use of connective tissue graft (CTG) from the upper jaw and collagen matrix in the mucous membrane of the alveolar mandible, the level of tissue blood flow decreases, which characterizes the development of ischemia, which is stopped after 3 weeks, when using a connective tissue graft (CTG) from the palatine, the level of tissue blood flow rises, which indicates the development of hyperemia, which is stopped for more than 3 weeks. According to oximetry data after contouring with the use of various surgical techniques, the level of oxygenation and oxygen metabolism is reduced by 8-38%, which characterizes the development of hypoxia, which is stopped after 3 weeks when using CTG from the hillock of the upper jaw and collagen matrix for more than 3 weeks when applying CTG from the palatine.


Assuntos
Retração Gengival , Processo Alveolar/cirurgia , Tecido Conjuntivo , Implantação Dentária , Retração Gengival/cirurgia , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040496

RESUMO

Objective:Analyze the relationship between the change of mucosal wave and the infiltrating level of early laryngeal carcinoma so as to guide the cordectomy. Method:Retrospective research on patients of 1a stage without anterior commissure invasion who received simple CO2 laser therapy because of primary glottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Result:Records of 320 patients including 22 patients who have slightly reduced according to the mucosal wave prompts before operation, 49 patients mucosal wave moderately reduced, 151 patients mucosal wave severely reduced, and 98 patients have mucosal wave disappeared according to stroboscopic assessment. Post-pathological evidence shows that 16 patients had their tumor infiltration into the epithelial layer, of which, 15 received the Ⅲ type laser surgery, 1 patient received the Ⅳ type laser surgery; 189 patients had their tumor infiltration into the lamina propria, of which, 148 received the Ⅲ type laser surgery, 41 received the Ⅳ type laser surgery; and 115 patients had their tumor infiltration into the vocal cord muscle layer, of which, 77 received the Ⅲ type laser surgery, 38 received the Ⅳ type laser surgery. Analyzed according to the Kaplan-Meier method, it shows that their five-year overall survival rate was 94.0%, the five-year disease-specific survival rate was 98.4%; and five-year local-region control rate was 91.2%. Change of the mucosal wave and the tumor infiltrating level have significant correlation; patients whose tumor infiltration had reached the lamina propria received the Ⅲ and Ⅳ type laser surgical treatment, their five-year overall survival rate and their five-year local-region area control rate have no obvious difference; patients whose tumor infiltration have reached the muscular layer received the Ⅲ and Ⅳ type laser surgical treatment, their five-year overall survival rate and their five-year local-region area control rate have no significant difference. Conclusion:This research shows that, change of the mucosal wave can, to a certain extent, prompt the tumor infiltration degree and guide in operation; for patients who are suspected of laryngeal carcinoma, when mucosal wave before operation prompts moderate-sever reduction or disappearance, to ensure bottom incisal margin clean, it should be cut at least to the muscular layer; for laryngeal cancer patients whose infiltrating mucosal wave disappears, it prompts that the tumor may have infiltrated to the muscular layer, and the Ⅲ and Ⅳ type laser surgery will have no significant prognostic influence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas , Terapia a Laser , Glote , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/cirurgia , Membrana Mucosa , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(6): 1169-1182, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128886

RESUMO

Intramural surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique based on flexible endoscopy. The first step involves the initial mucosal incision for entry point. Then a submucosal tunnel is dissected to the site of the target anatomy. The procedure performed may include myotomy or lesion removal. When complete, the initial mucosal incision is closed. This technique separates the mucosal flap from the surgical site, minimizing the risk of full-thickness perforation and gastrointestinal leakage. Peroral endoscopic myotomy is the most studied application of intramural surgery but other procedures have emerged. This article explores principles of intramural surgery and summarizes its applications.


Assuntos
Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/cirurgia , Trato Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Membrana Mucosa/cirurgia , Dissecação , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/normas , Humanos , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/métodos , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural/normas
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