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1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126873, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957285

RESUMO

The removal of organic pollutants from water is highly desired because of the development of industrial and social economy. Superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic membranes are emerging materials for effective oil/water separation. In this paper, superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic polypropylene (PP) melt-blown membranes were prepared through melt-blown and in situ growth method, achieving highly efficient oil/water separation. After in situ growth, polydopamine (PDA) grows on the surface of PP fibers, and the addition of coupling agent (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES) can improve the stability of the membrane in harsh environments (1 M HCl, 1 M NaOH, 1 M NaCl). The PDA/APTES@PP membrane could dramatically enhance the wetting (water contact angle ∼0, underwater oil contact angle∼154°) compare with the pristine PP melt-blown membrane (water contact angle ∼130°, underwater oil contact angle ∼0). Moreover, the filtration performance is at a high level (∼99%). The behaviors are comparable or even superior to the typical reported results in the references (such as the mussel-inspired superhydrophilic PVDF membrane and copper mesh). This method provides a facile route to prepared multi-functional membrane for highly efficiency oil/water separation and industrial oily wastewater remediation.


Assuntos
Indóis/análise , Polímeros/análise , Cobre , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Membranas Artificiais , Óleos , Águas Residuárias , Água , Purificação da Água , Molhabilidade
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925998

RESUMO

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes of guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures in the rehabilitation of partially edentulous atrophic arches. A total of 58 patients were included with a follow-up of 3 to 7 years after loading. Data seem to indicate that GBR with nonresorbable membranes can be a good clinical choice and suggest that it could be used to vertically reconstruct no more than 6 mm of bone in the posterior mandible. However, this technique remains difficult and requires expert surgeons.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Regeneração Óssea , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Prótese Dentária Fixada por Implante , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Seguimentos , Humanos , Membranas Artificiais , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(3): 524-536, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960797

RESUMO

The membrane bioreactor (MBR) at the Traverse City Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant has experienced sudden and unpredictable periods of substantial permeability decline since 2011. Early observations detected irregularly-shaped Gram-positive bacteria that correlated with plant upsets. Use of biomolecular techniques, such as DNA sequencing of laboratory isolates and the mixed liquor microbial community, and fluorescent in situ hybridization, identified the dispersed organisms as members of the genus Staphylococcus. However, Staphylococcus species were consistently present during normal operation and therefore were more likely to be an indicator of the upset, not the cause. The results suggest that these microorganisms are responding to specific influent wastewater constituents. We chemically analysed seven mixed liquor samples from periods of permeability decline in 2017 and 2018, and four samples from a period of normal operation. During upset conditions, the total carbohydrate content exceeded that of normal operation by 40%. Additionally, mixed liquor calcium concentrations were 65% above normal during the upset in 2017. It is hypothesized and supported through multivariate statistical analysis and estimation of specific resistance to filtration values that a calcium-intermediated polymer bridging mechanism with extracellular polymeric substance constituents is a major contributor to fouling and permeability disruptions in the Traverse City MBR.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , Cidades , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Membranas Artificiais , Águas Residuárias
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(3): 577-586, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960801

RESUMO

In this study, the wet phase inversion method was used for fabrication of the flat sheet ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. Three different polymer types and two different wetting agents were used for the fabrication. The effect of polymer types and wetting agents were investigated on the structural and dye performance of casted membranes. Two different synthetic dyes, 100 ppm Setazol Red and 100 ppm Setazol Blue, were used for the performance test. Viscosity, contact angle, and molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of casted membranes were measured and an electro kinetic analyzer, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to determine the structural properties. While the highest water and dye permeability were obtained with PES-PEG membrane, PSf-plain membrane gave the highest removal efficiency for Setazol Red and Setazol Blue dyes, which was found to be 78.33% and 82.52%, respectively, in the conditions of neutral pH and ambient temperature. Addition of PVP and PEG wetting agents improved the structural properties and permeability of membranes, but the dye removal was decreased as against plain ones. As the retention of PEG and PVP-based PSf and PES membrane was calculated at an average of 50%, they could be used for dye retention separately or could be a candidate as a pretreatment membrane prior to nanofiltration or reverse osmosis to make their lifetime longer.


Assuntos
Ultrafiltração , Purificação da Água , Corantes , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais , Agentes Molhantes
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237271, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866161

RESUMO

Molecular separation of pharmaceutical contaminants from water has been recently of great interest to alleviate their detrimental impacts on environment and human well-being. As the novelty, this investigation aims to develop a mechanistic modeling approach and consequently its related CFD-based simulations to evaluate the molecular separation efficiency of ibuprofen (IP) and its metabolite 4-isobutylacetophenone (4-IBAP) from water inside a porous membrane contactor (PMC). For this purpose, octanol has been applied as an organic phase to extract IP and 4-IBAP from the aqueous solution due to high solubility of solutes in octanol. Finite element (FE) technique is used as a promising tool to simultaneously solve continuity and Navier-Stokes equations and their associated boundary conditions in tube, shell and porous membrane compartments of the PMC. The results demonstrated that the application of PMC and liquid-liquid extraction process can be significantly effective due to separating 51 and 54% of inlet IP and 4-IBAP molecules from aqueous solution, respectively. Moreover, the impact of various operational / functional parameters such as packing density, the number of fibrous membrane, the module length, the membrane porosity / tortuosity, and ultimately the aqueous solution flow rate on the molecular separation efficiency of IP and 4-IBAP is studied in more details.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Ibuprofeno/isolamento & purificação , Membranas Artificiais , Polímeros/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Octanóis/química , Porosidade , Solubilidade , Soluções
6.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111005, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778290

RESUMO

The performance of a polyamide-based thin-film composite nanofiltration (NF) membrane (NF33) was investigated for the retention of atenolol, a pharmaceutical pollutant, from the single and binary aqueous solutions. The effect of pH, applied pressure, feed flux, initial atenolol (ATN) concentration, and different co-existing salts with varying concentrations were studied to test the performance of the membrane. The removal efficiency of ATN increased with increasing solution pH giving the highest retention (70.9 ± 3.1) at pH 9, which was slightly decreased with the increasing initial ATN concentration but increased with increasing applied pressure and feed flux. As per the uncharged solutes rejection concept, the average pore radius of NF membrane for slit-like and cylindrical pore geometries were, respectively 0.169 ± 0.003 and 0.264 ± 0.009 nm. The Spiegler-Kedem model could predict the performance of NF membrane by retaining ATN over the investigated range of feed flux. The calculated reflection coefficient (σ) was close to unity, demonstrating the convective transport. Addition of CaCl2 as a co-existing salt into the feed showed promoting effect on ATN retention, and its efficiency was lowered by the addition of NaCl and Na2SO4 salts. As per the cost analysis, the total annualized cost of treatment by the NF was found to be 0.53 $/m3.


Assuntos
Atenolol , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais , Rádio (Anatomia) , Água
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140287, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783864

RESUMO

To gain greater insights into impacts of bio-carriers on the fate and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMPs) for mariculture wastewater treatment, the hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) and conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) were investigated. Both protein and polysaccharide exhibited lower level in HMBR (8.95 ± 0.28 mg/L and 20.49 ± 1.3 mg/L for anoxic stage, 5.16 ± 0.22 mg/L and 17.85 ± 0.92 mg/L for aerobic stage) than CMBR (14.6 ± 0.68 mg/L and 28.3 ± 2.99 mg/L for anoxic stage, 10.53 ± 0.68 and 26.04 ± 3.15 mg/L for aerobic stage). Three-dimensional fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM) revealed bio-carriers reduced the production of aromatic protein-like components in anoxic and aerobic supernatant and caused a blue-shift of soluble microbial product in aerobic stage. Molecular weight (Mw) distribution indicated that bio-carriers ameliorated the excretion of biopolymer (Mw > 500 kDa) in anoxic supernatant and intermediate Mw fractions (20-500 kDa) in aerobic supernatant. Moreover, little changes were observed in SMPs with Mw < 3 kDa down the whole treatment process of both systems. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) demonstrated that the major SMPs were long-chain alkanes and aromatics in all units of both systems and fewer aromatics were detected in HMBR. For anoxic stage, more peaks were identified in the HMBR (138) than CMBR (115), while for aerobic stage, more compounds were observed in the CMBR (94) than HMBR (70). Over 50% of the compounds in the anoxic supernatant for the HMBR were the same as in the CMBR. And 27 compounds were the same in aerobic supernatant for the HMBR and CMBR. Fewer compounds in the HMBR effluent (52) was observed, compared to CMBR effluent (80). Approximately 25.7% of compounds in the aerobic stage of the HMBR were rejected by membrane, while this value decreased to 14.9% in the CMBR.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Membranas Artificiais , Peso Molecular
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(11): 2291-2299, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784274

RESUMO

This work reports on efforts to develop an integrated continuous forward osmosis system for the recovery of water from wastewater streams, highlighting critical process parameters to minimize energy consumption. Forward osmosis experiments were performed using NaCl draw solutions of various concentrations and the intrinsic membrane parameters (water permeability, draw solution permeability, and structural parameter) were then determined via nonlinear regression using MATLAB. The experimental data were then used to validate a theoretical water flux model, which was subsequently applied to simulate the forward osmosis performance under different hydrodynamic conditions using both NaCl and TMA-CO2-H2O (TMA: trimethylamine) draw solutions. Analysis of the energy efficiency of the TMA-CO2 draw solution regeneration stage revealed that the draw solution flow rate has a significant impact on energy consumption. Also, increasing the feed flow rate was found to slightly enhance the water flux up to 2.5%, while having a negligible impact on the downstream regeneration process energy consumption.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Água , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Águas Residuárias
9.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(11): 2381-2390, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784281

RESUMO

Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have many advantages, such as producing methane gas for energy generation and little excess sludge. However, membrane fouling is a serious problem because the foulant, which causes the membrane to foul, may get rejected by the membrane and accumulate in the reactor, resulting in an acceleration of membrane fouling. However, there is no information related to a change in the foulant concentration in an AnMBR. Therefore, we examined the changes in the foulant concentration in the reactor, related to membrane fouling in an AnMBR. For the influent, reactor solution, and effluent, the concentration of each component of the foulant was analyzed by using a liquid chromatography-organic carbon detector (LC-OCD). It was found that fouling in the AnMBR was closely related to the components in the reactor, and the main foulant of the ultrafiltration (UF) membrane was biopolymers (BPs). BP accumulated in the reactor because of a high rejection by the UF membrane. However, once the BP accumulated in the reactor was biodegraded, the concentration of BP decreased with time even under a high organic loading rate of 1.9kg TOC/m3/day.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Anaerobiose , Membranas Artificiais , Metano , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 140030, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758948

RESUMO

Membrane technology has been shown to be promising for the treatment of algae-laden water, but membrane fouling is still an obstacle influencing the purification efficiency and effluent quality. To mitigate ultrafiltration membrane fouling during Microcystis aeruginosa-laden water treatment, a strategy of sodium percarbonate pre-oxidation activated with ferrous ion (Fe2+/SPC) was put forward in this study. Due to the synergistic effect of Fe2+ and SPC, this process was significantly more efficient with the terminal specific flux increased from 0.097 to 0.397, and the reversible fouling resistance reduced by approximately 80%. It was also found that subsequent sedimentation followed by Fe2+/SPC could further improve the fouling control efficiency. The model fitting results indicated that Fe2+/SPC pre-oxidation delayed the transition from standard blocking to cake filtration. Extracellular organic matter and algal cells were extracted from algal foulants to explore the contribution of each component, and the fouling control efficiencies were systematically studied. The characteristics of the algal foulants were determined with fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectrum, and the results suggested that macromolecular proteinaceous substances were more efficiently removed by Fe2+/SPC, in comparison with humic-like matters. The alleviation of membrane fouling was also verified by the characterization methods of scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflection-Fourier infrared spectroscopy. Overall, the proposed strategy of Fe2+/SPC has an application prospect for membrane fouling control in algal-laden water treatment.


Assuntos
Ultrafiltração , Purificação da Água , Carbonatos , Membranas Artificiais , Água
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(12): 2674-2684, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857752

RESUMO

Coal chemical industry (CCI) generally utilizes reverse osmosis (RO) for water reclamation, which generates a highly concentrated stream containing refractory organic substances and high-concentration total dissolved solids (TDS). To address this issue, the present work focuses on volume reduction of RO concentrate (ROC) produced from CCI by forward osmosis (FO). We investigated the effects of membrane orientation and draw solution (DS) concentration on FO performance. Foulant removal was tested by using chemical cleaning, physical cleaning and osmotic backwash (OB). AL-FS (active layer facing feed solution) mode outcompeted AL-DS (active layer facing draw solution) mode, achieving a flux of 26.4 LMH, 92.5% water reclamation and energy consumption of 0.050 kWh·m-3 with 4 M NaCl as DS. The FO process was able to reject >98% SO42-, Mg2+and Ca2+, 92-98% Si and 33-55% total organic carbon (TOC). Ten-cycle (10 × 20 h) accelerated fouling test demonstrated approximately 30% flux decline in association with Si-containing foulants, which could be removed almost completely through OB with 97.1% flux recovery. This study provides a proof-of-concept demonstration of FO for volume reduction and water reclamation of ROC produced from CCI, making the treatment of ROC more efficient and more energy effective.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Purificação da Água , Indústria Química , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Água
12.
Water Res ; 182: 115991, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739686

RESUMO

A critical challenge in the application of membrane bioreactors (MBR) for domestic wastewater treatment is its high energy consumption caused by continuous aeration for biofouling control. To reduce energy consumption and mitigate fouling in membranes, alternative configurations using dynamic shear-enhanced filtration by membrane reciprocation, rotation, and vibration to mechanically impose shear on membrane surfaces have been recently introduced. However, although these methods are effective at lowering energy usage, the nutrient removal efficiencies and microbial community compositions of these systems have not been well studied. In this study, a lab-scale no-aeration reciprocation membrane bioreactor was used to characterize the microbial composition, functional profile and nutrient removal of the reciprocation MBR system operated under hypoxic conditions. Microbial community analysis showed Proteobacteria (35%) and Saccharibacteria (27%) to be the most abundant phyla in the sludge and the biofilm samples, respectively. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were observed at 70% and 50% while the chemical oxygen demand concentration had about a 99% decrease in the effluent. Quantitative PCR of nutrient-removing genes revealed the presence of complete ammonia-oxidizing organisms (comammox) with a mean abundance of 1.88 × 104 gene copies/g sludge, which explains the high ammonia removal despite a low abundance of canonical ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Fluorescence in-situ hybridization showed a prevalence of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) with clusters that are distant from other nutrient-removing communities, suggesting that their metabolism is not dependent on ammonia oxidizers. The reciprocation MBR configuration may be a suitable, more energy-efficient alternative to conventional air-scouring systems because of its biofouling mitigation and promising nutrient removal performed by the diverse microbial communities in its system.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Microbiota , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13875, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807805

RESUMO

Respiratory protection is key in infection prevention of airborne diseases, as highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic for instance. Conventional technologies have several drawbacks (i.e., cross-infection risk, filtration efficiency improvements limited by difficulty in breathing, and no safe reusability), which have yet to be addressed in a single device. Here, we report the development of a filter overcoming the major technical challenges of respiratory protective devices. Large-pore membranes, offering high breathability but low bacteria capture, were functionalized to have a uniform salt layer on the fibers. The salt-functionalized membranes achieved high filtration efficiency as opposed to the bare membrane, with differences of up to 48%, while maintaining high breathability (> 60% increase compared to commercial surgical masks even for the thickest salt filters tested). The salt-functionalized filters quickly killed Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria aerosols in vitro, with CFU reductions observed as early as within 5 min, and in vivo by causing structural damage due to salt recrystallization. The salt coatings retained the pathogen inactivation capability at harsh environmental conditions (37 °C and a relative humidity of 70%, 80% and 90%). Combination of these properties in one filter will lead to the production of an effective device, comprehensibly mitigating infection transmission globally.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/química , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/microbiologia , Membranas Artificiais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Aerossóis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cristalização , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461427, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739066

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties of small molecules that can be determined by retention measurements in reversed-phase liquid chromatography include solvent-based properties inferred from equilibrium processes occurring predominantly in the mobile phase and sorption properties for materials which can be used as stationary phases inferred from solute-stationary phase interactions. In addition, physicochemical properties can be estimated from correlation models based on surrogate chromatographic systems with a similar capability for intermolecular interactions to the chemical or biological system. Examples of properties determined by direct methods include molecular descriptors (solvation parameter model), acid dissociation constants, formation constants, and surface properties of solids determined by inverse liquid chromatography. Examples of properties estimated by indirect methods include hydrophobicity, lipophilicity, n-octanol-water partition constant, soil-water sorption constant, non-specific toxicity to fish and microorganisms, and permeation coefficients for the blood-brain and skin-water barriers. Since all approaches depend on an accurate measurement of chromatographic retention parameters typical operational and mechanistic problems are discussed from the perspective of data quality. Fundamentally the accuracy of direct methods is limited by stationary phase heterogeneity and indirect methods by the limited number of suitable surrogate chromatographic models.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Membranas Artificiais , Octanóis/química , Solo/química , Solventes/química , Água/química
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461377, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797853

RESUMO

This study reports the use ofa natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) with hollow fiber-microporous membrane liquid-liquid microextraction (HF-MMLLE) for the multiclass determination of 11 compounds classified as emerging contaminantsin water. Different deep eutectic solvents were synthetized and Thymol: Camphor (1:1 molar fraction) wasused as extraction solvent. The Thymol:Camphor was impregnated into the polypropylene membrane porous for 10 min, replacing commonly used solvents (ex. hexane and octanol). The optimized parameters were obtained by multi and univariate models. Extractions were carried out for 50 min using 1.5 mL of water sample at pH 6 and without addition of salt while desorption was made in a mixture of acetone: methanol (3:1, v/v) for 15 min. Separation/quantification was conducted by HPLC with a diode array detection (DAD)and calibration curves were obtained for each analyte. Determination coefficients higher than 0.9906 and limits of detection ranged from 0.3 to 6.1 µg L-1. Intraday precision (n = 3) ranged from 1.6 to 18.4% and inter day from 5.0 to 21.3%. Relative recoveries were performed in tap and stream water and ranged from 64 to 123%.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Solventes/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Membranas Artificiais , Polipropilenos/química , Porosidade , Espectrofotometria , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
17.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127581, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758787

RESUMO

Forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) is an integrated physical-biological treatment process that has received increased awareness in treating municipal wastewater for its potential to produce high effluent quality coupled with its low propensity for fouling formation. However, reverse salt diffusion (RSD) is a major issue and so far limited studies have reported long-term FOMBR operation under the elevated salinity conditions induced by RSD. This study investigated the performance of a FOMBR in treating municipal wastewater under a controlled saline environment (6-8 g L-1 NaCl) using two separate sodium chloride draw solution (NaCl DS) concentrations (35 and 70 g L-1) over 243 days. At 35 g L-1 NaCl DS, the water flux performance dropped from 6.75 L m-2 h-1 (LMH) to 2.07 LMH after 72 days of operation in the first experimental stage, when no cleaning procedure was implemented. In the subsequent stage, the DS concentration was increased to 70 g L-1 and a weekly physical cleaning regime introduced. Under stable operation, the water flux performance recovery was 67% after 21 cycles of physical cleaning. For the first time in FOMBR studies, a shortcut nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway was also achieved under the elevated salinity conditions. At the end of operation (day 243), the ammonia-oxidising bacteria (Nitrosomonas sp.) was the only nitrifier species in the system and no nitrite oxidising bacteria was detected. The above study proves that a FOMBR system is a feasible process for treating municipal wastewater.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Aerobiose , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Desnitrificação , Desenho de Equipamento , Nitrificação , Nitritos/metabolismo , Nitrosomonas/metabolismo , Osmose , Salinidade , Águas Residuárias/química
18.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111114, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738743

RESUMO

The study aimed at investigating the performance of anaerobic dynamic MBR (AnDMBR) for the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater. A laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor was operated to test nylon mesh support materials with different pore sizes (20 µm, 53 µm and 100 µm). The performances of the AnDMBR were evaluated with a stimulated wastewater containing 1,000 mg.L-1 COD and 100 mg.L-1 dye (Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R). To develop an effective dynamic cake layer on the support material, different operational strategies, i.e. high flux, continuous and intermittently biogas recycle were studied for process optimization and increase the filtration performances. Initially, the bioreactor was operated under continuous biogas recycle. Under this operation strategy, the cake layer was not formed, then intermittent biogas recycle was applied to improve the development of dynamic layer. Effluent SS decreased below 20 mg-SS.L-1 for all the tested different pore sized supports after the development of the cake layer. Almost complete color (>99%) and high COD removal efficiencies (95-97%) were observed. For all the three supports, the bioreactor was operated at fluxes of 5-15 L.(m2.h)-1 (LMH), which was quite high compared to conventional AnMBRs equipped with micro/ultra-filtration membranes. In order to better understand the formation and its structure, detailed cake layer characterization analyses were conducted with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM coupled Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP). Provided the formation of the cake layer, the comparable flux and removal performances with AnMBRs for all three tested support materials were possible.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Filtração , Têxteis
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 317: 124001, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805483

RESUMO

An anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was used to treat low to high (5-200 mg/L) concentrations of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) wastewater. The AnMBR achieved high and stable chemical oxygen demand removal and 2-CP removal with an average value of 93.2% and 94.2% under long hydraulic retention times (HRTs, 48-96 h), respectively. 2-CP removal efficiency of 98.6 mg/L/d was achieved with 2-CP concentration of 200 mg/L, which was much higher than that of other anaerobic bioreactors. Furthermore, volatile fatty acids didn't accumulate under high 2-CP loading. Long HRTs significantly reduced the membrane fouling as the fouling rate (0.90 × 109-5.44 × 109 m-1h-1) was low. Spirochaetaceae and Methanosaeta were the dominant microbes responsible for dechlorination, methanogenesis, and shock resistance. All these results demonstrate that this AnMBR operated under long HRTs is good and robust for fluctuating chlorophenols wastewater treatment, which has high potential for treating fluctuating refractory organics wastewater with the low membrane fouling rate.


Assuntos
Clorofenóis , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Membranas Artificiais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
20.
Lab Chip ; 20(19): 3560-3568, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844858

RESUMO

A miniaturized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system is not only important for medical applications in remote areas of developing countries, but also important for testing at ports of entry during global epidemics, such as the current outbreak of the coronavirus. Although there is a large number of PCR sensor systems available for this purpose, there is still a lack of portable digital PCR (dPCR) heating systems. Here, we first demonstrated a portable plasmonic heating-based dPCR system. The device has total dimensions of 9.7 × 5.6 × 4.1 cm and a total power consumption of 4.5 W, allowing for up to 25 dPCR experiments to be conducted on a single charge of a 20 000 mAh external battery. The dPCR system has a maximum heating rate of 10.7 °C s-1 and maximum cooling rate of 8 °C s-1. Target DNA concentrations in the range from 101 ± 1.4 copies per µL to 260 000 ± 20 000 copies per µL could be detected using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microwell membrane with 22 080 well arrays (20 µm diameter). Furthermore, the heating system was demonstrated using a mass producible poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA microwell array with 8100 microwell arrays (80 µm diameter). The PMMA microwell array could detect a concentration from 12 ± 0.7 copies per µL to 25 889 ± 737 copies per µL.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , DNA/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Humanos , Membranas Artificiais , Miniaturização , Polimetil Metacrilato
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