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1.
Water Res ; 188: 116482, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039829

RESUMO

Solar energy is considered one of the most promising energy sources for the degradation of pollutants in the water treatments. An innovative solar photo-thermochemical system involving peroxydisulfate (PDS) as an oxidant and xenon lamp as a solar irradiation light source was applied with hopes to degrade organic matters and alleviate the ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling when treating the real surface water. Moreover, heat-activated PDS pretreatment was used as a comparison to explore the respective proportions of solar light and heating effects, finding that solar light effect dominated the activation of PDS to degrade natural organic matters (NOMs) when the reaction temperature was below 50 °C and they both contributed to the production of free radicals at the temperature of >50 °C. The results indicated that solar-activated PDS pretreatment significantly alleviated membrane fouling caused by Songhua River water with the highest transmembrane pressure (TMP) reduction of approximately 69.6% at 70 °C. Organic substances (characterized by DOC, UV254 and the maximum florescent intensity) and micropollutant (atrazine) in the feed water were better degraded in the presence of solar light. Both total fouling index (TFI) and hydraulic irreversible fouling index (HIFI) were moderate correlated with the UV254 and DOC, whereas remarkably correlated with the Fmax of component 2 (C2) and component 3 (C3). In addition, no significant correlation was observed between fouling indexes (TFI and HIFI) and the Fmax of component 1 (C1). The membrane irreversible fouling was attributed to the accumulation of cake layers mainly composed of protein-like substances on the membrane surface. Solar-activated PDS pretreatment would efficiently degrade the protein-like substances and terrestrially derived humic-like matters to control UF membrane fouling. The findings are beneficial to develop new strategies for membrane fouling alleviation based on the solar irradiation and PDS oxidation.


Assuntos
Ultrafiltração , Purificação da Água , Substâncias Húmicas , Membranas , Membranas Artificiais , Oxirredução
2.
Water Res ; 188: 116465, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049566

RESUMO

We created a hydrogen-based membrane palladium-film reactor (MPfR) by depositing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) on hollow-fiber membranes via autocatalytic hydrogenation to form a Pd-film. The MPfR was used for hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). HDC performances and mechanisms were systematically evaluated, and a continuous-flow dechlorination model was established. Approximately 87% of the input 2,4-DCP was reduced to the end-product phenol (P), while 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) was an intermediate, but only at 2%. Selective adsorption of the 2,4-DCP onto the Pd-film and fast desorption of P facilitated efficient dechlorination. Modeling results represented well the concentrations of 2,4-DCP and its intermediates. It demonstrated three dechlorination pathways: The majority of 2,4-DCP was completely dechlorinated to P in an adsorbed state without release of monochlorphenol, some 2,4-DCP was degraded to 2-CP that was released and subsequently adsorbed and reduced to P, and a small amount was reduced to 4-CP that was released and subsequently adsorbed and reduced to P. Analysis based on Density Functional Theory suggests that the pathway of full dechlorination was dominant due to its thermodynamically favorable adsorption configuration, with both Cl atoms bonded to Pd. This study documents full dechlorination of 2,4-DCP in the MPfR and the interacting roles of adsorption and HDC.


Assuntos
Clorofenóis , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Hidrogênio , Membranas , Filmes Cinematográficos , Paládio , Fenóis
3.
Water Res ; 188: 116497, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075598

RESUMO

Over the past decade, 3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM) technology has seen great advancement in many aspects such as printing resolution, speed and cost. Membranes for water treatment experienced significant breakthroughs owing to the unique benefits of additive manufacturing. In particular, 3D printing's high degree of freedom in various aspects such as material and prototype design has helped to fabricate innovative spacers and membranes. However, there were conflicting reports on the feasibility of 3D printing, especially for membranes. Some research groups stated that technology limitations today made it impossible to 3D print membranes, but others showed that it was possible by successfully fabricating prototypes. This paper will provide a critical and comprehensive discussion on 3D printing specifically for spacers and membranes. Various 3D printing techniques will be introduced, and their suitability for membrane and spacer fabrication will be discussed. It will be followed by a review of past studies associated with 3D-printed spacers and membranes. A new category of additive manufacturing in the membrane water industry will be introduced here, known as hybrid additive manufacturing, to address the controversies of 3D printing for membrane. As AM technology continues to advance, its possibilities in the water treatment is limitless. Some insightful future trends will be provided at the end of the paper.


Assuntos
Impressão Tridimensional , Purificação da Água , Membranas
4.
Water Res ; 188: 116498, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080455

RESUMO

Complete biological denitrification is usually restricted in electron donor lacking waters. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification attracts attention for its clean and cost-efficiency advantages. Therein, the hydrogen could be effectively generated by microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) from organic wastes. In this study, a gas diffusion membrane (GDM) integrated MEC (MMEC) was constructed and provided a novel non-polluting approach for nitrate contaminated water remediation, in which the hydrogen was recovered from substrate degradation in anode and diffused across GDM as electron donor for denitrification. The high overall nitrogen removal of 91 ± 0.1%-95 ± 1.9% and 90 ± 1.6%-94 ± 2.2% were respectively achieved in Ti-MMEC and SS-MMEC with titanium and stainless-steel mesh as cathode at all applied voltages (0.4-0.8 V). Decreasing applied voltage from 0.8 to 0.4 V significantly improved the electron utilization efficiency for denitrification from 26 ± 3.6% to 73 ± 0.1% in Ti-MMEC. Integrating MEC with GDM greatly improved TN removal by 40% under applied voltage of 0.8 V. The hydrogenotrophic denitrifiers of Rhodocyclaceae, Paracoccus, and Dethiobacter, dominated in MMECs facilitating TN removal. Functional denitrification related genes including napAB, nirKS, norBC and nosZ predicted by PICRUSt2 based on 16S rRNA gene data demonstrated higher abundance in MMECs.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nitratos , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Eletrólise , Membranas , Nitrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S
5.
Water Res ; 188: 116522, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091802

RESUMO

The increasing pressure on the global water supply calls for more advanced solutions with higher efficiency and better sustainability, leading to the promptly developing water reclamation and reuse schemes including treatment technologies and risk management strategies where microbial safety is becoming a crucial aspect in the interest of public health. Backed up by the development of membrane technology, membrane bioreactors (MBR) have received substantial attention for their superiority over conventional treatment methods in many ways and are considered promising in the water reclamation realm. This review paper provides an overview of the efforts made to manage and control the potential waterborne viral disease risks raised by the use of effluent from MBR treatment processes, including the mechanisms involved in the virus removal process and the attempts to model the dynamics of the removal process. In principle, generalized and integrated virus removal models that provide insight into real-time monitoring are urgently needed for advanced real-time control purpose. Future studies of approaches that can well handle the inherent uncertainty and nonlinearity of the complex removal process are crucial to the development and promotion of related technologies.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Purificação da Água , Reatores Biológicos , Membranas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Água
6.
Water Res ; 188: 116546, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125991

RESUMO

The ubiquitous use and manufacturing of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have led to the contamination of water resources worldwide. High-pressure membranes, including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), are increasingly being deployed for water treatment and may be an effective barrier to PFASs. However, the impact of membrane operating conditions, background water matrix, and solute adsorption on rejection of diverse PFASs by NF and RO remains unclear. Rejection of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) present in aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) diluted into a laboratory electrolyte matrix by NF and RO spiral wound elements was >98% and >99%, respectively. Rejection of the same PFAAs present in an AFFF-impacted groundwater matrix by NF was lower, between 92-98%, and was attributed to background water matrix constituents. Operating conditions did not have a significant impact on rejection of PFASs with the exception of shorter chain perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in the AFFF-impacted groundwater matrix, where rejection increased with increasing flux. Structure-activity analysis of 42 PFASs, including 10 PFAAs and 32 PFASs identified in AFFF through high-resolution mass spectrometry suspect screening methods, showed some correlation between rejection and compound molecular weight. Adsorptive losses of PFAAs, most notably longer-chain hydrophobic PFAAs, to the spiral wound membrane elements and the membrane system were observed. Adsorption of PFAAs to the permeate spacer was especially pronounced and may have implications of artificially high rejection values. Still, rejection of PFASs by NF remained consistently >98% over 13 days of continuous operation.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Membranas/química , Filmes Cinematográficos , Pressão , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Water Res ; 188: 116530, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125997

RESUMO

Membranes have a lot of potential for harvesting microalgae, but membrane fouling is hampering their breakthrough. In this study, the effects of charge and corrugated surface on membrane filtration performance were investigated. The clean water permeance (CWP), the microalgae harvesting efficiency and the membrane flux for a microalgal broth were determined using patterned polysulfone (PSf) membranes with different shapes of the surface patterns and containing different charge densities by blending sulfonated polysulfone (sPSf). The flow behavior near the patterned membrane surface, as well as the interaction energy between membrane and microalgae were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and the improved extended "Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek" (XDLVO) theory, respectively. Membrane charge and pattern shape significantly improve the membrane performance. The critical pressures of all sPSf blend patterned membranes were higher than 2.5 bar. A 4.5w% sPSf blend patterned membranes with wave patterns showed the highest CWP (2300 L/m2 h bar) and membrane flux in the microalgal broth (1000 L/m2 h bar) with 100% harvesting efficiency. XDLVO analysis showed that sPSf blend patterned membranes prepared obtained the lowest interaction energy and highest energy barrier for microalgal attachment. CFD simulation showed a higher velocity and wall shear on the pattern apexes.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Biomassa , Filtração , Membranas , Membranas Artificiais , Polímeros , Sulfonas
8.
Water Res ; 188: 116547, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126002

RESUMO

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is an advantageous technology for wastewater treatment. However, efficient nutrient removal and membrane fouling mitigation remain major challenges in its applications. In this study, an electroconductive moving bed membrane bioreactor (EcMB-MBR) was proposed for simultaneous removal of organics and nutrients from domestic wastewater. The EcMB-MBR was composed of a submerged MBR, filled with electrodes and free-floating conductive media. Conductive media were introduced to reduce energy consumption in an electrochemical MBR, to improve nitrogen removal, and to mitigate membrane fouling. The results showed that COD, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus removal was up to 97.1 ± 1.4%, 88.8 ± 4.2%, and 99.0 ± 0.9%, respectively, in comparison with those of 93.4 ± 1.5%, 65.2 ± 5.3%, and 20.4 ± 11.3% in a conventional submerged MBR. Meanwhile, a total membrane resistance reduction of 26.7% was obtained in the EcMB-MBR. The optimized operating condition was determined at an intermittent electricity exposure time of 10 min-ON/10 min-OFF, and a direct current density of 15 A/m2. The interactions between electric current and conductive media were explored to understand the working mechanism in this proposed system. The conductive media reduced 21% of the electrical resistivity in the mixed liquor at a selected packing density of 0.20 (v/v). The combination of electrochemical process and conductive media specially enhanced the reduction of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) through hybrid bio-electrochemical denitrification processes. These mechanisms involved with electrochemically assisted autotrophic denitrification by autotrophic denitrifying bacteria. As a result, 5.2% of NO3--N remained in the effluent of EcMB-MBR in comparison with that of 29.5% in the MBR. Membrane fouling was minimized via both mechanical scouring and electrochemical decomposition/precipitation of organic/particulate foulants. Furthermore, a preliminary cost analysis indicated that an additional operating cost of 0.081 USD/m3, accounting for 10 - 30% increment of the operating cost of a conventional MBR, was needed to enhance the nitrogen and phosphorus removal correspondingly in the EcMB-MBR.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Águas Residuárias , Leitos , Reatores Biológicos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Membranas , Nitrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
9.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111403, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126194

RESUMO

Baker's yeast industries (BYI) generate highly polluted effluents, especially vinasse from yeast separators, with very high chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, sulphate and salts, mainly potassium and calcium. Anaerobic treatment is the most commonly applied method for treating BYI wastewaters. However, it is quite challenging to obtain a high performance due to the difficulties in biomass retention. Moreover, it does not provide compliance with COD and color discharge limits when used as a sole treatment process. In this context, a pilot scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor, which provides excellent biomass retention, was operated to investigate its treatment performance for vinasse from a BYI. The reactor achieved a COD removal between 48% and 92% up to a volumetric load of 10 kg COD m3 d-1. A specific methane production of 0.37 m3 CH4 kg-1 CODremoved was observed in the study. On the other hand, passage of inert organic compounds through membrane deteriorated permeate quality and treatment efficiency. High alkalinity and pH led to the accumulation of calcium precipitates, which reduced volatile solids fraction of sludge and biomass activity in the reactor. The present study showed the operational challenges and potential drawbacks of AnMBR systems for BYI wastewater treatment. The experience gained in the pilot system can be utilized in the design and operation of full scale AnMBRs for high strength industrial effluents.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Indústrias , Membranas , Metano , Melaço , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Pesos e Medidas
10.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111548, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126200

RESUMO

Current microalgal based photobioreactors focus on the secondary treated effluent while limited researches attempted for treating the raw domestic wastewater. This study aimed to assess the microalgal biomass production, removal performance, and fouling characteristics of microalgal membrane bioreactors (MMBRs) for treating synthetic wastewater under different conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic residence time (HRT). The 12h/12 h dark/light cycle continuous experiments were performed for four MMBRs at different OLRs and three MMBRs at different HRTs. Results showed that microalgal biomass production rate (as TSS and chlorophyll-a) decreased with increasing OLR and increased with decreasing of HRT. Regardless of the OLR and HRT conditions, MMBRs can achieve up to 94% organic removal by bacterial oxidation without external aeration. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removals were significantly decreased with increasing OLR. Highest TN removal (68.4%) achieved at the OLR of 0.014 kg/(m3 d) which was reduced to 58.1% at 0.028 kg/(m3 d). Removals of total phosphorous significantly decreased from 48.2% to 37.7% with an increase in OLR from 0.011 to 0.014 kg/(m3 d). TN removal was reduced at shorten HRT (2 d), while, the effect of HRT was found insignificant at higher HRT. An effective removal of P can only be achieved at higher HRTs, i.e., 7 days. OLR up to 0.014 kg/(m3 d) and 2 days HRT was found suitable for maintaining the fouling frequency at an optimal level of 0.016/d. Overall the OLR and HRT need to be carefully selected to achieve optimal efficiency of MMBR. The results of this study provide guidelines for designing the microalgal-based membrane bioreactors for the treatment of domestic wastewater.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Purificação da Água , Reatores Biológicos , Membranas , Tempo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
11.
Water Res ; 188: 116554, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128978

RESUMO

Novel control strategies for membrane biofouling with eco-friendly photocatalytic technology are critically needed in practical operation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). In this study, a metal-organic frameworks (MOF) based photocatalytic membrane was firstly applied in an anammox MBR for a long-term biofouling control, where bacteria were inactivated and foulants were degraded simultaneously, with environmentally friendly and renewable visible light energy. By physicochemical characterization, the synthesized photocatalyst of CdS/MIL-101 showed superior visible-light photocatalytic ability, and the 1 wt% CdS/MIL-101 modified membrane C2 showed enhanced hydrophilicity and water permeability compared with the pristine membrane C0. In the long-term operation of anammox MBRs under waterproof lights irradiation, the filtration cycles of C2 (25-26 d) were obviously extended compared with C0 (10-14 d), while their average total nitrogen removal efficiencies were comparable up to 84%, indicating an excellent biofouling alleviation effect by using C2 with a satisfactory nitrogen removal performance maintained. By analysis of the biofilm on the fouled membranes, the organic foulants (especially extracellular polymeric substances) were degraded, and the live bacteria were inactivated effectively by the photocatalytic reactions of CdS/MIL-101 on C2. In the antimicrobial tests against model bacteria, C2 exhibited remarkable antimicrobial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with visible light irradiation by destruction of cell integrity with the inhibition rate of 92% for Escherichia coli and 95% for Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. In the model foulants (bovine serum albumin, sodium alginate, and humic acid) filtration tests, C2 showed higher antifouling capabilities, lower flux declining rates, and higher foulants rejection rates under visible light irradiation compared with C0. The reactive species of ·OH, e- and h+ generated on C2 were verified to play the predominant role in the anti-biofouling processes by simultaneous bacteria inactivation and foulants degradation. The findings offer a novel insight into the biofouling controlling in MBRs by simultaneous bacteria inactivation and foulants degradation with an eco-friendly method.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Reatores Biológicos , Luz , Membranas , Membranas Artificiais , Polivinil
12.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111497, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130432

RESUMO

Artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to develop models for process optimisation of pilot scale nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration system for the treatment of brackish groundwater. The process variables for this study were feed concentration, temperature, pH and pressure. The performance of NF/RO was assessed in terms of permeate flux, water recovery, salt rejection and specific energy consumption, which were considered as responses. The experimental design was employed to develop both RSM and ANN models. RSM model was validated for the whole range of experimental levels, while the ANN model was considered for the whole range of experimental design. RSM and ANN models were statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Further, the models were graphically compared for its predictive capacity. Numerical optimisation of NF and RO pilot plant to determine the optimum conditions were verified. Finally, using the optimum conditions, three hybrid configurations of NF and RO were studied to determine the best mode for the treatment of brackish groundwater. It was found that parallel NF-RO had a recovery of 57.18% and rejection of 44.89%, for RO-concentrate-NF (RO-C-NF) recovery was 49.55% and rejection of 38.64% & for NF-concentrate-RO (NF-C-RO), the recovery of 39.53% and rejection of 49.66% was obtained. Results obtained also suggested that the mode of configurations and the feed concentration affect the performance of the hybrid system.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Purificação da Água , Filtração , Membranas , Membranas Artificiais , Redes Neurais de Computação , Osmose , Pesos e Medidas
13.
Water Res ; 188: 116518, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137525

RESUMO

Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) has been proven to have a low fouling potential in membrane bioreactor (MBR). Nevertheless, AGS scouring effect on mitigating membrane fouling remains poorly investigated. The main objective of this study is to examine AGS-MBR performance, to reveal the AGS scouring mechanism and quantify its contribution rate to membrane fouling mitigation, from the views of theory and experiment. Above all, AGS-MBR exhibited a low fouling rate ((transmembrane pressure (TMP) kept below 20 kPa) without membrane cleaning and a higher removal of organics and nutrients than conventional MBR during 80 days' sludge granulation process. Then, flocculent sludge (FS) with various AGS ratios was applied to simulate the sludge granulation phase. When AGS ratio increased from 0% to 100%, the permeate flux gradually elevated from 40.0 L m-2h-1 to 92.9 L m-2h-1, and fouling resistance decreased from 9.0 × 10-12m-1 to 3.9 × 10-12m-1 benefiting from the loose structure and high porosity of AGS fouling layer. Meanwhile, the scouring effect produced by AGS on the membrane fouling mitigation was investigated. Based on the momentum conservation, a new hydrodynamic model was developed to explain the scouring mechanism of AGS. The scouring stress, proportional to the total amount of AGS depositing on the membrane surface, effectively reinforced the collision between AGS and FS, and reduced their deposition on the membrane surface by friction with the membrane; thus it was further conducive to membrane fouling mitigation. Moreover, a novel contribution quantification model was proposed for analyzing the contribution rate of AGS scouring effect to mitigate membrane fouling. AGS scouring possessed a significant contribution rate (39.9%) for fouling mitigation, compared with AGS structure (50.3%) and hydraulic stress (9.7%). In final, this study provides an in-depth understanding to mitigate the MBR membrane fouling by the unique advantages of sludge granulation.


Assuntos
Hidrodinâmica , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , Membranas , Membranas Artificiais , Águas Residuárias
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 100: 193-202, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279032

RESUMO

Nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) can produce hydroxyl radicals under illumination, which promotes the oxidative degradation of organic pollutants. In this paper, NCM was used to oxidize bisphenol A (BPA) under simulated sunlight. The effects of pH, temperature, light intensity, anion and cation on the degradation of BPA were analyzed. The photodegradation process of BPA was discussed. The optimal photolysis rate was 0.031 min-1 when the temperature was 30°C, the light intensity was 2.67 × 104 Lux, and the pH value was 9.0. The alkaline environment, temperature and light intensity can promote the photodegradation of BPA. Except for nitrate ions, anions and cations can inhibit the photodegradation of BPA. Compared with cations, anions have a greater inhibitory effect on BPA degradation. The degradation products of BPA by NCM were analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass. This study may provide useful information for the BPA degradation by NCM in complex water samples.


Assuntos
Iluminação , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Colódio , Membranas/química , Fenóis , Fotólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 100: 298-305, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279043

RESUMO

In membrane distillation (MD), complicated feed water with amphiphilic contaminants induces fouling/wetting of the MD membrane and can even lead to process failure. This study reports a facile approach to fabricate robust and self-healing hybrid amphiphobic membranes for anti-surfactant-wetting MD based on the ultra-low surface energy of fluorinated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (F-POSS) and its thermal induced motivation and rotation. The thermal treatment makes the membranes achieving amphiphobicity at a very low cost of F-POSS (13.04 wt.%), which is about 1/3 of without thermal treatment. The prepared membrane exhibits excellent amphiphobicity, i.e. ethanol contact angle of 120.3°, without using environmentally toxic fluorinated nanoparticles. Robust MD performance was observed for the amphiphobic membrane in concentrated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) feed solutions. Furthermore, the fabricated membrane exhibited stable amphiphobicity even in extreme environments, including strong acid or alkaline solutions. In the event of a damaged or abraded membrane surface where the F-POSS can be removed, the amphiphobic membrane exhibits self-healing ability with additional thermal treatment. This simple approach without the use of nanoparticles provides an environmentally friendly way for fabrication of amphiphobic membranes for anti-surfactant-wetting membrane distillation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Purificação da Água , Destilação , Membranas , Membranas Artificiais , Tensoativos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0239269, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315887

RESUMO

The integral membrane zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 plays a key role in the proteolytic processing of farnesylated prelamin A, the precursor of the nuclear scaffold protein lamin A. Failure of this processing step results in the accumulation of permanently farnesylated forms of prelamin A which cause the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), as well as related progeroid disorders, and may also play a role in physiological aging. ZMPSTE24 is an intriguing and unusual protease because its active site is located inside of a closed intramembrane chamber formed by seven transmembrane spans with side portals in the chamber permitting substrate entry. The specific features of prelamin A that make it the sole known substrate for ZMPSTE24 in mammalian cells are not well-defined. At the outset of this work it was known that farnesylation is essential for prelamin A cleavage in vivo and that the C-terminal region of prelamin A (41 amino acids) is sufficient for recognition and processing. Here we investigated additional features of prelamin A that are required for cleavage by ZMPSTE24 using a well-established humanized yeast system. We analyzed the 14-residue C-terminal region of prelamin A that lies between the ZMPSTE24 cleavage site and the farnesylated cysteine, as well 23-residue region N-terminal to the cleavage site, by generating a series of alanine substitutions, alanine additions, and deletions in prelamin A. Surprisingly, we found that there is considerable flexibility in specific requirements for the length and composition of these regions. We discuss how this flexibility can be reconciled with ZMPSTE24's selectivity for prelamin A.


Assuntos
Lamina Tipo A/metabolismo , Membranas/metabolismo , Metaloendopeptidases/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Alanina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Prenilação/fisiologia , Leveduras/metabolismo
17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(17): 178001, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156660

RESUMO

While living organisms have mastered the dynamic control of residual stresses within sheets to induce shape transformation and locomotion, man-made implementations are rudimentary. We present the first autonomously shape-shifting sheets made of a gel that shrinks and swells in response to the phase of an oscillatory chemical (Belousov-Zhabotinsky) reaction. Propagating reaction-diffusion fronts induce localized deformation of the gel. We show that these localized deformations prescribe a spatiotemporal pattern of Gaussian curvature, leading to time-periodic global shape changes. We present the computational tools and experimental protocols needed to control this system, principally the relationship between the Gaussian curvature and the reaction phase, and optical imprinting of the wave pattern. Together, our results demonstrate a route for developing fully autonomous soft machines mimicking some of the locomotive capabilities of living organisms.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Membranas/química , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Químicos , Elasticidade , Géis/química , Estresse Mecânico
18.
Water Res ; 185: 116104, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086463

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants are major point sources of (micro)pollutant emissions and advanced wastewater treatment technologies can improve their removal capacity. While abundant data on individual advanced treatment technologies is available, there is limited knowledge regarding the removal performance of ozonation combined with multiple post-treatments and stand-alone membrane bioreactors. This is especially true for the removal of in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Therefore, we investigated the removal of 40 micropollutants and toxicity by a pilot-scale ozonation with four post-treatments: non-aerated and aerated granular activated carbon and biological filtration. In addition, two stand-alone membrane bioreactors fed with untreated wastewater and one MBR operating with ozonated partial flow recirculation were analysed. Aqueous and extracted samples were analysed in vitro for (anti)estrogenic, (anti)androgenic and mutagenic effects. To assess in vivo effects, the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum was exposed in an on-site flow-through system. Multiple in vitro effects were detected in conventionally treated wastewater including estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity. Ozonation largely removed these effects, while anti-estrogenic and mutagenic effects increased suggesting the formation of toxic transformation products. These effects were significantly reduced by granular activated carbon being more effective than biological filtration. The membrane bioreactor performed similarly to the conventional treatment while the membrane bioreactor with ozonation had a comparable removal performance like ozonation. Conventionally treated wastewater increased the growth of P. antipodarum. Ozonation reduced the reproduction indicating a potential formation of toxic transformation products. In the post-treatments, these effects were compensated or remained unaffected. The effluents of the membrane bioreactors induced reproductive toxicity. Our results show that ozonation is effective in further reducing toxicity and micropollutant concentrations. However, the formation of toxicity requires a post-treatment. Here, ozonation coupled to granular activated carbon filtration seemed the most promising treatment process.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Filtração , Membranas
19.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2487-2490, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018511

RESUMO

Cardiac cellular models are utilized as the building blocks for tissue simulation. One of the imprecisions of conventional cellular modeling, especially when the models are used in tissue-level modeling, stems from the mere consideration of cellular properties (e.g., action potential shape) in parameter tuning of the model. In our previous work, we put forward an accurate framework in which membrane resistance (Rm) reflecting inter-cellular characteristics, i.e., electrotonic effects, was considered alongside cellular features in cellular model fitting. This paper, for the first time, examines the hypothesis that considering Rm as an additional optimization objective improves the accuracy of tissue-level modeling. To study this hypothesis, after cellular-level optimization of a well-known model, source-sink mismatch configurations in a 2-dimensional model are investigated. The results demonstrate that including Rm in the optimization protocol yields a substantial improvement in the relative error of the critical transition border which is defined as the minimum window size between source and sink that wave propagates. Model developers can utilize the proposed concept during parameter tuning to increase the accuracy of models.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Coração , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos , Membranas , Miocárdio/citologia
20.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1650-1653, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018312

RESUMO

Automatic extraction of the lumen-intima border (LIB) and the media-adventitia border (MAB) in intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images is of high clinical interest. Despite the superior performance achieved by deep neural networks (DNNs) on various medical image segmentation tasks, there are few applications to IVUS images. The complicated pathological presentation and the lack of enough annotation in IVUS datasets make the learning process challenging. Several existing networks designed for IVUS segmentation train two groups of weights to detect the MAB and LIB separately. In this paper, we propose a multi-scale feature aggregated U-Net (MFAU-Net) to extract two membrane borders simultaneously. The MFAU-Net integrates multi-scale inputs, the deep supervision, and a bi-directional convolutional long short-term memory (BConvLSTM) unit. It is designed to sufficiently learn features from complicated IVUS images through a small number of training samples. Trained and tested on the publicly available IVUS datasets, the MFAU-Net achieves both 0.90 Jaccard measure (JM) for the MAB and LIB detection on 20 MHz dataset. The corresponding metrics on 40 MHz dataset are 0.85 and 0.84 JM respectively. Comparative evaluations with state-of-the-art published results demonstrate the competitiveness of the proposed MFAU-Net.


Assuntos
Túnica Adventícia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Túnica Adventícia/diagnóstico por imagem , Membranas , Ultrassonografia
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