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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(2): 687-697, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated drugs that could sensitize P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing drug-resistant cancer cells to vincristine (VIC) or eribulin treatment and assessed their associated mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 15 bipolar drugs (quetiapine, risperidone, clozapine, asenapine, iloperidone, paliperidone, ziprasidone, trifluoperazine, loxapine succinate, pilocarpine, valproic acid, carbamazepine, levetiracetam, topiramate, and felbamate) to identify drugs with a sensitizing effect on VIC-resistant KBV20C cells at relatively low doses. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), annexin V analyses, and rhodamine uptake tests were performed to further investigate the mechanism of action. RESULTS: We found that co-treatment with half the tested drugs (quetiapine, iloperidone, trifluoperazine, loxapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, or felbamate) at low doses could highly sensitize VIC-resistant KBV20C cells. With lower amounts of the bipolar drugs or VIC, we found that among the 15 bipolar drugs tested, 2 combinations (VIC-quetiapine and VIC-trifluoperazine) had much higher sensitization effects, suggesting that lower effective doses were sufficient for sensitizing P-gp-overexpressing resistant cells compared to those required with the other drugs. Furthermore, when we compared quetiapine and trifluoperazine to previously known bipolar drugs (fluphenazine, thioridazine, pimozide, or aripiprazole), we found that aripiprazole, administered at lower doses, had a much higher sensitization effect. We also demonstrated that co-treatment with another anti-mitotic drug (eribulin) increased the sensitization of KBV20C cells similar to VIC. We also found that aripiprazole had higher P-gp-inhibitory activity than the other bipolar drugs, indicating that this activity was involved in the higher level of VIC-aripiprazole sensitization. CONCLUSION: Co-treatment of anti-mitotic drug-resistant cancer cells with a low dose of aripiprazole had the strongest sensitization effect and is highly dependent on P-gp-inhibitory activity.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Aripiprazol/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Cetonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Vincristina/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484843

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic drugs remains one of the major impediments to the treatment of cancer. Discovery and development of drugs that can prevent and reverse the acquisition of multidrug resistance constitute a foremost challenge in cancer therapeutics. In this work, we screened a library of 1,127 compounds with known targets for their ability to overcome Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cell lines. We identified four compounds (CHIR-124, Elesclomol, Tyrphostin-9 and Brefeldin A) that inhibited the growth of two pairs of parental and Pgp-overexpressing multidrug-resistant cell lines with similar potency irrespective of their Pgp status. Mechanistically, CHIR-124 (a potent inhibitor of Chk1 kinase) inhibited Pgp activity in both multidrug-resistant cell lines (KB-V1 and A2780-Pac-Res) as determined through cell-based Pgp-efflux assays. Other three inhibitors on the contrary, were effective in Pgp-overexpressing resistant cells without increasing the cellular accumulation of a Pgp substrate, indicating that they overcome resistance by avoiding efflux through Pgp. None of these compounds modulated the expression of Pgp in resistant cell lines. PIK-75, a PI3 Kinase inhibitor, was also determined to inhibit Pgp activity, despite being equally potent in only one of the two pairs of resistant and parental cell lines. Strong binding of both CHIR-124 and PIK-75 to Pgp was predicted through docking studies and both compounds inhibited Pgp in a biochemical assay. The inhibition of Pgp causes accumulation of these compounds in the cells where they can modulate the function of their target proteins and thereby inhibit cell proliferation. In conclusion, we have identified compounds with various cellular targets that overcome multidrug resistance in Pgp-overexpressing cell lines through mechanisms that include Pgp inhibition and efflux evasion. These compounds, therefore, can avoid challenges associated with the co-administration of Pgp inhibitors with chemotherapeutic or targeted drugs such as additive toxicities and differing pharmacokinetic properties.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Brefeldina A/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Quinuclidinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Tirfostinas/farmacologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0227844, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470043

RESUMO

Morroniside is a biologically active polyphenol found in Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc (CO) that exhibits a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as protecting nerves, and preventing diabetic liver damage and renal damage. However, little data are available regarding the mechanism of its intestinal absorption. Here, an in vitro human intestinal epithelial cell model of cultured Caco-2 cells was applied to study the absorption and transport of morroniside. The effects of donor concentration, pH and inhibitors were investigated. The bidirectional permeability of morroniside from the apical (AP) to the basolateral (BL) side and in the reverse direction was studied. When administered at three tested concentrations (5, 25 and 100 µM), the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values in the AP-to-BL direction ranged from 1.59 × 10-6 to 2.66 × 10-6 cm/s. In the reverse direction, BL-to-AP, the value was ranged from 2.67 × 10-6 to 4.10 × 10-6 cm/s. The data indicated that morroniside transport was pH-dependent. The permeability of morroniside was affected by treatment with various inhibitors, such as multidrug resistance protein inhibitors MK571 and indomethacin, as well as the breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor apigenin. The mechanisms of the intestinal absorption of morroniside may involve multiple transport pathways, such as the passive diffusion and efflux protein-mediated active transport especially involving multidrug resistance protein 2 and breast cancer resistance protein. After the addition of CO, the Papp values in the AP-to-BL direction increased significantly, therefore, it can be assumed that some ingredients in the CO promote morroniside absorption in the small intestine.


Assuntos
Cornus/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Células CACO-2 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indometacina/farmacologia , Absorção Intestinal/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6587, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313056

RESUMO

P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette family, is one of the major causes of multidrug resistance in tumors. Current clinical treatments to overcome MDR involve the co-delivery of a Pgp inhibitor and a chemotherapeutic. A concern for this treatment that has led to varied clinical trial success is the associated systemic toxicities involving endogenous Pgp. Local drug delivery systems, such as in situ forming implants (ISFIs), alleviate this problem by delivering a high concentration of the drug directly to the target site without the associated systemic toxicities. ISFIs are polymeric drug solutions that undergo a phase transition upon injection into an aqueous environment to form a solid drug eluting depot allowing for a high initial intratumoral drug concentration. In this study, we have developed an ISFI capable of overcoming the Pgp resistance by co-delivering a chemotherapeutic, Doxorubicin (Dox), with a Pgp inhibitor, either Pluronic P85 or Valspodar (Val). Studies investigated in vitro cytotoxicity of Dox when combined with either Pgp inhibitor, effect of the inhibitors on release of Dox from implants in PBS, in vivo Dox distribution and retention in a subcutaneous flank colorectal murine tumor, and therapeutic response characterized by tumor growth curves and histopathology. Dox + Val showed a 4-fold reduction in the 50% lethal dose (LD50) after 48 hours. Concurrent delivery of Dox and Val showed the greatest difference at 16 days post injection for both Dox penetration and retention. This treatment group had a 5-fold maximum Dox penetration compared to Dox alone ISFIs (0.53 ± 0.22 cm vs 0.11 ± 0.11 cm, respectively, from the center of the ISFI). Additionally, there was a 3-fold increase in normalized total intratumoral Dox intensity with the Dox + Val ISFIs compared to Dox alone ISFIs (0.54 ± 0.11 vs 0.18 ± 0.09, respectively). Dox + Val ISFIs showed a 2-fold reduction in tumor growth and a 27.69% increase in necrosis 20 days post-injection compared to Dox alone ISFIs. These findings demonstrate that co-delivery of Dox and Val via ISFI can avoid systemic toxicity issues seen with clinical Pgp inhibitors.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclosporinas/farmacologia , Poloxaleno/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(3): 216-221, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252200

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of compound matrine injection on morphine tolerance in mice with lung cancer in situ and the expressions of multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Methods: A mouse model of lung cancer in situ and morphine tolerance mode was established. The mice were injected with gradient concentration of compound matrine. The pain thresholds under different conditions were measured by thermal radiation tail-flick method. The mRNA level of MDR1 was tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the protein level of P-gp was detected by western blot. The DNA binding activity of cyclophosphoadenosine response element binding protein (CREB) to the promoter of MDR1 gene was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results: The maximum analgesic percentage (MPE) of the mice in the morphine group was (85.21±6.53)% on the 8th day, and decreased to (38.45±5.52)% and (28.14±4.52)% on the 10th and 12th day, respectively, which indicated the morphine tolerance of mice with lung cancer in situ.The MPE of the mice in the group treated with morphine and compound matrine injection (300 mg/kg) was (79.34±6.50)% on the 8th day, and decreased to (62.16±5.53)% and (40.20±4.50)% on the 10th and 12th day, respectively.The results of RT-PCR assay showed that the relative expression levels of MDR1 mRNA in the brain tissues of mice in the morphine group, saline group, morphine combined with compound matrine injection (300 mg/kg) group and compound matrine injection (200 mg/kg) group were 2.33±0.79, 1.04±0.38, 1.37±0.38, and 1.43±0.53, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between the morphine group and the normal saline group, the morphine group and the morphine combined with compound matrine injection (300 mg/kg) group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the normal saline group and the compound matrine injection (200 mg/kg) group (P=0.05). The results of western blot showed that the relative expression levels of P-gp protein in the brain tissue of mice in the morphine group, saline group, and morphine combined with compound matrine injection (300 mg/kg) group were 1.86±0.40, 1.00±0.23, and 1.27±0.27, respectively. The expression of P-gp protein in the morphine group was significantly higher than those of the normal saline group and the morphine combined with compound matrine injection (300 mg/kg) group (P<0.05). The DNA-binding activity of CREB in the saline group was (0.23±0.07) Pu, significantly lower than (0.89±0.23) Pu of morphine combined with naloxone group and (0.80±0.23) Pu of morphine group (P<0.05). While the CREB DNA binding activity of morphine combined with compound matrine injection (300 mg/kg) group was (0.79±0.21) Pu, implicated that compound matrine had marginal effect on the DNA-binding activity of CREB (P>0.05). Conclusion: Compound matrine injection can significantly improve morphine tolerance and drug resistance of lung cancer through inhibiting the upregulations of MDR1 and P-gp induced by morphine.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Alcaloides/efeitos adversos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes MDR , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Morfina/farmacologia , Quinolizinas/efeitos adversos , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Alcaloides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Quinolizinas/administração & dosagem
6.
Xenobiotica ; 50(9): 1043-1051, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118504

RESUMO

Pregnane X receptor (PXR) as a ligand dependent transcription factor, is capable of regulating gene expression of cytochromes P450 and transporters involved in xenobiotic/drug metabolism and elimination. Due to the species differences in the regulatory specificity of PXR, gene regulation should not be extrapolated from mammal to fish without research data.The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 27 natural products on PXR, CYP3A30 and MDR1 genes in channel catfish (Ietalurus punetaus) kidney cells (CC-K). The results showed that bisdemethoxycurcumin, glycyrrhetnic acid, rotenone, artemisinin, dihydroartemisinin, ligustilide and matrine strongly induced the mRNA levels of PXR. Additionally, the up-regulation of CYP3A30 gene ran parallel with PXR gene after the treatment of demethoxycurcumin, glycyrrhetnic acid, artemisinin, matrine, baicalein, schisantherin A, ligustilide, and dihydroartemisinin. Moreover, we found that natural products schisandrin A, schisandrin B, schisandrol A, and schisandrol B significantly up-regulated the mRNA level of MDR1 gene.Our work with a view to provide experimental data support for further research, which will make for the rational application of natural products in channel catfish, such as to avoid adverse herb-drug interactions or accelerating the residue elimination of chemical medicine.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Biotransformação/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Octanos/metabolismo , Ciclo-Octanos/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Dioxóis/metabolismo , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Ictaluridae , Lignanas/metabolismo , Lignanas/farmacologia , Compostos Policíclicos/metabolismo , Compostos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Receptor de Pregnano X/metabolismo
7.
Pol J Microbiol ; 69(1): 73-84, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189482

RESUMO

The contribution of fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. isolates to urinary tract infections in Egypt has become a nationwide problem. A recent approach to overcome such disaster is combining conventional antifungals with non-antifungals. This study investigated the interaction of amikacin with fluconazole against resistant Candida strains isolated from the urine culture of patients admitted to Alexandria Main University Hospital. Among the collected Candida spp. isolates, 42.9% were resistant to fluconazole with MICs ranging between 128 and 1,024 µg/ml. The resistance-modifying activity of amikacin (4,000 µg/ml) was studied against fluconazole-resistant isolates where amikacin sensitized 91.7 % of resistant Candida spp. isolates to fluconazole with a modulation factor ranging between 32 and 256. The rhodamine efflux assay was performed to examine the impact of amikacin on efflux pump activity. After 120 minutes of treatment, amikacin affected the efflux pump activity of the isolates tested with a percentage of reduction in the fluorescence intensity of 8.9%. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to assess the amikacin effect on the expression of the efflux pump genes MDR1, CDR1, and CDR2. The downregulatory effect of amikacin on the expression of the studied genes caused a percentage of reduction in the expression level ranging between 42.1 and 94%. In conclusion, amikacin resensitized resistant Candida spp. isolates to fluconazole and could be used in combination in the management of candiduria with a higher efficiency or at lower administration doses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the enhancement of fluconazole activity in combination with amikacin against Candida spp.The contribution of fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. isolates to urinary tract infections in Egypt has become a nationwide problem. A recent approach to overcome such disaster is combining conventional antifungals with non-antifungals. This study investigated the interaction of amikacin with fluconazole against resistant Candida strains isolated from the urine culture of patients admitted to Alexandria Main University Hospital. Among the collected Candida spp. isolates, 42.9% were resistant to fluconazole with MICs ranging between 128 and 1,024 µg/ml. The resistance-modifying activity of amikacin (4,000 µg/ml) was studied against fluconazole-resistant isolates where amikacin sensitized 91.7 % of resistant Candida spp. isolates to fluconazole with a modulation factor ranging between 32 and 256. The rhodamine efflux assay was performed to examine the impact of amikacin on efflux pump activity. After 120 minutes of treatment, amikacin affected the efflux pump activity of the isolates tested with a percentage of reduction in the fluorescence intensity of 8.9%. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to assess the amikacin effect on the expression of the efflux pump genes MDR1, CDR1, and CDR2. The downregulatory effect of amikacin on the expression of the studied genes caused a percentage of reduction in the expression level ranging between 42.1 and 94%. In conclusion, amikacin resensitized resistant Candida spp. isolates to fluconazole and could be used in combination in the management of candiduria with a higher efficiency or at lower administration doses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the enhancement of fluconazole activity in combination with amikacin against Candida spp.


Assuntos
Amicacina/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013193

RESUMO

Tacrolimus exhibits high inter-patient pharmacokinetics (PK) variability, as well as a narrow therapeutic index, and therefore requires therapeutic drug monitoring. Germline mutations in cytochrome P450 isoforms 4 and 5 genes (CYP3A4/5) and the ATP-binding cassette B1 gene (ABCB1) may contribute to interindividual tacrolimus PK variability, which may impact clinical outcomes among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. In this study, 252 adult patients who received tacrolimus for acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) prophylaxis after allogeneic HSCT were genotyped to evaluate if germline genetic variants associated with tacrolimus PK and pharmacodynamic (PD) variability. Significant associations were detected between germline variants in CYP3A4/5 and ABCB1 and PK endpoints (e.g., median steady-state tacrolimus concentrations and time to goal tacrolimus concentration). However, significant associations were not observed between CYP3A4/5 or ABCB1 germline variants and PD endpoints (e.g., aGVHD and treatment-emergent nephrotoxicity). Decreased age and CYP3A5*1/*1 genotype were independently associated with subtherapeutic tacrolimus trough concentrations while CYP3A5*1*3 or CYP3A5*3/*3 genotypes, myeloablative allogeneic HSCT conditioning regimen (MAC) and increased weight were independently associated with supratherapeutic tacrolimus trough concentrations. Future lines of prospective research inquiry are warranted to use both germline genetic and clinical data to develop precision dosing tools that will optimize both tacrolimus dosing and clinical outcomes among adult HSCT patients.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2546, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054883

RESUMO

Antiepileptic drug therapy has significant inter-patient variability in response towards it. The current study aims to understand this variability at the molecular level using microarray-based analysis of peripheral blood gene expression profiles of patients receiving valproate (VA) monotherapy. Only 10 unique genes were found to be differentially expressed in VA responders (n = 15) and 6 genes in the non-responders (n = 8) (fold-change >2, p < 0.05). PTGS2 which encodes cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2, showed downregulation in the responders compared to the non-responders. PTGS2/COX-2 mRNA profiles in the two groups corresponded to their plasma profiles of the COX-2 product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Since COX-2 is believed to regulate P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a multidrug efflux transporter over-expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in drug-resistant epilepsy, the pathway connecting COX-2 and P-gp was further explored in vitro. Investigation of the effect of VA upon the brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) in hyperexcitatory conditions confirmed suppression of COX-2-dependent P-gp upregulation by VA. Our findings suggest that COX-2 downregulation by VA may suppress seizure-mediated P-gp upregulation at the BBB leading to enhanced drug delivery to the brain in the responders. Our work provides insight into the association of peripheral PTGS2/COX-2 expression with VA efficacy and the role of COX-2 as a potential therapeutic target for developing efficacious antiepileptic treatment.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Valproico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3500, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103124

RESUMO

In Tanzania, chloroquine was replaced by sulphadoxine- pyrimethamine (SP) as a first-line for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Due to high resistance in malaria parasites, SP lasted for only 5 years and by the end of 2006 it was replaced with the current artemisinin combination therapy. We therefore, set a study to determine the current genotypic mutations associated with Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin, partner drugs and chloroquine. Parasites DNA were extracted from dried blood spots collected by finger-prick from Tanzanian malaria infected patients. DNA were sequenced using MiSeq then genotypes were translated into drug resistance haplotypes at Wellcome Sanger Institute, UK. About 422 samples were successful sequenced for K13 gene (marker for artemisinin resistance), the wild type (WT) was found in 391 samples (92.7%) whereby 31 samples (7.3%) had mutations in K13 gene. Of 31 samples with mutations, one sample had R561H, a mutation that has been associated with delayed parasite clearance in Southeast Asia, another sample had A578S, a mutation not associated with artemisinin whilst 29 samples had K13 novel mutations. There were no mutations in PGB, EXO, P23_BP and PfMDR1 at position 86 and 1246 (markers for resistance in artemisinin partner drugs) but 270 samples (60.4%) had mutations at PfMDR1 Y184F. Additionally, genotyped PfCRT at positions 72-76 (major predictors for chroquine resistance), found WT gene in 443 out of 444 samples (99.8%). In conclusion, this study found mutations in K13-propeller gene and high prevalence of chloroquine susceptible P. falciparum in Southeast of Tanzania.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/patologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Tanzânia
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1257-1265, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927919

RESUMO

Bedaquiline (TMC-207) is a recently approved drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Moreover, there is a present and growing concern for natural-product-mediated drug interaction, as these are inadvertently taken by patients as a dietary supplement, food additive, and medicine. In the present study, we investigated the impact of 20 plant-based natural products, typically phenolics, on in vivo oral bedaquiline pharmacokinetics, as previous studies are lacking. Three natural phenolics were identified that can significantly enhance the oral exposure of bedaquiline upon coadministration. We further investigated the possible role of all of the phytochemicals on in vitro P-glycoprotein (P-gp) induction and inhibition and CYP3A4 inhibition in a single platform as bedaquiline is the substrate for both P-gp and CYP3A4. In conclusion, curcumin, CC-I (3',5-dihydroxyflavone-7-O-ß-d-galacturonide-4'-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside), and 6-gingerol should not be coadministered with bedaquiline to avoid untoward drug interactions and, subsequently, its dose-dependent adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacocinética , Diarilquinolinas/farmacocinética , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Alimento-Droga , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Diarilquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963614

RESUMO

Doxorubicin represents a valuable choice for different cancers, although the severe side effects occurring at the high effective dose limits its clinical use. In the present study, potential strategies to potentiate low-dose doxorubicin efficacy, including a metronomic schedule, characterized by a short and repeated exposure to the anticancer drug, and the combination with the natural chemosensitizing sesquiterpenes ß-caryophyllene and ß-caryophyllene oxide, were assessed in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the HepG2-chemosensitization to doxorubicin was evaluated. Also, the direct interaction of caryophyllene sesquiterpenes with P-gp was characterized by molecular docking and dynamic simulation studies. A metronomic schedule allowed us to enhance the low-dose doxorubicin cytotoxicity and the combination with caryophyllane sesquiterpenes further potentiated this effect. Also, an increased intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin and rhodamine 123 induced by caryophyllane sesquiterpenes was found, thus suggesting their interference with P-gp function. A lowered expression of P-gp induced by the combinations, with respect to doxorubicin alone, was observed too. Docking studies found that the binding site of caryophyllane sesquiterpene was next to the ATP binding domain of P-gp and that ß-caryophyllene possessed the stronger binding affinity and higher inhibition potential calculated by MM-PBSA. Present findings strengthen our hypothesis about the potential chemosensitizing power of caryophyllane sesquiterpenes and suggest that combining a chemosensitizer and a metronomic schedule can represent a suitable strategy to overcome drawbacks of doxorubicin chemotherapy while exploiting its powerful activity.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Apoptose , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(1): 129433, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney disease modeling and assessment of drug-induced kidney injury can be advanced using three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic models that recapitulate in vivo characteristics. Fluid shear stress (FSS) has been depicted as main modulator improving in vitro physiology in proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs). We aimed to elucidate the role of FSS and primary cilia on transport activity and morphology in PTECs. METHODS: Human conditionally immortalized PTEC (ciPTEC-parent) was cultured in a microfluidic 3D device, the OrganoPlate, under a physiological peak FSS of 2.0 dyne/cm2 or low peak FSS of 0.5 dyne/cm2. Upon a 9-day exposure to FSS, albumin-FITC uptake, activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins 2/4 (MRP2/4), cytotoxicity and cell morphology were determined. RESULTS: A primary cilium knock-out cell model, ciPTEC-KIF3α-/-, was successfully established via CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. Under physiological peak FSS, albumin-FITC uptake (p = .04) and P-gp efflux (p = .002) were increased as compared to low FSS. Remarkably, a higher albumin-FITC uptake (p = .03) and similar trends in activity of P-gp and MRP2/4 were observed in ciPTEC-KIF3α-/-. FSS induced cell elongation corresponding with the direction of flow in both cell models, but had no effect on cyclosporine A-induced cytotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: FSS increased albumin uptake, P-gp efflux and cell elongation, but this was not attributed to a mechanosensitive mechanism related to primary cilia in PTECs, but likely to microvilli present at the apical membrane. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: FSS-induced improvements in biological characteristics and activity in PTECs was not mediated through a primary cilium-related mechanism.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/genética , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Cílios/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclosporina/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Estresse Mecânico
14.
Psychiatr Genet ; 30(1): 19-29, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) exert substantial variability in effectiveness in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), with up to 50-60% not achieving adequate response. Elucidating pharmacokinetic factors that explain this variability is important to increase treatment effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To examine potential modification of the relationship between paroxetine serum concentration (PSC) and serotonin transporter (SERT)-occupancy by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ABCB1 gene, coding for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pump, in MDD patients. To investigate the relationship between ABCB1 SNPs and clinical response. METHODS: Patients had MDD and received paroxetine 20 mg/day. We measured PSC after 6 weeks. We quantified SERT-occupancy with SPECT imaging (n = 38) and measured 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17)-scores at baseline and after 6 weeks (n = 81). We genotyped ABCB1 at rs1045642 [3435C>T], rs1128503 [1236C>T], rs2032582 [2677G>T/A] and rs2235040 [2505G>A]. For our primary aim, we modeled mean SERT-occupancy in an Emax nonlinear regression model with PSC and assessed whether the model improved by genetic subgrouping. For our secondary aim, we used multivariate linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The rs1128503 and rs2032582 SNPs modified the relationship between PSC and SERT-occupancy in both our intention-to-treat and sensitivity analyses at the carriership level. However, we could not detect significant differences in clinical response between any of the genetic subgroups. CONCLUSION: Pharmacokinetic influences of the ABCB1 rs1128503 and rs2032582 represent a potentially relevant pharmacogenetic mechanism to consider when evaluating paroxetine efficacy. Future studies are needed to support the role of ABCB1 genotyping for individualizing SSRI pharmacotherapy.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/sangue , Depressão/genética , Depressão/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paroxetina/análise , Paroxetina/sangue , Paroxetina/farmacologia , Farmacogenética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/análise , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/sangue , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
15.
Aust Vet J ; 98(3): 79-83, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The ABCB1 gene encodes P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a cellular membrane pump. One functional mutation that leads to expression of a less functional form of P-gp, ABCB1-1Δ, has been described in dogs. Individuals with this mutation can have severe adverse reactions to common veterinary pharmaceuticals that are known substrates of this pump. We investigated the detection of this mutation in samples submitted to two Australian diagnostic laboratories. METHODS: A total of 4842 dogs across 27 breeds were tested for the ABCB1-1Δ mutation from buccal swabs or EDTA blood using standard PCR, multiplex PCR, or genotyping chip. Statistical analysis was applied to determine the proportions and odds ratios of the ABCB1-1Δ mutation in herding breeds compared with non-herding breeds. RESULTS: The ABCB1-1Δ mutation was detected in nine breeds. The most commonly affected breeds were collies, Australian shepherds, white Swiss shepherds, and Shetland sheepdogs. Of 32 dogs in 18 non-herding breeds tested, one cocker spaniel and one labradoodle were positive for the mutation, both heterozygous. CONCLUSION: The most frequently affected breeds for ABCB1-1Δ mutation are the collie, Australian shepherd, white Swiss shepherd and Shetland sheepdog. As the mutation is associated with an increased incidence of adverse reactions to commonly used pharmaceuticals, veterinarians need to be aware of the breeds at most risk of carrying this mutation and consider testing these individuals prior to administering these medications.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doenças do Cão/genética , Animais , Austrália , Cruzamento , Cães , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/veterinária , Frequência do Gene , Mutação
16.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 182, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is a widely used treatment for cancer. However, the development of acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious issue. Emerging evidence has shown that the extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate MDR, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear, especially the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on this process. METHODS: Extracellular vesicles isolation was performed by differential centrifugation. The recipient cells that acquired ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) proteins were sorted out from co-cultures according to a stringent multi-parameter gating strategy by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The transfer rate of ABCB1 was measured by flow cytometry. The xenograft tumor models in mice were established to evaluate the transfer of ABCB1 in vivo. Gene expression was detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting. RESULTS: Herein, we show that a transient exposure to chemotherapeutic agents can strikingly increase Rab8B-mediated release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing ABCB1 from drug-resistant cells, and accelerate these EVs to circulate back onto plasma membrane of sensitive tumor cells via the down-regulation of Rab5. Therefore, intercellular ABCB1 transfer is significantly enhanced; sensitive recipient cells acquire a rapid but unsustainable resistance to evade the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. More fascinatingly, in the xenograft tumor models, chemotherapeutical drugs also locally or distantly increase the transfer of ABCB1 molecules. Furthermore, some Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients who are undergoing primary chemotherapy have a rapid increase of ABCB1 protein in their monocytes, and this is obviously associated with poor chemotherapeutic efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapeutic agents stimulate the secretion and recycling of ABCB1-enriched EVs through the dysregulation of Rab8B and Rab5, leading to a significant increase of ABCB1 intercellular transfer, thus assisting sensitive cancer cells to develop an urgent resistant phenotype. Our findings provide a new molecular mechanism of how chemotherapeutic drugs assist sensitive cancer cells in acquiring an urgent resistance.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Modelos Biológicos
17.
Vet J ; 253: 105378, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685133

RESUMO

Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in dogs. Approximately 20-30% of dogs do not achieve satisfactory seizure control with two or more anti-epileptic drugs at appropriate dosages. This condition, defined as refractory epilepsy, is a multifactorial condition involving both acquired and genetic factors. The P glycoprotein might play and important role in the pathophysiological mechanism and it is encoded by the ABCB1 gene. An association between a single nucleotide variation of the ABCB1 gene (c.-6-180T>G) and phenobarbital resistance has previously been reported in a Border collie population with idiopathic epilepsy. To date, the presence and relevance of this polymorphism has not been assessed in other breeds. A multicentre retrospective, case-control study was conducted to investigate associations between ABCB1 c.-6-180T>G, clinical variables, and refractoriness in a multi-breed population of dogs with refractory idiopathic epilepsy. A secondary aim was to evaluate the possible involvement of the ABCB1 c.-6-180T>G single nucleotide variation this population. Fifty-two refractory and 50 responsive dogs with idiopathic epilepsy were enrolled. Of these, 45 refractory and 50 responsive (control) dogs were genotyped. The G allele was found in several breeds, but there was no evidence of association with refractoriness (P=0.69). The uncertain role of the c.-6-180T>G variation was further suggested by an association between the T/T genotype with both refractoriness and responsiveness in different breeds. Furthermore, high seizure density (cluster seizure) was the main clinical risk factor for refractory idiopathic epilepsy (P=0.003).


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doenças do Cão/genética , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Itália , Masculino , Linhagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(6): 889-892, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711409

RESUMO

A 4-bp deletion (c.230_233delATAG) of the ABCB1 gene, frequently found in various dog breeds, results in intolerance to certain drugs routinely used in veterinary medicine, including many chemotherapeutic agents and macrocyclic lactones. The use of rapid and reliable genetic testing is fundamental for early detection of the mutation and prevention of undesirable toxicoses. We developed and compared 2 genotyping tests: PCR-high-resolution melting (PCR-HRM) and PCR-restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to identify the 4-bp deletion in the ABCB1 gene of canine breeds. Amplified PCR products were sequenced in order to confirm different genotypes. Both techniques were efficient in discriminating homozygous wild-type, homozygous mutated, and heterozygous ABCB1 genotypes, and proved to be reproducible and economical methods. The HRM analysis, a sensitive and specific method for the molecular detection of genetic disorders, does not require labeled probes, processing, or separations after PCR.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Sequência de Bases , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Deleção de Sequência , Animais , Cães , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
19.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 48(4): 730-739, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine transmissible venereal tumors (CTVTs) generally have different cytomorphologic subtypes and phases of progression. Some tumors have variable biologic behavior including a progressive increase in tumor aggressiveness and variable responses to chemotherapy. This behavior is partially due to high p-glycoprotein expression by tumor cells, which leads to the expulsion of chemotherapeutic drugs. Other possible causes include changes in pro- and anti-apoptotic genes from the BCL-2 family and DNA repair systems, which are associated with the p53 gene family. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the relative expression of the multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1), p53, b-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), and bcl 2-associated X (BAX) genes in CTVT before and after therapy and establish a relationship with treatment responses, cytomorphologic patterns, and tumor progression identified with histopathology. METHODS: RT-qPCR was performed on 21 CTVT tumor samples before and after initiating chemotherapy to determine specific gene expression. Normal canine testicular tissue was used as a negative control for all experiments. RESULTS: MDR1 expression was decreased before and after initiating vincristine therapy in CTVT tumor tissues compared with normal canine testicular tissue; p53 and BAX were overexpressed at both time points compared with normal tissue, and no statistical differences were seen between the different morphologic types. However, BAX expression was decreased in the group with quick therapeutic responses but was still overexpressed compared with normal testicular tissue. In the group with the slowest chemotherapeutic responses, BCL2 was overexpressed. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed a relative increase in MDR1 gene expression in response to chemotherapy and higher expression in plasmacytoid CTVTs compared with the other cytomorphologic patterns. BCL2 overexpression was related to a favorable prognosis, and p53, BAX, and BCL2 were expressed independent of the cytomorphologic CTVT type. All of the genes were expressed independent of tumor progression, as noted on histopathology.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doenças do Cão/genética , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Tumores Venéreos Veterinários/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Resultado do Tratamento , Tumores Venéreos Veterinários/tratamento farmacológico , Vincristina/uso terapêutico
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17327, 2019 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757978

RESUMO

Auxin is an important phytohormone that regulates response, differentiation, and development of plant cell, tissue, and organs. Along with its local production, long-distance transport coordinated by the efflux/influx membrane transporters is instrumental in plant development and architecture. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a wheat (Triticum aestivum) auxin efflux carrier ABCB1. The TaABCB1 was physically localized to the proximal 15% of the short arm of wheat homoeologous group 7 chromosomes. Size of the Chinese spring (CS) homoeologs genomic copies ranged from 5.3-6.2 kb with the 7A copy being the largest due to novel insertions in its third intron. The three homoeologous copies share 95-97% sequence similarity at the nucleotide, 98-99% amino acid, and overall Q-score of 0.98 at 3-D structure level. Though detected in all analyzed tissues, TaABCB1 predominantly expressed in the meristematic tissues likely due to the presence of meristem-specific activation regulatory element identified in the promoter region. RNAi plants of TaABCB1 gene resulted in reduced plant height and increased seed width. Promoter analysis revealed several responsive elements detected in the promoter region including that for different hormones as auxin, gibberellic acid, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid, light, and circadian regulated elements.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Meristema/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poliploidia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Distribuição Tecidual , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
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