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1.
Pharm Res ; 36(10): 141, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367840

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain parenchymal protein expression due to type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) by using SWATH-based quantitative proteomics. METHODS: Mice were fed a HFD for 2 or 10 weeks, and then SWATH-based quantitative proteomic analysis, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and functional transport studies were performed. RESULTS: In brain capillaries, expression levels of BBB transporters (Glut1, P-glycoprotein) and tight-junction proteins (claudin-5, occludin) were significantly reduced in HFD mice at 2 weeks, but recovered to the levels in the normal diet (ND) group at 10 weeks. P-glycoprotein function at the BBB was reduced at 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, neurofilament, which is important for neuronal function, was decreased in HFD mice at 2 weeks, but recovered at 10 weeks. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that changes in the status of insulin resistance influence expression of BBB transporters, which in turn may alter the expression of cognitive function-related proteins.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Capilares/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteômica , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
2.
Planta Med ; 85(13): 1114-1123, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340396

RESUMO

The fruit from various pepper plants has been employed for the seasoning of food, as perfuming agents, and also as traditional medicines. Phytochemicals isolated from different pepper species have been found to modulate the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs. This study investigated the possibility to apply capsaicin and piperine (extracted alkaloids) as modulators for drug delivery across the nasal epithelium. Both a nasal epithelial cell line (RPMI 2650) and excised sheep nasal tissue were used as models to investigate the effects of the selected pepper compounds on drug permeation. FITC-dextran 4400 (MW 4400 Da) was used as a large molecular weight marker compound for paracellular transport, while rhodamine 123 was used as a marker compound that is a substrate for P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux. From the permeation results, it was clear that capsaicin inhibited P-glycoprotein efflux to a larger extent, while piperine showed drug permeation enhancement via other mechanisms. The cell cytotoxicity studies indicated that capsaicin was noncytotoxic up to a concentration of 200 µM and piperine up to a concentration of 500 µM as indicated by cell viability above 80%. The histological analysis of the excised nasal tissue and cultured RPMI 2650 cell layers indicated that some damage occurred after treatment with 200 µM capsaicin, but no changes were observed for piperine up to a concentration of 50 µM.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/uso terapêutico , Capsaicina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Veículos Farmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/uso terapêutico , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ovinos
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3757-3765, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The study focused on identifying the mechanisms or drugs that might sensitize resistant KBV20C human oral squamous carcinoma cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to antimitotic drug treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five HIV protease inhibitors (atazanavir, nelfinavir, darunavir, lopinavir, and ritonavir) were tested to identify drugs that could be used at a relatively low dose for sensitizing antimitotic drug-resistant KBV20C cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, annexin V analyses, and rhodamine uptake tests were performed to further investigate the mechanism of action. RESULTS: Co-treatment with nelfinavir or lopinavir had a high sensitizing effect on vincristine-treated KBV20C cells. Nelfinavir and lopinavir reduced cell viability, increased G2 phase arrest, and up-regulated apoptosis when used as a co-treatment with vincristine. We also demonstrated that eribulin co-treatment with nelfinavir and lopinavir similarly increased sensitization of KBV20C cells. Only lopinavir was found to have a high P-gp-inhibitory activity (similar to verapamil). Interestingly, nelfinavir had very low P-gp-inhibitory activity, suggesting that vincristine-nelfinavir sensitization is independent of the P-gp-inhibitory effect of nelfinavir. We also demonstrated this same combination mainly caused sensitization due to late apoptosis in P-gp-overexpressing drug-resistant KBV20C cells. CONCLUSION: Highly antimitotic drug-resistant KBV20C cells can be sensitized by co-treatment with the repositioned HIV protease inhibitors nelfinavir and lopinavir. In particular, the sensitizing effect of co-treatment with nelfinavir on antimitotic drug-resistant cancer cells was found to be strong and independent of P-gp-inhibitory activity. As P-gp inhibition can be toxic to normal cells, selecting nelfinavir may be safer for normal cells in patients with drug-resistant cancer.


Assuntos
Antimitóticos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , Cetonas/farmacologia , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Nelfinavir/farmacologia , Vincristina/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Flufenazina/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Ritonavir/farmacologia
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3785-3793, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study investigated drugs able to sensitize P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing resistant KBV20C cancer cells to vincristine or eribulin treatment and assessed their associated mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight tyrosine kinase inhibitors (lapatinib, gefitinib, imatinib, erlotinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, cediranib, and vandetanib) and one serine/threonine kinase inhibitor (selumetinib) were evaluated for their sensitizing effects on vincristine-resistant KBV20C cells at relatively low doses. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, annexin V analyses, and rhodamine uptake tests were further performed to investigate their mechanisms of action. RESULTS: Co-treatment of KBV20C cells with lapatinib, gefitinib, imatinib, or erlotinib at low doses highly sensitized them to vincristine treatment. These drugs reduced cellular viability, increased G2 arrest, and up-regulated apoptosis when co-administered with vincristine. In a detailed quantitative analysis using lower doses, we demonstrated that lapatinib, with high P-gp inhibitory activity, yielded the best pairing for sensitizing P-gp-overexpressing KBV20C cells to vincristine. Co-treatment with eribulin and lapatinib, gefitinib, or erlotinib also increased the sensitivity of KBV20C cells, suggesting that they can be combined with other antimitotic drugs to sensitize resistant cancer cells. Lapatinib was shown to have a higher P-gp-inhibitory activity than verapamil, even at lower doses, indicating that its sensitizing of cells to vincristine involves its P-gp-inhibitory effects. However, interestingly, imatinib- and erlotinib-sensitizing of cells to vincristine appears to be independent of their P-gp inhibition. CONCLUSION: These findings provide valuable information regarding the sensitizing of drug-resistant cells and indicate that imatinib and erlotinib may be used in patients with potentially resistant cancer without any toxic effects from P-gp inhibition.


Assuntos
Antimitóticos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Vincristina/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Gefitinibe/farmacologia , Humanos , Lapatinib/farmacologia
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3557-3569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190812

RESUMO

Purpose: Combining siRNA and other chemotherapeutic agents into one nanocarrier can overcome the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon by synergistically MDR relative genes silencing and elevated chemotherapeutic activity. Most of these systems are typically fabricated through complicated procedures, which involves materials preparation, drug loading and modifications. Herein, the purpose of this study is to develop a new and fast co-delivery system of siRNA and doxorubicin for potentially synergistic cancer treatment. Methods: The co-delivery system is constructed conveniently by a stable complex consisting of doxorubicin bound to siRNA via intercalation firstly, followed by interacting with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) electrostatically and Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) co-condensed, and the characterizations of the resultant nanocarrier are also investigated. Furthermore, this study evaluates the synergistic anti-cancer efficacy in MCF-7/MDR cells after treatment of siRNA and doxorubicin 'two in one' nanocarriers. Results: We establish a new and fast method to craft a co-delivery system of siRNA and doxorubicin with controllable and nearly uniform size, and the entire fabrication process only costs in about 10 minutes. The resultant co-delivery system presents high loading capacities of siRNA and doxorubicin, and the encapsulated doxorubicin plays a pH-responsive control release. Further, biological functionality tests of the synthesized co-delivery nanocarriers show high inhibition of P-gp protein encoded by MDR-1 gene in MCF-7/MDR cells (a variant of human breast cancer cell line with drug resistance) after transfection of these nanocarriers carrying MDR-1 siRNA and doxorubicin simultaneously, which sensitize the MCF-7/MDR cells to doxorubicin, overall leading to improved cell suppression. Conclusion: Collectively, this co-delivery system not only serves as potent therapeutics for synergistic cancer therapy, it also may facilitate the bench-to-bedside translation of combinatorial delivery system as a robust drug nanocarrier by allowing for fabricating a simply and fast nanocarrier for co-delivery of siRNA and doxorubicin with predictable high production rate.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Dióxido de Silício/química
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2820, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249297

RESUMO

Bats are unusual mammals, with the ability to fly, and long lifespans. In addition, bats have a low incidence of cancer, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. Here we discovered that bat cells are more resistant than human and mouse cells to DNA damage induced by genotoxic drugs. We found that bat cells accumulate less chemical than human and mouse cells, and efficient drug efflux mediated by the ABC transporter ABCB1 underlies this improved response to genotoxic reagents. Inhibition of ABCB1 triggers an accumulation of doxorubicin, DNA damage, and cell death. ABCB1 is expressed at higher levels in several cell lines and tissues derived from bats compared to humans. Furthermore, increased drug efflux and high expression of ABCB1 are conserved across multiple bat species. Our findings suggest that enhanced efflux protects bat cells from DNA damage induced by genotoxic compounds, which may contribute to their low cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Quirópteros/genética , Quirópteros/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Camundongos
7.
Life Sci ; 231: 116537, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176774

RESUMO

AIMS: Renal dysfunction has been reported in individuals with Down syndrome (DS); however, the causes and mechanisms involved remain unknown. Here, we present a proposal for how the triplication of the amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) and, mainly the amyloid ß peptide 1-42 (Aß42) can favor the development of renal abnormalities in DS. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D3 (VD3) supplementation on morphofunctional aspects and the repercussions on the presence and localization of Aß42, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), caspase-3 p12, and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in the renal tissue of DS mouse model. MAIN METHODS: Twenty female mice (14-week-old) belonging to the B6EiC3Sn-Rb(12.Ts171665Dn)2Cje/CjeDnJ lineage were divided into four experimental groups (n = 5/group): common diet; trisomy (Ts) and wild-type (Wt); and high doses VD3, Ts(VD3), and Wt(VD3). All the groups were treated for 10 weeks. At 24 weeks, the protocol experimental was interrupted. The kidney was weighed, collected, and processed for immunochemical analysis for Aß42, Caspase-3 p12, MTHFR, and Pgp proteins. All data were analyzed statistically. KEY FINDINGS: Our results showed that VD3 promoted an increase in caspase-3 p12, MTHFR, and Pgp, and consequently contributed to reduced Aß42 in the renal tissue of a mouse model of DS. Furthermore, VD3 treatment affected the plasma creatinine and urea levels and contributed to the attenuation of the dilation of Bowman's space observed in trisomic mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Finally, the results showed that VD3 may activate specific mechanisms involved in reduced Aß42 and tissue repair in the kidneys of a mouse model for Down syndrome.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Síndrome de Down/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Down/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/fisiologia , Animais , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Síndrome de Down/patologia , Feminino , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
8.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 402, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different 3D-cell culture approaches with varying degrees of complexity have been developed to serve as melanoma models for drug testing or mechanistic studies. While these 3D-culture initiatives are already often superior to classical 2D approaches, they are either composed of only melanoma cells or they are so complex that the behavior of individual cell types is hard to understand, and often they are difficult to establish and expensive. METHODS: This study used low-attachment based generation of spheroids composed of up to three cell types. Characterization of cells and spheroids involved cryosectioning, immunofluorescence, FACS, and quantitative analyses. Statistical evaluation used one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test or Student's t-test. RESULTS: The tri-culture model allowed to track cellular behavior in a cell-type specific manner and recapitulated different characteristics of early melanoma stages. Cells arranged into a collagen-IV rich fibroblast core, a ring of keratinocytes, and groups of highly proliferating melanoma cells on the outside. Regularly, some melanoma cells were also found to invade the fibroblast core. In the absence of melanoma cells, the keratinocyte ring stratified into central basal-like and peripheral, more differentiated cells. Conversely, keratinocyte differentiation was clearly reduced upon addition of melanoma cells. Treatment with the cytostatic drug, docetaxel, restored keratinocyte differentiation and induced apoptosis of external melanoma cells. Remaining intact external melanoma cells showed a significantly increased amount of ABCB5-immunoreactivity. CONCLUSIONS: In the present work, a novel, simple spheroid-based melanoma tri-culture model composed of fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and melanoma cells was described. This model mimicked features observed in early melanoma stages, including loss of keratinocyte differentiation, melanoma cell invasion, and drug-induced increase of ABCB5 expression in external melanoma cells.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/citologia
9.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 5162-5168, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059026

RESUMO

Doxorubicin is one of the most widely used chemotherapy agents for the treatment of breast cancer. However, the development of doxorubicin resistance limits the long­term treatment benefits in patients with breast cancer. Curcumin, a well­known dietary polyphenol derived from the rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa), enhances the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on chemoresistance in doxorubicin­resistant breast cancerMCF­7/DOX and MDA­MB­231/DOX cell lines. Cell Counting Kit­8, monolayer transport, western blot and ATPase activity assays were performed during the study. The results revealed that curcumin significantly enhanced the effect of doxorubicin in doxorubicin­resistant breast cancer cells. The intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin was substantially increased following curcumin treatment in doxorubicin­resistant breast cancer cells, in a manner that was inversely dependent on the activity of ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 4 (ABCB4). Treatment with a combination of curcumin and doxorubicin decreases the efflux of doxorubicin in ABCB4­overexpressing cells. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited the ATPase activity of ABCB4 without altering its protein expression. In conclusion, curcumin reversed doxorubicin resistance in human breast cancer MCF­7/DOX and MDA­MB­231/DOX cells by inhibiting the ATPase activity of ABCB4. The study highlights the promising use of curcumin as a chemosensitizer in the treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino
10.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 29(6): 455-461, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079547

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: P-glycoprotein is a complex ATP-ase transporter involved in physiological and pathological functions. In particular, it is involved in the onset of multidrug resistance in cancer, in ocular disease, Chronic Rhinosinusitis, CNS diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and epilepsy. One of the aims of clinicians and pharmacologists is to monitor P-gp activity through the inhibitors and to use its activity and/or expression in physiological barriers for the early diagnosis of several pathologies. Considering P-glycoprotein activity, several substrates have been characterized but the challenge is to design 'pure' P-glycoprotein inhibitors. AREAS COVERED: P-glycoprotein inhibitors display a large spectrum of activities. Here the contents of patents focused on the role of P-glycoprotein inhibitor in modulating MDR in cancer, in bioavailability, in ocular disease and Chronic Rhinosinusitis are reported. EXPERT OPINION: The use of P-glycoprotein inhibitor sic et simpliciter, or in coadministration with therapeutic agents, for ocular disease, and Chronic Rhinosinusitis is promising and could be suggested for additional trials. By contrast, the bioavailability of the coadministrated drugs, increased by P-glycoprotein inhibitor, deserves a wider discussion, in particular on the pharmacokinetic aspect of both P-glycoprotein inhibitor and the coadministered drug.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Desenho de Drogas , Interações de Medicamentos , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Patentes como Assunto
11.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(5): 744-750, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061316

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports that the efflux transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp), have vital roles on drug resistance in epilepsy. Overexpression of P-gp in the brain could reduce the anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) concentration in the epileptogenic zone, resulting in drug resistance. Studies have demonstrated that recurrent seizures induce the expression of P-gp and status epilepticus (SE) could upregulate the expression of P-gp, resulting in drug resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as endogenous regulators, represent small regulatory RNA molecules that have been shown to act as negative regulators of gene expression in different biological processes. We investigated the impact of miR-146a-5p on the expression of P-gp in status epilepticus rat model. The expression of miR-146a-5p in rat cortex and hippocampus was measured by quantitative RT-PCR at 2 weeks after induction of SE. Meanwhile, we detected the expression of P-gp in the brain of SE rats using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Upregulation of miR-146a-5p and overexpression of P-gp were evident at 2 weeks after SE. Moreover, the expression of P-gp was downregulated by injection of miR-146a mimic into the hippocampus. We also detected the expression of interleukin-1 receptor-associated protein kinases-1 (IRAK1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, which indicated the expression of IRAK1, TRAF6 and NF-κB p-p65/p65 increased in the brain of SE rats, and overexpression of miR-146a-5p could downregulate the expression of IRAK1, TRAF6, NF-κB p-p65/p65 and P-gp. Our study indicated that miR-146a-5p may decrease the expression of P-gp in status epilepticus rats via NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , MicroRNAs , Estado Epiléptico/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Cloreto de Lítio , Masculino , Pilocarpina , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estado Epiléptico/induzido quimicamente , Estado Epiléptico/genética , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 2207-2218, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988617

RESUMO

Background: Psoralen (PSO), a major active component of Psoralea corylifolia, has been shown to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer. A drug carrier comprising a lipid-monolayer shell and a biodegradable polymer core for sustained delivery and improved efficacy of drug have exhibited great potential in efficient treatment of cancers. Methods: The PSO-loaded lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. In vitro cytotoxicity assay, cellular uptake, cell cycle analysis, detection of ROS level and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and western blot were performed. Results: The P-LPNs enhanced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) 17-fold compared to free DOX in multidrug resistant HepG2/ADR cells. Moreover, P-LPNs displayed pro-apoptotic activity, increased levels of ROS and depolarization of ΔΨm. In addition, there were no signifi-cant effects on cellular uptake of DOX, cell cycle arrest, or the expression of P-glycoprotein. Mechanistic studies suggested that P-LPNs enhanced DOX cytotoxicity by increased release of cytochrome c and enhanced caspase3 cleavage, causing apoptosis in HepG2/ADR cells. Conclusion: The lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles can be considered a powerful and promising drug delivery system for effective cancer chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ficusina/farmacologia , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
13.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(5): 485-490, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977678

RESUMO

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the ABCB1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily B member 1) gene, is a transport protein involved in the efflux and distribution of the osteosarcoma drugs methotrexate, doxorubicin, actinomycin D, and etoposide. In vivo studies indicate a close relationship between the ABCB1 (C1236T) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the efficacy of these drugs. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the effect of ABCB1 (C1236T) polymorphism on P-gp-mediated efflux of osteosarcoma drugs. Two stable recombinant Caco-2 cell lines were generated by transfection with either the wild-type ABCB11236C allele or the ABCB11236T variant allele. The two cell lines were compared in terms of drug resistance, intracellular accumulation, and efflux of methotrexate, doxorubicin, actinomycin D, and etoposide. Accumulation of methotrexate, doxorubicin, actinomycin D, and etoposide was significantly lower in cells overexpressing wild-type P-gp than in untransfected control cells, indicating that these drugs are substrates of P-gp. Actinomycin D accumulated to similar extents in cells overexpressing wild-type or variant P-gp. Methotrexate and etoposide were transported to a greater extent by variant P-gp than wild-type protein. Conversely, doxorubicin was transported to a greater extent by wild-type P-gp. The ABCB1 (C1236T) polymorphism affects P-gp-mediated transport of osteosarcoma drugs in a drug-specific way. These studies support the importance of the ABCB1 (C1236T) SNP for P-gp activity and its potential to explain the alterations in drug response.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Dactinomicina/metabolismo , Etoposídeo/metabolismo , Metotrexato/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Células CACO-2 , Doxorrubicina/metabolismo , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
Transplant Proc ; 51(3): 998-1001, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms by which orally administered tacrolimus was not absorbed in a patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CLINICAL COURSE: A 17-year-old girl with acute myeloid leukemia underwent HLA-haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation following fludarabine, busulfan, and total-body irradiation. Graft-vs-host disease prophylaxis was post-transplant cyclophosphamide, followed by intravenous tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. When tacrolimus was switched to oral administration, its blood level declined rapidly, resulting in development of acute graft-vs-host disease, which was ameliorated by switching back to intravenous administration. METHODS/RESULTS: To elucidate if impaired tacrolimus absorption could be related to genetic polymorphism of tacrolimus-metabolizing enzymes, we analyzed gene polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 3A4, cytochrome P450 3A5, and multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1). The patient had wild-type cytochrome P450 3A4 (*1/*1) and variant-type cytochrome P450 3A5 (*3/*3), while MDR1 genes (2677A/G, 3435C/C) were wild-type. CONCLUSION: Wild-type MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein expressed in the intestine reduces drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and may have contributed to low blood levels of tacrolimus in this patient when tacrolimus was orally administered.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Polimorfismo Genético , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Adolescente , DNA/genética , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/genética , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 141: 307-312, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955738

RESUMO

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a molecular pump, responsible for extruding xenobiotics. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in cadmium (Cd) exhaustion. The activity of P-gp was regulated in Crassostrea gigas, which was previously exposed to Cd by using rifampicin (inducer) and verapamil (inhibitor), respectively. Comparing with Crassostrea gigas depurated in natural seawater, Cd content increased significantly from 14.28 mg/kg dw to 17.49 mg/kg dw accompanied by a changed metallothionein level from 9.84 µg/g fw to 10.67 µg/g fw after 25 µg/L verapamil treatment, while Cd content after 25 µg/L rifampicin treatment reduced to 12.21 mg/kg dw. Moreover, after treatment with rifampicin and verapamil, beneficial metal elements, fats, and proteins were maintained, and the tissue-dependent difference was found in the variation of antioxidant defenses and oxidative damage in Crassostrea gigas. In brief, the study provided new evidence on possibility of Cd removal by inducing P-glycoprotein.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Crassostrea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Metabólica , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Rifampina/farmacologia , Distribuição Tecidual , Verapamil/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 184-192, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929555

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Bajijiasu (BJJS), a main bioactive compound from Morinda officinalis F.C. How. (Rubiaceae), is widely administered concomitantly with other drugs for treating male impotence, female infertility, fatigue, chronic rheumatism, depression, etc. Objective: This study investigates the regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by BJJS in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: HepG2 cells were incubated with BJJS (10, 20 or 40 µM) for 48 h. C57 mice were orally treated with BJJS (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. The protein and mRNA levels of P-gp were measured by using Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. siNrf2 RNA was used to explore the mediation effects of Nrf2 on the P-gp expression. The efflux activity of P-gp was tested via a flow cytometry. RESULTS: Incubation of HepG2 cells with BJJS at 10, 20, and 40 µM up-regulated the P-gp protein expression by 12.3%, 82.9%, and 134.3%, respectively. Treatment of C57 mice with BJJS at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg increased the P-gp protein expression by 49.3%, 75.8% and 106.0%, respectively. Incubation of the cells with BJJS at 10, 20 and 40 µM up-regulated the total Nrf2 protein levels by 34.3%, 93.1% and 118.6%, respectively, and also increased the nuclear Nrf2 protein levels by 14.8%, 44.4% and 59.25%, respectively. The total Nrf2 protein levels were increased by 46.3%, 66.5%, and 87.4%, respectively, in the mice exposed to BJJS at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. Inhibition of Nrf2 by siRNA diminished the P-gp induction by 25.0%, 33.4%, and 38.7%, respectively, in the cells. In addition, BJJS enhanced the efflux activity of P-gp by 9.6%, 37.1%, and 48.1%, respectively, in the cells. CONCLUSIONS: BJJS activates Nrf2 to induce P-gp expression, and enhanced the efflux activity of P-gp. The possibility of potential herb-drug interactions when BJJS is co-administered with other P-gp substrate drugs should be carefully monitored.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Dissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dissacarídeos/química , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Morinda/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 4967-4975, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955332

RESUMO

Rooibos tea ( Aspalathus linearis) is a well-known South African herbal tea enjoyed worldwide. Limited reports indicate the potential of rooibos tea to alter the activity of certain cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isozymes. In this study, the phytochemical investigation of MeOH extract of A. linearis (leaves and stems) resulted in the isolation and characterization of 11 phenolic compounds. The MeOH extract exhibited significant inhibition of the major human CYP450 isozymes (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19). The strongest inhibition was observed by the extract for CYP3A4 (IC50 1.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL) followed by CYP2C19 (IC50 4.0 ± 0.3 µg/mL). Among the tested phytochemicals, the most potent inhibitors were isovitexin on CYP3A4 (IC50 3.4 ± 0.2 µM), vitexin on CYP2C9 (IC50 8.0 ± 0.2 µM), and thermopsoside on CYP2C19 (IC50 9.5 ± 0.2 µM). The two major, structurally related compounds aspalathin and nothofagin exhibited a moderate pregnane-X receptor (PXR) activation, which was associated with increased mRNA expression of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2, respectively. These results indicate that a high intake of nutraceuticals containing rooibos extracts may pose a risk of herb-drug interactions when consumed concomitantly with clinical drugs that are substrates of CYP enzymes.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Aspalathus/química , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/química , Preparações de Plantas/química , Receptor de Pregnano X/química , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Aspalathus/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/química , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Receptor de Pregnano X/genética , Receptor de Pregnano X/metabolismo , Chás de Ervas/análise
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013627

RESUMO

Overcoming P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux is a strategy to improve the absorption and pharmacokinetics of its substrate drugs. Berberine inhibits P-gp and thereby increases the bioavailability of the P-gp substrate digoxin in rodents. However, the effects of berberine on P-gp in chickens are still unclear. Here, we studied the role of berberine in modulating broilers P-gp expression and function through both in situ and in vitro models. In addition, molecular docking was applied to analyze the interactions of berberine with P-gp as well as with chicken xenobiotic receptor (CXR). The results showed that the mRNA expression levels of chicken P-gp and CXR decreased in the ileum following exposure to berberine. The absorption rate constant of rhodamine 123 increased after berberine treatment, as detected using an in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model. Efflux ratios of P-gp substrates (tilmicosin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, ampicillin, and enrofloxacin) decreased and the apparent permeability coefficients increased after co-incubation with berberine in MDCK-chAbcb1 cell models. Bidirectional assay results showed that berberine could be transported by chicken P-gp with a transport ratio of 4.20, and this was attenuated by verapamil (an inhibitor of P-gp), which resulted in a ratio of 1.13. Molecular docking revealed that berberine could form favorable interactions with the binding pockets of both CXR and P-gp, with docking scores of -7.8 and -9.5 kcal/mol, respectively. These results indicate that berberine is a substrate of chicken P-gp and down-regulates P-gp expression in chicken tissues, thereby increasing the absorption of P-gp substrates. Our findings suggest that berberine increases the bioavailability of other drugs and that drug-drug interactions should be considered when it is co-administered with other P-gp substrates with narrow therapeutic windows.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Berberina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Berberina/química , Galinhas , Cães , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
J BUON ; 24(1): 338-346, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941990

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is no clear evidence on whether sunscreens and personal care products containing UV-filters like titanium dioxide (TiO2) are protective against or may be a contributing factor in melanoma development. Extensive studies have shown that TiO2 can cause cell toxicity under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The transmembrane protein ABCB5 is closely linked to tumorigenicity, progression and disease recurrence of diverse human malignancies, including melanoma. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro any potential influence of nanosized TiO2 (nano-TiO2) on metastatic melanoma cells' metabolic activity, cytotoxicity and ABCB5 mRNA expression. METHODS: The human metastatic melanoma cell line WM-266-4 (ATCC) was used to obtain dose- and time-dependent responses. We used the MTT and LDH assays to measure metabolic activity of selected cells and cytotoxicity. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed and gene expression ratios were calculated for the target (ABCB5) and the reference (LDHA) gene. Standard statistical tests were used for analysis in SPSS and Excell. RESULTS: Our results suggest decreased metastatic melanoma cells' metabolic activity, increased cytotoxicity and increased ABCB5 mRNA expression after 24 and 48 hrs as compared to control (untreated) cells (p<0.05). Thus, we showed that nano-TiO2 might influence cells' invasiveness and aggressiveness. CONCLUSION: We show for the first time that ABCB5 expression in metastatic melanoma cells might be affected by nano-TiO2 exposure. In addition, nano-TiO2 as a sunscreen ingredient might play a role in metastatic melanoma progression.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Titânio/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Titânio/química
20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 852: 231-243, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959046

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains an obstacle to chemotherapy related with the overexpression of several efflux membrane proteins, and p-glycoprotein (P-gp) is the most studied among them. Thus, continuous investigational efforts are necessary to find valuable MDR reversal agents, and the flavonoid compound glabridin (GBD) seems to be a promising candidate. This study aimed to investigate the potential of GBD against MDR and explore the possible mechanisms. First, we found that GBD could decrease the half maximal inhibitory concentration of paclitaxel and doxorubicin (DOX) in breast cancer cells like MDA-MB-231/MDR1 cells and MCF-7/ADR cells. It was further explained that GBD enhanced the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231/MDR1 cells induced by DOX, due to the increased accumulation of DOX. Then, tests were performed to explore the possible MDR reversal mechanisms. On one hand, GBD can suppress the expression of P-gp. On the other hand, GBD can downregulate the activity of P-gp ATPase when cotreated with DOX or verapamil, revealing that GBD was a substrate of P-gp. Moreover, the obtained kinetic inhibition parameters proved that GBD was a competitive inhibitor of P-gp, and in molecular docking simulation modeling, GBD exhibited stronger binding affinity with P-gp than DOX. In conclusion, GBD can increase the accumulation of DOX in MDA-MB-231/MDR1 cells by suppressing the expression of P-gp and competitively inhibiting the P-gp efflux pump and enhance the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231/MDR1 cells induced by DOX, and thus realize reversal effects on MDR. Therefore, the combination therapy of anticancer drugs and flavonoid-like GBD is a promising strategy to overcome P-gp-mediated MDR.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fenóis/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica
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