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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 437-446, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260211

RESUMO

Hypertrophic osteopathy, a syndrome characterized by painful distal limb swelling and proliferative periosteal reaction, primarily involves the metacarpal and metatarsal bones and phalanges. Lesions are often bilaterally symmetric and typically affect all four limbs. Hypertrophic osteopathy is frequently associated with primary intrathoracic disease, though this condition has also been reported secondary to intra-abdominal and intrapelvic disease and associated with pregnancy in both people and horses. Over a 20-yr period, five adult female Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana), with 13 total pregnancies, were evaluated because of lameness and distal limb swelling. These clinical signs were observed between 2 and 32 days (mean = 19 days) prior to parturition (gestation period in takin approximately 200-240 days) and resolved in all animals following parturition. Lameness and limb swelling resolved between 8 and 168 days (median = 15 days) after parturition. Sixteen radiographic examinations, from four of the individuals, documented proliferative periosteal reaction, primarily of the metacarpal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The clinical progression, resolution of signs, and radiographic features in these cases are consistent with hypertrophic osteopathy, secondary to pregnancy. This is the first report describing presumptive hypertrophic osteopathy in takin.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/veterinária , Período Periparto , Ruminantes , Animais , Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Ósseas/etiologia , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Feminino , Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Anterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Posterior/patologia , Gravidez
2.
Soft Matter ; 15(30): 6237-6246, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334527

RESUMO

Mechanical testing of connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments can lead to collagen denaturation even in the absence of macroscale damage. The following tensile loading protocols, ramp loading to failure, overloading and release, cyclic overloading and cyclic fatigue loading, all yield molecular damage in rat or bovine tendons. Single collagen fibrils extracted from the positional common digital extensor tendon of the forelimb also show molecular damage after tensile loading to failure. Using fibrils from the same source we assess changes to the molecular and supramolecular structure after tensile stress relaxation at strains between 4 and 22% followed by release. We observe no broken fibril and no significant change in D-band spacing. However, we observe significant binding of a fluorescent collagen hybridizing peptide to the fibrils indicating that collagen denaturation occurs in a strain dependent way for relaxation times between 1 s and 1500 s. We also show that peptide binding is associated with a decrease of the cross-sectional area of the fibrils providing an estimate of the dry volume loss due to molecular denaturation as well as an estimate of the mechanical energy density required, 25-110 MJ m-3. In summary we show that collagen molecular damage can occur in the absence of fibril failure and without visible changes to the supramolecular structure.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Estresse Mecânico , Tendões/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bovinos , Membro Anterior/metabolismo , Ratos , Tendões/química
3.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 29, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Owner questionnaires may be used to assess osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs. The validated American College of Veterinary Surgeons' (ACVS) Canine Orthopaedic Index Questionnaire quantifies quality of life in dogs with orthopaedic disease. This index was modified and translated into Swedish and evaluated for validity, reliability and sensitivity. One group with confirmed moderate elbow dysplasia (n = 117) and one healthy control group (n = 146) without radiographic elbow disease and without lameness were included. Telephone interviews with the dog owners were conducted throughout the study using owner-completed questionnaires. RESULTS: A 16-item questionnaire developed from an initial data set including 22 items, were able to differentiate between the affected group and the control group with good readability. Validity was measured through factor analysis which yielded a three-factor model accounting for 66.3% of the variance. Cronbach's α was 0.89 for the total instrument, > 0.7 for stiffness, lameness and function, but < 0.7 for quality of life. Based on the process the modified questionnaire can be used in Swedish, as the ACVS COI, to make intra-patient comparisons and evaluation of disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: A sound owner-completed questionnaire translated into Swedish and modified, able to differ healthy dogs from dogs suffering from chronic osteoarthritis is presented. Performed statistical analysis show the items of the instrument to be reasonable and have high construct validity. The questionnaire may be used in the clinical setting and for research.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Membro Anterior/patologia , Articulações/patologia , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Animais , Cães , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Vet Surg ; 48(5): 858-868, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the outcome of dogs with large, caudocentral, osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the humeral head treated with synthetic osteochondral resurfacing (SOR) implants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Twenty-four client-owned large breed or giant dogs. METHODS: The medical records of all dogs treated with first generation (G1) and second generation (G2) SOR implants were reviewed. All dogs were assessed with clinical examination and imaging 12 weeks after surgery. Assessment of outcome was based on subjective assessment of lameness, scoring of postoperative radiographs, and the Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD) questionnaire. RESULTS: Osteochondral resurfacing was performed with a G1 implant in 13 dogs (15 shoulders) and a G2 implant in 11 dogs (13 shoulders). Lameness resolved in all dogs treated with G1 implants and in 10 dogs treated with G2 implants by 12 weeks after surgery. One dog treated with a G2 implant was found to have an implant-associated infection, requiring implant removal. No recurrence of lameness was reported in 9 limbs treated with G1 implants and 10 limbs treated with G2 implants that were available for clinical review at a median time of 387 and 365 days, respectively, after surgery. Mean postoperative LOAD scores were 4.2 of 52 and 5.2 of 52 in dogs treated with a G1 or a G2 implant, respectively. CONCLUSION: Synthetic resurfacing was technically feasible in all joints of this study and resulted in good clinical results. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The use of SOR implants seems viable to treat large caudocentral OCD lesions of the humeral head in dogs and warrants prospective comparison with conventional arthroscopic treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Osteocondrite Dissecante/veterinária , Próteses e Implantes/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Membro Anterior , Cabeça do Úmero/patologia , Cabeça do Úmero/cirurgia , Masculino , Osteocondrite Dissecante/cirurgia , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1122-1131, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133689

RESUMO

A remarkable feature of motor control is the ability to coordinate movements across distinct body parts into a consistent, skilled action. To reach and grasp an object, 'gross' arm and 'fine' dexterous movements must be coordinated as a single action. How the nervous system achieves this coordination is currently unknown. One possibility is that, with training, gross and fine movements are co-optimized to produce a coordinated action; alternatively, gross and fine movements may be modularly refined to function together. To address this question, we recorded neural activity in the primary motor cortex and dorsolateral striatum during reach-to-grasp skill learning in rats. During learning, the refinement of fine and gross movements was behaviorally and neurally dissociable. Furthermore, inactivation of the primary motor cortex and dorsolateral striatum had distinct effects on skilled fine and gross movements. Our results indicate that skilled movement coordination is achieved through emergent modular neural control.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Trombose Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Muscimol/farmacologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Ratos , Reforço (Psicologia)
6.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(6): 539-546, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) and intraosseous regional limb perfusion (IORLP) of ceftiofur sodium resulted in clinically relevant drug concentrations in the synovial fluid of the tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal joint of chickens (ie, an avian model) and to determine whether one of those techniques was superior to the other. ANIMALS: 12 healthy adult hens. PROCEDURES: Birds were randomly assigned to receive ceftiofur sodium (2 mg/kg) by the IVRLP (n = 4), IORLP (4), or IM (control; 4) route once daily for 6 consecutive days. Blood and tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal synovial fluid samples were collected 15 minutes after ceftiofur administration on predetermined days for quantification of ceftiofur concentration. Plasma and synovial fluid ceftiofur concentrations were compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS: All 4 birds in the IVRLP group developed mild to moderate bruising around the injection site, but this bruising did not prohibit completion of the prescribed treatment regimen. No adverse effects were observed in any of the other birds. The mean plasma and synovial fluid ceftiofur concentrations exceeded the therapeutic threshold for most common bacterial pathogens (> 1.0 µg/mL) at all sample acquisition times for all 3 groups. The mean synovial fluid ceftiofur concentration for the IVRLP group was significantly greater than that for the IORLP and control groups at all sample acquisition times. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that IVRLP may be a safe and effective technique for antimicrobial administration to birds with joint infections, contaminated wounds, pododermatitis, and other musculoskeletal infections of the distal aspect of a limb.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/metabolismo , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Cefalosporinas/farmacocinética , Feminino , Membro Anterior , Perfusão/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo
7.
Vet Surg ; 48(5): 685-693, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of surgical site infection (SSI) after internal fixation and to identify risk factors for SSI and nonsurvival. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. ANIMALS: One hundred fifty-five horses with long bone fractures or arthrodesis treated by internal fixation at 1 hospital between 2008-2016. METHODS: Signalment, diagnosis, surgical repair, surgeon, surgical time, antimicrobial use, SSI onset, bacterial identification, and adjunct treatments were recorded. Perioperative variables were analyzed to identify risk factors associated with outcomes. RESULTS: Surgical-site infection was reported in 22 of 155 (14.2%) horses, which is lower than what has been previously reported (P = .003). Horses with fetlock arthrodesis or ulnar fracture were more likely to develop SSI. Local prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was associated with an increased risk of SSI. Horses with SSI were 12 times (P < .0001) less likely to survive to discharge than horses without SSI. Horses with a fetlock or carpal arthrodesis or those with radial/humeral/femoral fractures were less likely to survive. No association was identified between open fractures, open reduction and internal fixation, or surgical times and SSI. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SSI in this population was lower than what has been previously reported. Horses with fetlock or carpal arthrodesis or radial/humeral/femoral fractures were at increased risk for SSI and/or nonsurvival to discharge. A protective role of local antimicrobial therapy for SSI could not be established. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The impact of SSI on outcomes of cases of equine internal fixation remains substantial. Identification of cases at higher risk of SSI should influence surgical technique, postoperative management, and early intervention when SSI is suspected. Additional investigation is warranted regarding local antimicrobial therapy.


Assuntos
Fixação Interna de Fraturas/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Redução Aberta/veterinária , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrodese/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Membro Anterior/patologia , Membro Anterior/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Membro Posterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/cirurgia , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Humanos , Fraturas do Úmero , Masculino , Redução Aberta/efeitos adversos , Duração da Cirurgia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia
8.
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol ; 32(3): 241-249, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the use of custom saw guides produced using computed tomographic imaging (CT), computer simulation and three-dimensional (3D) printing to aid surgical correction of antebrachial deformities in six dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antebrachial limb deformities in four small, and two large, breed dogs (seven limbs) were surgically corrected by a radial closing wedge ostectomy and ulnar osteotomy. The location and orientation of the wedge ostectomy were determined using CT data, computer-assisted planning and production of a saw guide in plastic using a 3D printer. At surgery, the guide was clamped to the surface of the radius and used to direct the oscillating saw blade. The resultant ostectomy was closed and stabilized with a bone plate. RESULTS: Five limbs healed without complications. One limb was re-operated due to a poorly resolved rotational component of the deformity. One limb required additional stabilisation with external fixation due to screw loosening. The owners of five dogs completed a Canine Orthopedic Index survey at a follow-up period of 37 to 81 months. The median preoperative score was 3.5 and the median postoperative score was 1, representing an overall positive effect of surgery. Radiographically, 5/7 limbs were corrected in the frontal plane (2/7 were under-corrected). Similarly, 5/7 limbs were corrected in the sagittal plane, and 2/7 were over-corrected in the sagittal place. CONCLUSIONS: Computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technologies can be used to create saw guides to simplify one-stage corrective osteotomies of the antebrachium using internal fixation in dogs. Despite the encouraging results, accurate correction of rotational deformity was problematic and this aspect requires further development.


Assuntos
Cães/anormalidades , Cães/cirurgia , Membro Anterior/anormalidades , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Assistência ao Convalescente , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Impressão Tridimensional , Equipamentos Cirúrgicos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(3): 384-394, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To design and assess the perioperative analgesic efficacy of an ultrasound (US)-guided radial (R), ulnar (U), median (M) and musculocutaneous (Mc) nerve blocks, performed together in the axillary space by a single, in-plane approach. STUDY DESIGN: Anatomical research and prospective clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of three dog cadavers and 15 client-owned dogs undergoing orthopaedic thoracic limb surgery. METHODS: Phase 1: Anatomical dissection and US study of the axillary space were performed to design the US-guided proximal RUMM block. The technique was considered successful if a total volume of 0.15 mL kg-1 new methylene blue solution completely stained the four nerves in two cadavers for ≥2 cm. Phase 2: In 15 client-owned dogs undergoing orthopaedic thoracic limb surgery, the RUMM block designed in phase 1 was performed to provide analgesia using a total volume of 0.15 mL kg-1 of ropivacaine 0.5%. The block was considered effective if the intraoperative fentanyl requirement was <1.2 mcg kg-1 hour-1 and until the postoperative pain score was [short-form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (SF-GCMPS)] ≤5/20. RESULTS: Phase1: Detection of the four nerves was always feasible in a single US-window. The axillary artery and Mc nerve were used as landmarks. In-plane needling approach was feasible in both cadavers. All the nerves were completely stained for >2 cm. No intrathoracic dye spread was found. Phase 2: In 14/15 anaesthetized dogs, mean intraoperative fentanyl requirement was 0.25 ± 0.05 mcg kg-1 hour-1. Postoperatively, all dogs had SF-GCMPS ≤5/20 up to 8 hours. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The US-guided proximal RUMM block performed at the axillary level with a single, in-plane needling approach using 0.15 mL kg-1 of ropivacaine 0.5% minimized fentanyl requirement during thoracic limb surgery, contributing to postoperative analgesia up to 8 hours after execution of the peripheral nerve block.


Assuntos
Cães/cirurgia , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/veterinária , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cadáver , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Membro Anterior/cirurgia , Azul de Metileno/análogos & derivados , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
10.
Vet J ; 247: 26-31, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971347

RESUMO

Injuries to the structures within the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) can lead to lameness with a variable degree of effusion in horses. In some cases, effusion is absent or minimal, and this may be related to the chronicity and type of injury, or veterinary interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine if saline injection into the DFTS would improve ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging of the distal limb without introducing artifact. Nine normal equine cadaver forelimbs were collected. Non-weight-bearing ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of each limb was performed pre- and immediately post-injection of the DFTS. The presence of fluid in the DFTS significantly improved the delineation of the deep digital flexor tendon, manica flexoria, and straight distal sesamoidean ligament visualised using both ultrasonography and MRI (P<0.05). Significant improvement in visualisation of the margins of the superficial digital flexor tendon was noted only with MRI (P<0.05). Saline distension did not alter the size/shape of the intra- and extrathecal structures. The findings of this study support further evaluation of this imaging technique in clinical cases with minimal DFTS effusion.


Assuntos
Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Solução Salina/administração & dosagem , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Cadáver
11.
Science ; 364(6435): 74-78, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948549

RESUMO

A core question in evolutionary biology is whether convergent phenotypic evolution is driven by convergent molecular changes in proteins or regulatory regions. We combined phylogenomic, developmental, and epigenomic analysis of 11 new genomes of paleognathous birds, including an extinct moa, to show that convergent evolution of regulatory regions, more so than protein-coding genes, is prevalent among developmental pathways associated with independent losses of flight. A Bayesian analysis of 284,001 conserved noncoding elements, 60,665 of which are corroborated as enhancers by open chromatin states during development, identified 2355 independent accelerations along lineages of flightless paleognaths, with functional consequences for driving gene expression in the developing forelimb. Our results suggest that the genomic landscape associated with morphological convergence in ratites has a substantial shared regulatory component.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Epigênese Genética , Evolução Molecular , Voo Animal , Paleógnatas/anatomia & histologia , Paleógnatas/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cromatina/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigenômica , Éxons/genética , Extinção Biológica , Membro Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Paleógnatas/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Filogenia
12.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(5): 461-468, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate recovery of limb function by use of gait force analysis after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture. ANIMALS: 19 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture treated with TPLO. PROCEDURES: Force plate gait analysis was performed before and 1, 2, 4, and 7 months after TPLO. Ground reaction forces (GRFs; which comprised peak vertical force [PVF], vertical impulse [VI], peak braking force, braking impulse, peak propulsion force [PPF], and propulsion impulse), time to switching from braking to propulsion, and vector magnitude at PVF in the forelimbs and hind limbs were evaluated. RESULTS: GRFs in the affected hind limb were significantly lower than in the contralateral hind limb before TPLO. These variables, except for PPF, were not significantly different 7 months after TPLO. Time to the switching point in the affected hind limb was significantly less from before to 2 months after TPLO. Vector magnitude at PVF had a similar pattern as PVF and VI during the recovery process. The PVF in the ipsilateral forelimb was significantly higher than in the contralateral forelimb before TPLO. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A similar pattern was detected between PVF or VI and craniocaudal force during recovery of dogs that underwent TPLO. Rupture of he CrCl resulted in a decrease in GRFs in the affected hind limb as well as in the switching point and PVF of limbs. However, weight distribution for the craniocaudal force was normalized before PVF or VI. Vector magnitude at PVF might be effectively evaluated by combining vertical force and craniocaudal force.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/veterinária , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Cães/lesões , Extremidades/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/veterinária , Osteotomia/veterinária , Animais , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Feminino , Membro Anterior , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Membro Posterior , Masculino , Ruptura/veterinária , Tíbia/cirurgia
13.
Vet Surg ; 48(5): 869-877, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the magnitude and direction of radial torsion (RT) in dogs with medial compartment disease (MCD). STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Twenty-eight healthy dogs and 28 dogs with confirmed MCD. METHODS: Computed tomography images of each dog's antebrachium were evaluated. Radial torsion was measured by using previously described landmarks on the proximal and distal radius. Differences between groups were tested with Student's t tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. RESULTS: Healthy dogs had a mean RT angle of 3.44° (range, 1.28°-5.44°). Dogs with MCD had a mean RT angle of 11.84° (range, 2.31°-26.55°). Both groups included similar proportions of dogs with external (76% vs 77%) and internal (24% vs 23%) torsion. The direction of torsion (P = .21 and P = .69) did not appear to affect the magnitude of the RT angle. CONCLUSION: Dogs with MCD had an increased RT angle compared with healthy controls. The direction of torsion varied similarly between groups regardless of the disease status of dogs in this study. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The fourfold increase in the RT seen in dogs with MCD may contribute to the rotational overload proposed recently, potentially modifying the orientation of the elliptical radial head and the ligaments crossing the elbow joint.


Assuntos
Síndromes Compartimentais/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Membro Anterior , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(4): 593-597, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828037

RESUMO

This study focused on 8 Thoroughbred racehorses showing bone marrow oedema-type signal in the proximal sagittal groove of the proximal phalanx, with the aim of understanding its clinical significance. Standing magnetic resonance imaging played an important role in assessing osseous abnormalities that were not radiographically identifiable. Further, a histopathological result from one of the cases showed there was oedema surrounding adipose tissues with increase in density of trabecular scaffolding. This may indicate presence of osseous injury within the area of decreased elasticity due to subchondral bone modeling. This study suggests that detection of osseous abnormality based on bone marrow oedema-type signal, and application of appropriate care following injury would contribute to prevent deterioration of stress-related fractures of the proximal phalanx.


Assuntos
Doenças da Medula Óssea/veterinária , Edema/veterinária , Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Doenças da Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fraturas de Estresse/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas de Estresse/veterinária , Cavalos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823527

RESUMO

Forelimb stepping is a widely used test for the assessment of forelimb akinesia in hemiparkinsonian (hemi-PD) rats. The initiation time (IT) is considered the most sensitive parameter in the stepping test procedure. Here we propose a novel, reliable, and simple method for the measurement of IT of both forelimbs in both forehand and backhand directions in rats. Evaluating the same videos taken for quantifying adjusting steps, IT measurements were done without additional experiments. This is in contrast to the classical approach introduced by Olsson et al. (1995), in which separate experiments are necessary. We successfully applied our approach to hemi-PD rats intrastriatally treated with botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A). In naïve rats, an IT of about 0.62 s was found, and in right-sided hemi-PD rats the IT of the left forepaw increased to about 3.62 s. These hemi-PD rats showed, however, reduced ITs of the impaired left forepaws 1 month and the second time 7 months after induction of hemi-PD via the injection of 1 ng BoNT-A into the ipsilateral striatum, depending on post BoNT-A survival time. The method described offers the possibility of a precise and animal-friendly evaluation of IT in rats, including the beneficial effect of BoNT-A treatment in hemi-PD rats.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro Anterior/inervação , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/terapia , Animais , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Injeções , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925792

RESUMO

Antrodia camphorata (AC) is a rare and unique mushroom that is difficult to cultivate. Previous studies have demonstrated the bioactivity of the compound Ergosta-7,9(11),22-trien-3ß-ol (EK100) from AC in submerged culture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of EK100 on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) and orally administered EK100 for six weeks at 0 (Vehicle), 10 (EK100-1X), and 20 (EK100-2X) mg/kg/day. The six-week Ek100 supplementation significantly increased grip strength (P = 0.0051) in trend analysis. Anti-fatigue activity was evaluated using 15-min. acute exercise testing and measuring the levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min. swimming exercise. Our results indicate that AC supplementation leads to a dose-dependent decrease in serum lactate, ammonia, BUN, and CK activity after exercise and significantly increases serum glucose and glycogen content in liver tissues. Biochemical and histopathological data demonstrated that long term daily administration of EK100 for over six weeks (subacute toxicity) was safe. EK100's anti-fatigue properties appear to be through the preservation of energy storage, increasing blood glucose and liver glycogen content, and decreasing the serum levels of lactate, ammonia, BUN, and CK. EK100 could potentially be used to improve exercise physiological adaptation, promote health, and as a potential ergogenic aid in combination with different nutrient strategies.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Administração Oral , Amônia/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Ergosterol/química , Ergosterol/toxicidade , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Natação , Testes de Toxicidade
17.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(5): 689-693, 2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905907

RESUMO

Six Thoroughbred racehorses with palmar process fractures of the distal phalanx were evaluated with standing magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). In all the cases, the fractures were detectable on T1-weighted images and fat-suppressed images. Furthermore, multi-planar reconstruction images were useful for assessing the articular involvement of the fractures. Follow-up sMRI was obtainable in 3 cases, which revealed that the area of high signal intensity on fat-suppressed images decreased over time as symptoms improved. Our findings support the use of sMRI for the detailed evaluation of distal phalanx fractures including their articular involvement and the healing process.


Assuntos
Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Cavalos/lesões , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Animais , Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
18.
Vet J ; 244: 23-27, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825890

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare two different local anaesthesia techniques for intraoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing surgical procedures distal to the mid humeral diaphysis. Thirty-two dogs were divided into two groups: the US group received an ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block at the level of the first rib and the N group received a neurostimulation-guided paravertebral brachial plexus block. Ropivacaine 0.75% at 1.5mg/kg was injected in each case. Dogs were monitored during the surgical procedure, and rescue analgesia was administered whenever the heart rate, respiratory rate or blood pressure increased more than 20% from the basal values. Success rate was defined as no need for rescue analgesia during surgery and complete blockade of the operated leg evaluated just after anaesthesia recovery. Complications were also recorded. Data was analysed using Fisher exact and Mann/Whitney tests. Success rate was observed in 14/16 (87%) dogs and in 12/16 (75%) dogs in the US and N groups, respectively (P=0.65). Complications recorded were hypotension in three cases (US group, n=1; N group, n=2) and Horner's syndrome in three cases (US group, n=1; N group, n=2; P=0.65). Both techniques were found to provide good level of analgesia that allowed performing the orthopaedic procedures from the mid humeral diaphysis and distal in the limb, without the need for further analgesia.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/veterinária , Cães/fisiologia , Úmero/cirurgia , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cães/cirurgia , Feminino , Membro Anterior/inervação , Membro Anterior/cirurgia , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
19.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(4): 403-409, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess single-day and multiday repeatability of weight distribution (stance) data obtained with a commercial analyzer for dogs with naturally occurring hind limb lameness. ANIMALS: 46 dogs (15 and 31 for single-day and multiday trials, respectively). PROCEDURES: For single-day trials, 5 to 10 measurements/trial were collected to determine body weight (BW), weight distribution on each limb, and forelimb and hind limb symmetry indices (SIs). The dog was removed from the room and returned immediately; 5 trials were performed. For multiday trials, measurements were performed in the same manner on 2 sequential days. Data were compared among trials (single-day measurements) and between days (multiday measurements). Repeatability (correlation coefficients and Lin concordance correlation coefficients [LCCCs]) and variability (coefficients of variation [CVs]) were assessed. RESULTS: In single-day trials, BW (r = 0.999), weight distribution on the lame hind limb (r = 0.915) and contralateral hind limb (r = 0.948), and hind limb SI (r = 0.964) were each significantly correlated among trials. In multiday trials, BW results were similar; weight distribution on the lame hind limb and contralateral hind limb and hind limb SI were each less closely but still significantly correlated between days. The LCCCs were highest for BW, weight distribution on the contralateral hind limb, and hind limb SI in single-day trials and for BW and weight bearing on the contralateral and lame hind limbs in multiday trials. The CVs were lowest for BW and highest for forelimb SI in both trial types. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The analyzer used allowed repeatable measurement of BW and weight distribution on the hind limbs of dogs with hind limb lameness. Measurement of forelimb stance variables was not repeatable in this group of dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Suporte de Carga , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cães , Membro Anterior , Membro Posterior , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(4): 342-346, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences existed in the viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid samples from the metacarpophalangeal, intercarpal, and distal interphalangeal joints of orthopedically normal athletic horses. ANIMALS: 45 warmblood horses and 30 Thoroughbreds (age range, 4 to 16 years). PROCEDURES: Synovial fluid samples were aseptically obtained via arthrocentesis from 1 metacarpophalangeal, intercarpal, and distal interphalangeal joint of each horse, and nucleated cell counts were performed. A commercial ELISA was used to measure sample hyaluronic acid concentrations, and full rheological characterization of samples was performed to measure the elastic or storage modulus G' and viscous or loss modulus G" at 37.5°C (representing the body temperature of horses). Findings were compared among joints and between breed groups by means of ANOVA. RESULTS: Significant differences in synovial fluid G' and G" values were identified between Thoroughbreds and warmblood horses for the metacarpophalangeal joint, between the metacarpophalangeal and intercarpal joints of Thoroughbreds, and between the metacarpophalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints and intercarpal and distal interphalangeal joints of warmblood horses. No significant differences were identified between breed groups or among joints in synovial fluid hyaluronic concentrations or nucleated cell counts. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Viscoelastic properties of the forelimb joints of orthopedically normal Thoroughbreds and warmblood horses differed within and between these 2 groups, mainly as a function of the evaluated joint. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first study of its kind, and additional research is warranted to better understand the viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid in horses to optimize their locomotive function.


Assuntos
Cavalos/fisiologia , Articulações/fisiologia , Animais , Elasticidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Membro Anterior , Ácido Hialurônico/análise , Articulações/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Líquido Sinovial/química , Líquido Sinovial/fisiologia , Substâncias Viscoelásticas , Viscosidade
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