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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic rejection remains the Achilles heel in vascularized composite allotransplantation. Animal models to specifically study chronic rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation do not exist so far. However, there are established rat models to study chronic rejection in solid organ transplantation such as allogeneic transplantation between the rat strains Lewis and Fischer344. Thus, we initiated this study to investigate the applicability of hindlimb transplantation between these strains to imitate chronic rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation and identify potential markers. METHODS: Allogeneic hindlimb transplantation were performed between Lewis (recipient) and Fischer344 (donor) rats with either constant immunosuppression or a high dose immunosuppressive bolus only in case of acute skin rejections. Histology, immunohistochemistry, microarray and qPCR analysis were used to detect changes in skin and muscle at postoperative day 100. RESULTS: We were able to demonstrate significant intimal proliferation, infiltration of CD68 and CD4 positive cells, up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and initiation of muscular fibrosis in the chronic rejection group. Microarray analysis and subsequent qPCR identified CXC ligands 9-11 as potential markers of chronic rejection. CONCLUSIONS: The Fischer344 to Lewis hindlimb transplantation model may represent a new option to study chronic rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation in an experimental setting. CXC ligands 9-11 deserve further research to investigate their role as chronic rejection markers.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/metabolismo , Alotransplante de Tecidos Compostos Vascularizados/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Membro Posterior/patologia , Ratos , Pele/patologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231904, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320449

RESUMO

Detection of lameness in cats can be very time-consuming and frustrating. Feline studies have shown that the success of treatment can be evaluated by measurement of the ground reaction force (GRF). However, the possibility of multiple limb involvement or the presence of a compensatory mechanism has not been investigated. Furthermore, there has been no research in cats on possible differences in GRFs between those with stifle problems and those with hip problems, as reported in dogs. In this study, we compared temporospatial parameters and GRFs in 20 lame cats after femoral head and neck ostectomy (FHO) or stifle disease to those in 15 healthy cats. An orthopedic examination was performed in all cats and radiographs were obtained to confirm the disease. GRFs, including peak vertical force (PFz), vertical impulse (IFz), time to PFz, and temporospatial parameters, including step length, paw contact area, and stance phase duration, were calculated. We also calculated the symmetry index (SI) in the forelimbs and hind limbs. The GRFs were normalized to total force (% TF). We found that the IFz (% TF) and PFz (% TF) were lower in the affected limb than in the other limbs in the lame cats. When the lame cats were compared with the sound cats, this difference was only significant for IFz (% TF). The SI values for the PFz and IFz were significantly higher in the hind limbs than in the forelimbs in the lame cats group but there was no difference in the SI according to whether the problem was in the hip or stifle. There were also differences in stance phase duration and paw contact area in both the forelimbs and hind limbs between the sound group and the lame group. There was no difference in PFZ (% TF) or IFZ (% TF) in the affected limb between the lame cats with stifle and those after FHO; however, there were changes in time to PFz and step length. In conclusion, mild to moderate lameness can be detected and measured in cats using pressure plates. The compensatory mechanisms in cats at a walk appear to involve shifting the weight to the other three legs without favoring either the contralateral or the diagonal limb.


Assuntos
Membro Posterior , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Pressão , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Gatos , Feminino , Membro Posterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Articulações/patologia , Articulações/fisiopatologia , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Masculino
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 615, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001693

RESUMO

Angiogenesis induction into damaged sites has long been an unresolved issue. Local treatment with pro-angiogenic molecules has been the most common approach. However, this approach has critical side effects including inflammatory coupling, tumorous vascular activation, and off-target circulation. Here, the concept that a structure can guide desirable biological function is applied to physically engineer three-dimensional channel networks in implant sites, without any therapeutic treatment. Microchannel networks are generated in a gelatin hydrogel to overcome the diffusion limit of nutrients and oxygen three-dimensionally. Hydrogel implantation in mouse and porcine models of hindlimb ischemia rescues severely damaged tissues by the ingrowth of neighboring host vessels with microchannel perfusion. This effect is guided by microchannel size-specific regenerative macrophage polarization with the consequent functional recovery of endothelial cells. Multiple-site implantation reveals hypoxia and neighboring vessels as major causative factors of the beneficial function. This technique may contribute to the development of therapeutics for hypoxia/inflammatory-related diseases.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Gelatina/química , Gelatina/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Isquemia/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Membro Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Posterior/patologia , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/patologia , Macrófagos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/patologia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/terapia , Próteses e Implantes , Suínos , Cicatrização
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069321

RESUMO

This study has investigated the immediate effect of induced hindlimb length difference on hindlimb lameness measured as differences in minimum (Pmin) and maximum (Pmax) pelvic heights in 16 horses trotting in a straight line and lungeing on both hard and soft surfaces with body-mounted inertial sensors. Hindlimb length differences were induced by applying an Easyboot Glue-on shoe to one hindlimb. Changes in Pmin and Pmax with induced hindlimb length difference were assessed with a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA with trial (straight, lunge with inside limb elevation, lunge with outside limb elevation) and surface (hard, soft) as within-subject factors. Change in Pmin, indicating an impact-type lameness, in the hind limb with the elevation, was significant in both the straight line and while lunging on both hard and soft surfaces. Change in Pmax, indicating pushoff-type lameness, in the opposite, non-elevated hind limb, was significant when trotting in a straight line but not while lunging.


Assuntos
Membro Posterior/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Análise da Marcha/veterinária , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Cavalos , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiopatologia
5.
World Neurosurg ; 138: 608-618, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953096

RESUMO

This paper used magnetic resonance diffusion kurtosis imaging to observe the acute cerebral infarction model of mice, and studied the imaging changes of ischemic penumbra after perfusion of model for rat middle cerebral artery occlusion experiment, and combined with the physiologic changes of mice. The damage of neurons was evaluated by the evolution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors to provide a corresponding imaging basis for the diagnosis and treatment of ischemic penumbra. The research shows that the diffusivity value decreases with time, and the diffusion kurtosis increases with time. The difference in diffusivity between different parts of the same time point and the same part of the same point (except the edge relative to the normal area) is statistically different. Learning significance was set at P < 0.05. The expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A in tissue homogenate increased overall, and expression in synaptic membrane, synaptic membrane, and light membrane decreased. The expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate acid receptor 2B in tissue homogenate, synaptic membrane, and light cell membrane decreased, and it increased first and then decreased in the synaptic membrane. The studies confirmed that magnetic resonance imaging has a certain clinical diagnostic value for the penumbra evolution mechanism and neuronal injury of acute cerebral infarction, which deserves further study.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Técnicas de Sonda Molecular , Células-Tronco Neurais/transplante , Paralisia/terapia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/transplante , Animais , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/patologia , Membro Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Posterior/patologia , Sondas Moleculares , Paralisia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos
6.
J Knee Surg ; 33(1): 15-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562834

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop a rabbit model of knee contracture in extension and investigate the natural history of motion loss and time-dependent changes in the joint capsule after immobilization. We immobilized the unilateral knee joints of 32 rabbits by maintaining the knee joint in a plaster cast at full extension. Eight rabbits were euthanized at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after casting, respectively, and the lower extremities were disarticulated at the hip joint. Eight control group rabbits that did not undergo immobilization were also examined. We assessed the progression of joint contracture by measuring the joint range of motion, evaluating the histologic alteration of the capsule, and assessing the mRNA levels of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) in the anterior and posterior joint capsules. After 2 weeks of joint immobilization, the knee joint range of motion was limited, the synovial membrane of the suprapatellar and posterior joint capsules was thickened, the collagen deposition was increased, and the mRNA levels of TGF-ß1 were elevated in the anterior and posterior joint capsules. These changes progressed rapidly until 6 weeks of immobilization and may advance slowly after 6 weeks. Joint contracture developed at the early stage of immobilization and progressed over time. The changes in the anterior and posterior joint capsules after joint immobilization may contribute to the limitation in flexion. The elevated mRNA expression of TGF-ß1 may be related to joint capsule fibrosis and may be one of the causes of joint contracture.


Assuntos
Fibrose/patologia , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/efeitos adversos , Membro Posterior/patologia , Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Cápsula Articular/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/análise , Animais , Artrometria Articular , Moldes Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Colágeno/biossíntese , Contratura/etiologia , Contratura/metabolismo , Contratura/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose/etiologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Membro Posterior/metabolismo , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Imobilização/métodos , Cápsula Articular/química , Cápsula Articular/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Coelhos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Membrana Sinovial/química , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/patologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878120

RESUMO

Critical limb ischemia is the most serious form of peripheral artery disease, characterized by severe functional consequences, difficult clinical management and reduced life expectancy. The goal of this study was to investigate the miR-210 role in the neo-angiogenic response after acute limb ischemia. Complementary approaches were used in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia: miR-210 loss-of-function was obtained by administration of LNA-oligonucleotides anti-miR-210; for miR-210 gain-of-function, a doxycycline-inducible miR-210 transgenic mouse was used. We tested miR-210 ability to stimulate vascular regeneration following ischemia. We found that miR-210 was necessary and sufficient to stimulate blood perfusion recovery, as well as arteriolar and capillary density increase, in the ischemic muscle. To clarify the molecular events underpinning miR-210 pro-angiogenic action, the transcriptomic changes in ischemic muscles upon miR-210 blocking were analyzed. We found that miR-210 impacted the transcriptome significantly, regulating pathways and functions linked to vascular regeneration. In agreement with a pro-angiogenic role, miR-210 also improved cardiac function and left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Moreover, miR-210 blocking decreased capillary density in a Matrigel plug assay, indicating that miR-210 is necessary for angiogenesis independently of ischemia. Collectively, these data indicate that miR-210 plays a pivotal role in promoting vascular regeneration.


Assuntos
Membro Posterior/patologia , Isquemia/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Isquemia/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0223243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report demographic characteristics of a contemporary population of dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma and assess the relationship between demographic characteristics, site distribution, and phylogenetic breed clusters. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: A search of the Veterinary Medical Database was performed for dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma as a new diagnosis. Entries were reviewed for the sex, neuter status, age at diagnosis, breed, affected limb, and tumor location. The reported breed for purebred dogs was used to categorize each dog into one of five phylogenetic groups based on microsatellite analysis. RESULTS: 744 client-owned dogs were included in the study. Study dogs were represented by a male-to-female ratio of 0.95:1.0, the majority of which (80.9%) were neutered. Most dogs were diagnosed between 7-10 years of age. The majority (77.8%) of dogs were large or giant-breed dogs. Purebred dogs comprised 80.4% of the population. The most common purebred breed affected by OS was the Rottweiler (17.1%). The most common phylogenetic group represented was Mastiff-Terrier (M-T, 26.3%). OS was more commonly located in the forelimb (64.2%) versus the hindlimb (35.8%), and the humerus was the most common site (20.9%). The distribution of age groups and tumor locations were significantly different between phylogenetic clusters. The distribution of age groups and neuter status were significantly different between size groups. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The demographic data of canine appendicular OS are similar to previous reports. The data on phylogenetic associations can guide future studies aimed at evaluating the genomic mutations that contribute to OS development and its biological behavior.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Osteossarcoma/epidemiologia , Osteossarcoma/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Cruzamento , Demografia , Doenças do Cão/genética , Cães , Feminino , Membro Anterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/patologia , Masculino , Osteossarcoma/fisiopatologia , Osteossarcoma/veterinária , Filogenia , Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 168(1): 150-155, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773351

RESUMO

We studied the effect of intramuscular administration of a cellular product (mesenchymal stem cells, conditioned media, and erythropoietin) on cytokine levels in blood serum, conditioned media of bone marrow mononuclears, and calf muscles in Wistar rats with hind limb ischemia. It is shown that the cellular product reduces the proinflammatory background at the early stages of the experiment and increases the content proangiogenic factors.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Membro Posterior/patologia , Isquemia/sangue , Isquemia/patologia , Animais , Eritropoetina/sangue , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 7908-7913, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) cryoprotectant can effectively alleviate the damage to single tissue during cryopreservation and restore its physiological activity after rewarming. However, studies have not been successful for preserving large tissue. This study aimed to investigate the application conditions of DMSO in large composite-tissue by performing femoral artery perfusion and soaking in a rabbit hind-limb model. MATERIAL AND METHODS A microdialysis-freezing point osmometer was used to detect the minimum time required for effective perfusion of 10% v/v perfusion and 20% v/v perfusion group. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to detect the area under the spectrum peak of DMSO in perivascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous areas, and compare the area under the spectrum peak in the 20% vascular perfusion group and other whole immersion groups. RESULTS The minimum time required for effective perfusion of muscle in the 10% v/v group was 30 minutes, the DMSO concentration was stable at 5% v/v; In the 20% v/v group the minimum time was at 20 minutes, stable at 12% v/v. There was a statistically difference of the area under the spectrum peak in the 10% group and the 20% v/v group after vascular perfusion in different tissue locations (P<0.05). The 20% vascular perfusion group and the different concentration of DMSO in the large tissue soaking group were statistically different (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in the 20% v/v vascular perfusion group compared to the low concentration immersion group, but no difference compared to the 50% immersion group. CONCLUSIONS The effect of blood perfusion on cryopreservation in large tissue by using DMSO was slightly better than overall soaking, especially in preservation of skin and subcutaneous tissue.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/métodos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/química , Perfusão/métodos , Animais , Crioprotetores , Dimetil Sulfóxido/metabolismo , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Membro Posterior/patologia , Modelos Animais , Coelhos
11.
Int J Legal Med ; 133(6): 1825-1833, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414201

RESUMO

The majority of injuries in survivors of gunshot wounds (GSW) are typically to the extremities. Novel wound ballistic research is encouraged to try and capture corporate knowledge on the management of these injuries gained during recent conflicts and understand the wounding patterns seen. With recent work examining the effect of UK military clothing on extremity GSW patterns in a synthetic model, a model with greater biofidelity is needed for ballistic testing. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of UK military clothing on GSW patterns within a cadaveric animal limb model using two types of ammunition commonly used in recent conflicts-7.62 × 39 mm and 5.45 × 39 mm. In total, 24 fallow deer hind limbs were shot, 12 by 7.62 mm projectiles and the remaining 12 shot by 5.45 mm projectiles, further divided into four with no clothing layers (Cnil), four with a single clothing layer (Cmin) and four with maximum clothing layers (Cmax) as worn on active duty by UK military personnel. Limbs were analysed after ballistic impact using contrast CT scanning to obtain measurements of permanent cavity damage, and results were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed significantly different damage measurements within limbs with Cmax for both ammunition types compared with the other clothing states. This may result in GSWs that require more extensive surgical management, and invites further study.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Membro Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Posterior/patologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/patologia , Animais , Cervos , Balística Forense/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Vet Surg ; 48(8): 1514-1519, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the history, clinical signs, and management of six horses in which subtendinous bursitis of the long digital extensor tendon (LDET) in the hind limb fetlock had been diagnosed. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SAMPLE POPULATION: Six privately owned horses. METHODS: The medical records of horses presented at the hospital with similar sypmtoms were evaluated and collected. Finally 6 horses met the inclusion criteria and the relevant data were compiled and analysed. In three of the six cases a surgical treatment was carried out. RESULTS: All horses had similar clinical signs, mainly distention beneath the long digital extensor tendon (LDET) at the level of the hind limb fetlock without associated lameness; the major issues were the presence of cosmetic defects and concern about their functional use in the future. Three of the six horses were treated surgically with bursoscopic debridement. The cosmetic results were excellent in two of these three horses. One horse that underwent an operation experienced a recurrence. None of the horses with bursitis treated medically experienced resolution of the problem. CONCLUSION: Bursoscopy is a technique to consider for the management of bursitis of the LDET at the level of the fetlock combined with prolonged bandage application when medical treatment has failed to manage the condition. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge, subtendinous bursitis of the LDET in the hind limb is not a commonly diagnosed condition. This small case series provides some insight into methods for the clinical management of this issue.


Assuntos
Bursite/veterinária , Membro Posterior/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Tendões/patologia , Animais , Bursite/patologia , Bursite/cirurgia , Desbridamento , Feminino , Membro Posterior/cirurgia , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Cavalos , Articulações , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362356

RESUMO

Mouse hind limb ischemia is the most common used preclinical model for peripheral arterial disease and critical limb ischemia. This model is used to investigate the mechanisms of neovascularization and to develop new therapeutic agents. The literature shows many variations in the model, including the method of occlusion, the number of occlusions, and the position at which the occlusions are made to induce hind limb ischemia. Furthermore, predefined end points and the histopathological and radiological analysis vary. These differences hamper the correlation of results between different studies. In this review, variations in surgical methods of inducing hind limb ischemia in mice are described, and the consequences of these variations on perfusion restoration and vascular remodeling are discussed. This study aims at providing the reader with a comprehensive overview of the methods so far described, and proposing uniformity in research of hind limb ischemia in a mouse model.


Assuntos
Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/etiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Membro Posterior/anatomia & histologia , Membro Posterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/cirurgia , Camundongos , Imagem de Perfusão , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Ultrassonografia Doppler
14.
Stroke ; 50(9): 2531-2538, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390970

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Lacunar strokes are subcortical infarcts with small size and high disability rates, largely due to injury of the corticospinal tract in the internal capsule (IC). Current rodent models of lacunar infarcts are created based on stereotactic coordinates. We tested the hypothesis that better understanding of the somatotopy of the IC and guiding the lesion with electrical stimulation would allow a more accurate lesion to the forelimb axons of the IC. Methods- We performed electrophysiological motor mapping and viral tracing to define the somatotopy of the IC of Sprague Dawley rats. For the lesion, we used an optrode, which contains an electrode to localize forelimb responses and an optical fiber to deliver light. The infarct was induced when light activated the photothrombotic agent Rose Bengal, which was administered systemically. Results- We found largely a separate distribution of the forelimb and hindlimb axons in the IC, both by microstimulation mapping and tract tracing. Microstimulation-guided IC lesions ablated the forelimb axons of the IC in rats and caused lasting forelimb impairments while largely preserving the hindlimb axons of the IC and surrounding gray matter. Conclusions- Stimulation guidance enabled selective and reproducible infarcts of the forelimb axons of the IC in rats. Visual Overview- An online visual overview is available for this article.


Assuntos
Axônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Infarto/fisiopatologia , Cápsula Interna/cirurgia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Animais , Axônios/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Membro Anterior/fisiopatologia , Membro Anterior/cirurgia , Membro Posterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Cápsula Interna/fisiopatologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Córtex Motor/cirurgia , Tratos Piramidais/fisiopatologia , Tratos Piramidais/cirurgia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
15.
J Therm Biol ; 84: 36-44, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466775

RESUMO

It is still an open question as to whether or not aseptic injuries affect the generation of fever due to exogenous pyrogens including bacterial products. Therefore, in the present paper we have investigated the course of endotoxin fever in rats induced with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; given intraperitoneally in a dose of 50 µg/kg) 48 h after subcutaneous administration of turpentine oil (TRP; 0.1 mL per rat) that causes aseptic necrosis of tissues. We found that febrile response was significantly augmented in the animals pre-treated with turpentine compared to control rats (pre-treated with saline), and that observed excessive elevation of body temperature (Tb) was accompanied by enhanced release of fever mediators: interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) into plasma. Moreover, we found that sensitization to pyrogenic effects of lipopolysaccharide was associated with the increase in plasma level of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), one of the best-known damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP), which was recently discovered as inflammatory mediator. Since the injection of anti-HMGB1 antibodies weakened observed hyperpyrexia in the animals pre-treated with turpentine, we conclude that HMGB1 is a plasma-derived factor released in the course of aseptic injury that enhances pyrogenic effects of LPS.


Assuntos
Febre/sangue , Proteína HMGB1/sangue , Animais , Dinoprostona/sangue , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Membro Posterior/patologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Necrose , Pirogênios , Ratos Wistar , Terebintina/farmacologia
16.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(5): 575-585, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357247

RESUMO

Fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) provides physiologic images of tissues based on their glucose metabolism. The combination of FDG PET and CT (FDG PET-CT) has been utilized in human musculoskeletal imaging to localize soft tissue lesions, however, this modality has not been thoroughly investigated for the diagnosis of canine lameness. This prospective, descriptive study evaluated FDG PET-CT findings in 25 client-owned dogs with inconclusive origin of thoracic or pelvic limb lameness (thoracic limb n = 15/25, 60%; pelvic limb n = 6/25, 24%; and combination of both limbs n = 4/25, 16%). We hypothesized that FDG PET-CT would aid the detection of soft tissue lesions not visible with other imaging modalities. Combined FDG PET-CT detected soft tissue lesions in 40% (n = 10/25) and osteoarthritis in 64% (n = 16/25) of the patients. FDG PET detected more soft tissue lesions than contrast-enhanced CT (n = 15/15, 100% and n = 12/15, 80%, respectively), while CT identified more osteoarthritis lesions than FDG PET (n = 26/26, 100% and n = 18/26, 69%, respectively). The three imaging-diagnoses based on the FDG PET component included the following: flexor carpi ulnaris muscle tear, psoas major myopathy, and tarsal desmopathy. No diagnosis for the lameness was obtained in three dogs. Findings supported FDG PET-CT as a useful adjunct imaging modality for detection of certain soft tissue injuries of the musculoskeletal system. Combined FDG PET-CT should be considered for cases where the cause of lameness is thought to be of soft tissue origin and cannot be diagnosed by conventional means.


Assuntos
Cães/lesões , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/veterinária , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Anterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Posterior/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100290, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303238

RESUMO

Feline leishmaniasis (FeL) is an emerging infectious disease of cats caused by Leishmania infantum with global distribution. This study investigated the cause of chronic progressive cutaneous lesions in two cats from Central-west Brazil by using cytological, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. Clinically, both cats had ulcerative cutaneous lesions at the nasal planum and ear resulting in a tentative diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Moreover, both cats had varying degrees of onychogryphosis. However, cytology revealed chronic inflammatory reactions associated with intralesional amastigotes; histopathology confirmed chronic ulcerative dermatitis associated with intralesional and intracytoplasmic parasitic organisms consistent with amastigotes of Leishmania spp. within histiocytes. The IHC assay demonstrated that the intralesional parasitic structures identified by cytology and histopathology were immunoreactive to antigens of Leishmania spp., confirming the participation of this infectious disease agent in the development of the cutaneous lesions of these cats. The observation of onychogryphosis must be highlighted, since this lesion is frequently observed in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis but is underreported in FeL. Collectively, the pathologic and IHC findings of the chronic cutaneous disease confirmed active infections due to Leishmania spp. in these cats. Additionally, FeL with associated lesions to the ear and nasal planum must be considered as differential diagnosis for SCC in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/veterinária , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/veterinária , Brasil/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Cidades , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Orelha Externa/patologia , Feminino , Membro Anterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Nariz/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 437-446, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260211

RESUMO

Hypertrophic osteopathy, a syndrome characterized by painful distal limb swelling and proliferative periosteal reaction, primarily involves the metacarpal and metatarsal bones and phalanges. Lesions are often bilaterally symmetric and typically affect all four limbs. Hypertrophic osteopathy is frequently associated with primary intrathoracic disease, though this condition has also been reported secondary to intra-abdominal and intrapelvic disease and associated with pregnancy in both people and horses. Over a 20-yr period, five adult female Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana), with 13 total pregnancies, were evaluated because of lameness and distal limb swelling. These clinical signs were observed between 2 and 32 days (mean = 19 days) prior to parturition (gestation period in takin approximately 200-240 days) and resolved in all animals following parturition. Lameness and limb swelling resolved between 8 and 168 days (median = 15 days) after parturition. Sixteen radiographic examinations, from four of the individuals, documented proliferative periosteal reaction, primarily of the metacarpal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. The clinical progression, resolution of signs, and radiographic features in these cases are consistent with hypertrophic osteopathy, secondary to pregnancy. This is the first report describing presumptive hypertrophic osteopathy in takin.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/veterinária , Período Periparto , Ruminantes , Animais , Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Ósseas/etiologia , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Feminino , Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Anterior/patologia , Membro Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Posterior/patologia , Gravidez
19.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(2): 161-170, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251504

RESUMO

A 12-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) of unknown sex (case 1) and a 14-year-old female hybrid Catalina macaw (Ara ararauna × Ara macao) (case 2) were evaluated and treated for an open tarsometatarsal fracture and a tibiotarsal fracture, respectively. In case 1, 1 month of external coaptation resulted in a delayed union, significant osteolysis, and presumptive osteomyelitis, which led to the decision to treat with a key ring fixator. In case 2, a key ring fixator was chosen for fracture repair because of presumed resistance to destruction by the bird. In both cases, fractures were stabilized with makeshift circular external fixators composed of key rings, K-wires, orthopedic wire, and acrylic resin. After key ring fixator removal, radiographs confirmed complete bone healing. Both patients had acceptable function of the affected limbs 5 years (case 1) and 2 years (case 2) after their procedures. The key ring fixator described in this report is a viable option for fracture repair in pelvic limbs of moderately sized birds (300-1500 g).


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/terapia , Fixadores Externos/veterinária , Fixação de Fratura/veterinária , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Fraturas Expostas/veterinária , Papagaios/lesões , Animais , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/instrumentação , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Fraturas Expostas/terapia , Membro Posterior/patologia
20.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 5195-5202, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059098

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to be critical mediators of gene expression with respect to tumor progression, although their role in ischemia­induced angiogenesis is poorly characterized, including in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Furthermore, the underlying mechanism of action of specific miRNAs in PAD remains unknown. Reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that microRNA­93 (miR­93) was significantly upregulated in patients with PAD and in the EA.hy926 endothelial cells in response to hypoxia. Additionally, miRNA (miR)­93 promoted angiogenesis by enhancing proliferation, migration and tube formation. Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), verified as a potential target gene of miR­93, was inhibited by overexpressed miR­93 at the protein and mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, a hind­limb ischemia model served to evaluate the role of miR­93 in angiogenesis in vivo, and the results demonstrated that miR­93 overexpression enhanced capillary density and perfusion recovery from hind­limb ischemia. Taken together, miR­93 was indicated to be a promising target for pharmacological regulation to promote angiogenesis, and the miR­93/CDKN1A pathway may function as a novel therapeutic approach in PAD.


Assuntos
Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Doença Arterial Periférica/patologia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Idoso , Animais , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/química , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Membro Posterior/patologia , Humanos , Isquemia/metabolismo , Isquemia/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/química , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/genética
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