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1.
BJOG ; 128(3): 614, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772498
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23112, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181680

RESUMO

To determine the association between mammographic density (MD) and the risk of breast cancer (BC) in Chinese women and to investigate the role of fertility risk factors in regulating the relationship between MD and BC.We used Quantra software and the BI-RADS classification to assess MD in 466 patients and 932 controls. Conditional matched logistic multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between MD and BC, and risk was evaluated with the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).The ORs for category 4 versus category 2 were 1.95 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] (1.42∼2.66)) and 1.76 (95% CI (1.28∼2.42)) for the BI-RADS and Quantra classifications, respectively. The ORs for category 5 volumetric breast density (VBD) versus category 2 VBD and 5 fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) versus category 2 FGV were 1.63 (95% CI (1.20∼2.23)) and 1.92 (95% CI (1.40∼2.63)), respectively. Females with category 5 VBD whose age at menarche was ≤13 years had the highest risk of BC (OR = 2.16, 95% CI (1.24∼3.79)), and females with category 5 FGV whose age at menarche was = 15 years had the lowest risk of BC (OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.05∼2.62)). Females with categories 3-5 VBD and categories 3-5 FGV had reduced risks of BC with increasing number of births. Females with category 5 VBD had an increased risk of BC with increasing age at first childbirth (the OR increased from 1.49 to 1.95). Those with category 5 VBD had a reduced risk of BC with increasing breastfeeding duration (the OR decreased from 2.08 to 1.55). Females with category 5 FGV had a reduced risk of BC with increasing breastfeeding duration (the OR decreased from 4.12 to 1.62).Both the BI-RADS density classification and Quantra measures indicated that MD is positively associated with the risk of BC in Chinese women and that associations between MD and BC risk differ by age at menarche, parity, age at first childbirth and breastfeeding duration.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Mama , Mamografia/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores Etários , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , História Reprodutiva , Software
3.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1008718, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045005

RESUMO

The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values <0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The well-known observational associations of BMI in childhood with cardio-metabolic diseases in adulthood may reflect partial genetic overlap, but in light of previous evidence, it is also likely that they are explained through phenotypic continuity of BMI from childhood into adulthood.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Menarca/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Relação Cintura-Quadril
4.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 112, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier age at menarche is an established risk factor for breast cancer. While age at menarche has been fairly stable over the past half-century, age at breast development (thelarche) has continued to decrease. Recently, earlier age at thelarche and a longer time between thelarche and menarche (pubertal tempo) were shown to be associated with increased breast cancer risk. Our objective was to examine how breast cancer risk was associated with pubertal timing and tempo in a prospective US cohort. METHODS: Women ages 35-74 years without a history of breast cancer, but who had a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer, were enrolled in the Sister Study from 2003 to 2009 (N = 50,884). At enrollment, participants reported their ages at thelarche and menarche. Pubertal tempo was age at menarche minus age at thelarche. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each pubertal milestone and risk of breast cancer (invasive or ductal carcinoma in situ) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We examined whether associations between age at thelarche and breast cancer risk were modified by birth cohort, race/ethnicity, weight at age 10, and extent of breast cancer family history, as characterized by a Bayesian score based on first-degree family structure. RESULTS: During follow-up (mean = 9.3 years), 3295 eligible women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Early ages at thelarche (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.46 for < 10 vs. 12-13 years) and menarche (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20 for < 12 vs. 12-13 years) were positively associated with breast cancer risk. Pubertal tempo was not associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.02 per 1-year longer tempo). When considering early thelarche (< 10 years) and early menarche (< 12 years) jointly, women with both had a 30% greater risk of breast cancer compared with women with neither risk factor (95% CI 1.07-1.57). The association between age at thelarche and breast cancer risk did not significantly vary by birth cohort, race/ethnicity, childhood weight, or Bayesian family history score. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier ages at thelarche and menarche may enhance susceptibility to breast carcinogenesis. Age at thelarche is an important risk factor to consider given secular trends towards earlier development.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mama/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Menarca , Puberdade , Irmãos , Fatores de Tempo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 104, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation may play a role in shaping breast composition, one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Pubertal development presents a critical window of breast tissue susceptibility to exogenous and endogenous factors, including pro-inflammatory markers. However, little is known about the role of systemic inflammation on adolescent breast composition and pubertal development among girls. METHODS: We investigated associations between circulating levels of inflammatory markers (e.g., interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) at Tanner stages 2 and 4 and breast composition at Tanner stage 4 in a cohort of 397 adolescent girls in Santiago, Chile (Growth and Obesity Cohort Study, 2006-2018). Multivariable linear models were used to examine the association between breast composition and each inflammatory marker, stratifying by Tanner stage at inflammatory marker measurement. Accelerated failure time models were used to evaluate the association between inflammatory markers concentrations at each Tanner stage and time to menarche. RESULTS: In age-adjusted linear regression models, a doubling of TNFR2 at Tanner 2 was associated with a 26% (95% CI 7-48%) increase in total breast volume at Tanner 4 and a 22% (95% CI 10-32%) decrease of fibroglandular volume at Tanner 4. In multivariable models further adjusted for body fatness and other covariates, these associations were attenuated to the null. The time to menarche was 3% (95% CI 1-5%) shorter among those in the highest quartile of IL-6 at Tanner 2 relative to those in the lowest quartile in fully adjusted models. Compared to those in the lowest quartile of CRP at Tanner 4, those in the highest quartile experienced 2% (95% CI 0-3%) longer time to menarche in multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation during puberty was not associated with breast volume or breast density at the conclusion of breast development among pubertal girls after adjusting for body fatness; however, these circulating inflammation biomarkers, specifically CRP and IL-6, may affect the timing of menarche onset.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Densidade da Mama , Mama/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Menarca , Puberdade , Mama/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mama/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Maturidade Sexual
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(5): 513-520, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107435

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the natural course of pubertal development, growth during puberty, and development of POI in females with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), also called autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I. Design: Longitudinal follow-up study. Methods: A national cohort of females with APECED aged ≥12 years were followed during 1965-2018. Attainment of adult height was defined when patients' height increased less than 1 cm per year. Diagnosis of POI was based on delayed puberty or POI symptoms with amenorrhea, and/or FSH ≥40 IU/L. Results: Altogether 40 women with APECED were followed up to the average age of 37.3 (range: 14.6-61.9) years; 16 females (40%) were ≥ 40 years. Pubertal development started spontaneously in 34 patients and 29 had spontaneous menarche. POI developed in 28 patients (70%) at the median age of 16.0 years (range: 11.3-36.5), and in 20 of them (71%) before attaining adult height. In 11 cases puberty was induced or completed by hormonal therapy. Patients with POI were significantly shorter at menarche, but adult heights did not differ from non-POI females. Patients with POI had more often primary adrenocortical insufficiency (93% vs 58%, P = 0.017) and ovarian antibodies (81% vs 30%, P=0.003) compared to those with normal ovarian function (n = 12). Conclusions: POI developed in the majority of patients with APECED, often before or shortly after menarche. Timely commencement of hormonal replacement therapy is important to ensure optimal pubertal development and growth. The possibility of fertility preservation before development of POI in APECED patients should be further studied.


Assuntos
Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/fisiopatologia , Puberdade/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Menarca/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/imunologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/imunologia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091080

RESUMO

On a daily basis, schoolgirls in low and middle-income countries discover blood on their clothing for the first time in school environments without toilets, water, or a supportive teacher, mentor, or role model to help them understand the changes happening in their bodies. This study aimed to examine the menstrual knowledge, sociocultural restrictions, and barriers to menstrual hygiene management in school environment among adolescent schoolgirls in a rural community. We collected quantitative data from 250 adolescent schoolgirls and qualitative data from thirty schoolboys and five schoolteachers in five Junior High Schools in the Kumbungu district of northern Ghana. Binary logistic regression models were fitted to determine the predictors of poor menstrual knowledge. Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim, coded, and organized into themes. Overall, 53.6% of the girls had poor knowledge about menstruation. Most of the boys had heard about menstruation and had an idea about what menstruation is with most of them describing it as "the flow of blood through the vagina of a female." The boys revealed that terms such as "Vodafone," "Red card," and "Palm oil" are used to describe menstruation in the schools and within the community. After adjusting for the effect of other sociodemographic factors, we found evidence that girls in their late adolescents were less likely to have poor menstrual knowledge compared to those aged 10-14 years (aOR 0.20, 95%CI 0.08-0.48). Maternal education was protective against poor menstrual knowledge. When compared to adolescents whose mothers were illiterates, those whose mothers had basic education (aOR 0.62, 95%CI 0.28-1.40) and those whose mothers had secondary or higher education (AOR 0.22, 95%CI 0.06-0.76) were less likely to have poor knowledge about menstruation. Adolescents from homes with no television and radio sets were more likely to have poor menstrual knowledge compared to those from homes with television and radio sets (aOR 2.42, 95%CI 1.41-4.15). Comfort, safety, and cost were the major factors that influenced their choice of sanitary products. Most of the teachers said the schools do not provide students with sanitary products, even in emergencies. We found that girls were not to prepare some local dishes (e.g. Wasawasa) during their periods and are forbidden from participating in religious activities (i.e. read the Holy Quran or pray in the mosque) during the period of menstruation. Open discussions about menstruation and its management are not encouraged and girls are considered unclean and impure during the period of menstruation. None of the schools had a regular supply of water in WASH facilities, a mirror for girls to check their uniforms for bloodstains or soap in the toilet facilities for handwashing. Menstrual education through the standard school curriculum, starting from primary school, could prepare girls for menarche, improve their knowledge on menstruation, and teach boys how to support girls and women during the period of menstruation. This could also eliminate the sociocultural misconceptions surrounding menstruation.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Menarca , Menstruação , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Higiene/educação , Masculino , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Mães , Instituições Acadêmicas
8.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(4): 289-298, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990719

RESUMO

Objective:Menarcheal age is the starting point of reproductive life and could be a marker of health and socioeconomic status of a population.The aim of this study was to assess the temporal pattern in variability of menarcheal age from 2001 to 2019 and the relationship with biological factors and educational level of parents. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional anthropometric survey was conducted in three intervals: 2001-2004, 2011-2014 and in 2019. In total, 5201 adolescent girls from Vojvodina (North Serbia) aged 11-18 were surveyed, 3272 (62.91%) of them with menarche. Data on the age at menarche was gathered applying status quo method and the age at menarche was calculated by probit analysis. The surveyed traits included height, weight and Body mass index (BMI). Results: Mean menarcheal age declined from 12.60 ± 1.11 years to 12.33 ± 1.20 years during the period from 2001 to 2019. Within three investigated periods variance decreased after the first decade from 1.23 year2 to 1.09 year2, and then increased to 1.44 year2. On average, postmenarcheal girls were 4.36 cm taller, 8.03 kg heavier, and their BMI was 1.96 kg/m2 higher than in premenarcheal girls of the same calendar age. An inverse effect of BMI and mother's education on the menarcheal age was detected, but the interaction between the variables was not statistically significant. Conclusion: These results indicate continuing decrease in menarcheal age in girls from Vojvodina. Menarche is closely associated with BMI and it appears that this factor effects the age at menarche irrespective of the parents' education.


Assuntos
Menarca , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Iugoslávia
9.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(9): 871-878, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767022

RESUMO

There are conflicting finds in the literature regarding the association of female estrogen status and the incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to investigate whether female reproductive factors are associated with PD. Using the Korean National Health Insurance System database, 4,729,546 postmenopausal women without PD were identified. The new incidence of PD was defined as subjects with an ICD-10 code for PD (G20) and with a rare intractable disease registration code for PD (V124). The Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations of various reproductive factors with incidence of PD. During the median follow-up of 5.84 years, 20,816 individuals were diagnosed with PD. An increased risk of PD was observed in subjects with a later age at menarche (≥ 17 years) compared with reference subjects (13 years ≤ age at menarche ≤ 14 years) (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR 1.10, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.05-1.16). As age at menopause increased, risk of PD decreased (P for trend 0.019). Consistently, decreased risk of PD was observed (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.96) in subjects with longer duration of fertility (≥ 40 years of age) compared with shorter duration of fertility (< 30 years of age). Hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives independently increased the risk of PD by 17% and 7%, respectively. Female reproductive factors are independent risk factors for PD, with higher risk associated with shorter lifetime exposure to endogenous estrogen.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Menarca , Menopausa , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , História Reprodutiva , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Pain Res Manag ; 2020: 6161536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733624

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of the research was to conduct an assessment of the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and associated factors among Polish women. Patients and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Polish women using an online questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 23 ± 4 years. Out of the total of 1,317 women who took part in the study, 1,127 were included in the analysis, and 190 were excluded due to incomplete answers. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions that were grouped into three parts. The first concerned sociodemographic data such as age, weight, education, and residence (urban or rural). The second part of the questionnaire pertained to the factors of dysmenorrhea (premenstrual syndrome, age of menarche, and family history of dysmenorrhea.). In the third part, the women were asked about their diet, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, and physical activity. Results: Dysmenorrhea affected 94% of the interviewed women. Dysmenorrhea was most likely to occur among respondents whose mothers had a history of dysmenorrhea (p < 0.005). Significant relationship between the occurrence of dysmenorrhea among respondents and their sisters was also observed (p < 0.005). The prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) was significantly higher in women reporting dysmenorrhea (p < 0.005). Other significant factors associated with dysmenorrhea were age of menarche (p < 0.005), stress frequency (p=0.005), lack of physical activity (p=0.037), and self-esteem (p=0.042). However, in the respondents, no significant relationship was observed between dysmenorrhea and diet, smoking, body mass index, and alcohol intake. Conclusion: The study points to the fact that the problem of dysmenorrhea affects many Polish women. Women with dysmenorrhea were characterized with a family history of dysmenorrhea, occurrence of PMS, early age of menarche, stressful lifestyle, lack of physical activity, and low self-esteem. We suggest that further assessment of factors contributing for dysmenorrhea among women is necessary.


Assuntos
Dismenorreia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca , Polônia , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Public Health ; 185: 144-149, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The secular trend in age at menarche (AAM) has declined both worldwide and in Korea. Early AAM is associated with the risk of several diseases, reproductive capacity, and psychological problems. We aimed to investigate the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home and early puberty onset using AAM in Korean adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: This study used data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey 2014-2015. We used the mean AAM (12.2 years) as a determinant of early AAM. After the exclusion of girls without menarche or who did not respond, the total population comprised 63,618 participants. We categorized AAM as 'early' and 'average or late.' Adolescents with SHS exposure were assigned to the 'never exposed,' 'light exposure,' and 'heavy exposure' groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: We observed a positive association, approximately 1.12 times, between early AAM and high SHS exposure (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.19). Girls who started smoking before the age of 12 years (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.41-1.99) showed a stronger association with early AAM than non-smokers. Active smoking showed a stronger association with early AAM. Never smokers with high SHS exposure at home were 1.13 times likelier to have an early AAM (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.22) than those without SHS exposure. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to active smoking, SHS may also be a risk factor for early AAM. Education aimed at active and secondhand smoking prevention is needed to protect children against early AAM.


Assuntos
Menarca , Fumar/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Gene ; 757: 144933, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640302

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study associations candidate genes for age at menarche with a risk of endometrial hyperplasia (EH). METHODS: 52 candidate loci for age at menarche were analyzed for possible association with EH in a sample of 520 patients and 981 controls. Association of the polymorphisms was analyzed using the method of logistic regression. The gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were analyzed using MB-MDR. 21 polymorphisms, which were associated with EH, and 397 polymorphisms linked to them (r2 ≥ 0.8) were analyzed in silico for their functional significance. RESULTS: 21 out of the 52 studied polymorphisms had association with EH. Locus rs11031010 FSHB was individually associated with the disease according to the dominant (OR = 0.62, pperm = 0.001) and additive (OR = 0.67, pperm = 0.002) models. Haplotype GAA of loci rs555621-rs11031010-rs1782507 FSHB were associated with the EH (OR = 0.66, pperm = 0.007). Seventeen loci were associated with EH within 12 most significant models of intergenic interactions (pperm ≤ 0.001). Locus rs4374421 of the LHCGR gene appeared in the largest number of models (four models). Nine loci involved in 14 most significant models of interactions between SNP, induced abortions, and chronic endometritis were associated with EH. The polymorphisms of genes FTO (rs12324955) and FSHB (rs11031010) appeared in the largest number of the models (9 and 6, respectively). Among the 21 loci associated with EH, 16 manifested association also with either age at menarche (7 SNPs) or height and/or BMI (13 SNPs). The above 21 SNPs and 397 SNPs linked to them have non-synonymous, regulatory and eQTL significance for 25 genes, which play roles in the pathways related to development of the female reproductive organs and hormone-mediated signaling (FDR ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Candidate genes for age at menarche are associated with endometrial hyperplasia.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Hiperplasia Endometrial/genética , Subunidade beta do Hormônio Folículoestimulante/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores do LH/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Menarca/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
J Pediatr ; 222: 193-199.e5, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the association between early puberty and telomere length in preadolescent girls and mothers from a large representative sample of US females. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from 1194 preadolescent girls and 2421 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Participants were from a population-based birth cohort (1998-2000) born in large US cities. Telomere length was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from saliva samples provided by preadolescent girls and mothers of preadolescent youth. Mothers completed a questionnaire about their child's pubertal development to determine concurrent Tanner stages and provided self-reports of her own age at menarche. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between pubertal development (status and timing) and telomere length. RESULTS: Early pubertal timing but not pubertal status was associated with shorter telomere length in preadolescent girls (P < .01). Early age at menarche was associated with shorter telomere length in a sample of mothers of preadolescent youth (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence for the association between early puberty and shorter telomeres evidenced by associations in both preadolescent girls and mothers. Future research should address the limitations of this study by using longitudinal measurements of pubertal development assessed through medical examinations and repeated assessments of telomere length to capture telomere attrition.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Menarca/genética , Mães , Puberdade/genética , Homeostase do Telômero/fisiologia , Telômero/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526115

RESUMO

In Russia, in the conditions of ongoing demographic crisis and socioeconomic transformations, the reproduction of population, including indigenous minorities, is the urgent problem. The analysis of dynamics of the age structure and reproductive parameters of women of three generations was carried out in order to determine the characteristics of reproduction of the Shors, the indigenous minority of the Kemerovo Region. The statistical data of population censuses (1970-2015), questionnaire materials, records of household books were used as sources of information. The average indices of the main parameters of reproduction of the Shors were calculated and their comparative analysis was carried out. The analysis of the reproductive characteristics of Shor women: the average age of the onset of menopause and menarche (climacterium is from 46.9±1.95 to 46.5±0.70 years, menarche from 14.5±0.65 to 13.9±0, 21 years old, p>0,05), the duration of the physiological reproductive period and the age of the woman at birth of the first child (22.5±0.42 years, 21.02±0.41 years, p>0,05) in a number of generations varied not statistically significant. There had been tendency of acceleration of rate of of process of puberty in female representatives of the "young" generation. The reproductive-active period reduced in 3 generations by 2 times (from 14.0 to 6.7 years). The age of woman at birth of the last child decreased from 36.5±0.65 to 27.7±1.09 years. The number of live-born infants decreased from 5.8±0.33 to 2.4±0.16 children. In women of all generations, there was high frequency of induced abortions (3.4±0.35 abortions). The negative dynamics of reproduction of the indigenous Shor population was established. The number of the Shors decreased from 14,059 people in 1970 to 10,672 people in 2010. The disproportion in gender ratio increased and absolute and relative volumes of pre-reproductive and reproductive contingents decreased. The Shors are characterized by narrowed mode of reproduction and regressive type of population age structure.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Reprodução , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Menarca , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Federação Russa , Adulto Jovem
15.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 117-131, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early puberty is associated with higher than average risk of antisocial behaviour, both in girls and boys. Most studies of such association, however, have focused on psychosocial mediating and moderating factors. Few refer to coterminous hormonal measures. AIM: The aim of this review is to consider the role of hormonal markers as potential mediating or moderating factors between puberty timing and antisocial behaviour. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Just eight studies were found to fit criteria, all cross-sectional. Measurements were too heterogeneous to allow meta-analysis. The most consistent associations found were between adrenal hormones-both androgens and cortisol-which were associated with early adrenarche and antisocial behaviours in girls and later adrenarche and antisocial behaviour in boys. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our review suggest that longitudinal studies to test bidirectional hormone-behaviour associations with early or late puberty would be worthwhile. In view of the interactive processes between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, integrated consideration of the hormonal end products is recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adrenarca/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Hormônios/sangue , Menarca/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adrenarca/fisiologia , Androgênios , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Gonadotropinas Hipofisárias/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542040

RESUMO

There is substantial variation in the timing of significant reproductive life events such as menarche and first sexual intercourse. Life history theory explains this variation as an adaptive response to an individual's environment and it is important to examine how traits within life history strategies affect each other. Here we applied Mendelian randomization (MR) methods to investigate whether there is a causal effect of variation in age at menarche and age at first sexual intercourse (markers or results of exposure to early life adversity) on outcomes related to reproduction, education and risky behaviour in UK Biobank (N = 114 883-181 255). Our results suggest that earlier age at menarche affects some traits that characterize life history strategies including earlier age at first and last birth, decreased educational attainment, and decreased age at leaving education (for example, we found evidence for a 0.26 year decrease in age at first birth per year decrease in age at menarche, 95% confidence interval: -0.34 to -0.17; p < 0.001). We find no clear evidence of effects of age at menarche on other outcomes, such as risk taking behaviour. Age at first sexual intercourse was also related to many life history outcomes, although there was evidence of horizontal pleiotropy which violates an assumption of MR and we therefore cannot infer causality from this analysis. Taken together, these results highlight how MR can be applied to test predictions of life history theory and to better understand determinants of health and social behaviour.


Assuntos
Coito , Escolaridade , Menarca/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Reprodução , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Traços de História de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Reino Unido
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 182(2): 451-463, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between gut microbiome with breast tumor characteristics (receptor status, stage and grade) and known breast cancer risk factors. METHODS: In a pilot cross-sectional study of 37 incident breast cancer patients, fecal samples collected prior to chemotherapy were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based sequencing protocol. Alpha diversity and specific taxa by tumor characteristics and breast cancer risk factors were tested by Wilcoxon rank sum test, and by differential abundance analysis, using a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model with adjustment for total counts, age and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: There were no significant alpha diversity or phyla differences by estrogen/progesterone receptor status, tumor grade, stage, parity and body mass index. However, women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) (n = 12) compared to HER2- (n = 25) breast cancer showed 12-23% lower alpha diversity [number of species (OTU) p = 0.033, Shannon index p = 0.034], lower abundance of Firmicutes (p = 0.005) and higher abundance of Bacteroidetes (p = 0.089). Early menarche (ages ≤ 11) (n = 11) compared with later menarche (ages ≥ 12) (n = 26) was associated with lower OTU (p = 0.036), Chao1 index (p = 0.020) and lower abundance of Firmicutes (p = 0.048). High total body fat (TBF) (> 46%) (n = 12) compared to lower (≤ 46%) TBF was also associated with lower Chao 1 index (p = 0.011). There were other significant taxa abundance differences by HER2 status, menarche age, as well as other tumor and breast cancer risk factors. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Further studies are needed to identify characteristics of the human microbiome and the interrelationships between breast cancer hormone receptor status and established breast cancer risk factors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mama/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Menarca/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
18.
Ann Hum Biol ; 47(2): 106-115, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429755

RESUMO

Background: Stress experienced by mothers during pregnancy can have both immediate and long-term effects on child development, potentially mediated by breastfeeding.Aim: Using a UK birth cohort study, we asked how maternal stress relates to breastfeeding and consequences for growth and puberty onset.Subjects and methods: We analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, collected via questionnaires and clinic visits (N: 698-8,506). We used reports of prenatal anxiety, breastfeeding, early growth and age at menarche or first voice change. Confounding by maternal age, parity, smoking, education and body mass index (BMI) was considered.Results: Mothers with higher levels of reported anxiety were less likely to breastfeed (Odds ratio (OR): 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71, 0.97). Breastfed infants had slower growth before weaning, although growth differences were unclear thereafter. Being breastfed for more than six months was associated with later puberty onset in females (2.76 months later than non-breastfed; CI: 0.9, 4.63), although the association was attenuated by confounders and BMI (1.51 months, CI: -0.38, 3.40). No association between breastfeeding and puberty onset in males was found.Conclusion: Our studies fit results shown previously, and we consider these in light of evolutionary life history theory while discussing key challenges in such an approach.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Ansiedade , Evolução Biológica , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Puberdade , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Menarca , Estresse Fisiológico , Reino Unido
19.
Ann Hum Biol ; 47(4): 391-399, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if puberty timing influences future physical activity (PA). AIM: To investigate the association of puberty timing with PA across adolescence and adulthood. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data were from two British cohorts. Participants from an adolescent birth cohort (females = 2349, males = 1720) prospectively reported age at menarche and voice break and had PA recorded by Actigraph accelerometers at ages 14 years and 16 years. A cohort of middle-aged and older adults (40-70 years; females = 48,282; males = 36,112) recalled their age at puberty and had PA (mean acceleration; mg) measured by AxivityAX3 accelerometers. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, education, smoking and BMI, per 1-year older age at menarche was associated with higher mean counts/minute at age 14 years (0.07 SD counts/minute; 95% CI = 0.04-0.11) with associations attenuated at age 16 years (0.02; -0.03-0.07). Differences in mean acceleration per older year at menarche were close to the null in women aged 40-49 years (0.02 mg; 0.01-0.03), 50-59 years (0.01; 0.00-0.02) and 60-70 years (0.01; 0.00-0.01). Age at voice break and PA associations were close to the null in both cohorts. CONCLUSION: We found a positive association between puberty timing and PA in females which weakened at older ages and limited evidence of an association at any age in males.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico , Puberdade , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Menarca , Reino Unido
20.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 33(5): 459-465, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339696

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess emergent changes in the age at menarche and investigate associated factors in Israeli adolescents in 2003 and 2016. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two national representative school-based surveys (first and second "Mabat Youth"). PARTICIPANTS: Both surveys included female students in 7th-12th grades (ages 11-19 years). The first (N = 3328) was conducted between the years 2003 and 2004, and the second (N = 2535) from 2015 to 2016. INTERVENTIONS: The survey questionnaire was self-administered and anthropometric measurements were performed by trained personnel. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The current age at menarche in Israeli girls was determined and independent factors (demographic, clinical, and lifestyle) examined. Changes that occurred since the past national survey more than a decade ago were documented. RESULTS: The estimated median age at menarche declined from 13.0 (interquartile range, 12.0-14.0) years in 2003-2004 to 12.5 (interquartile range, 12.0-13.0) years in 2015-2016 (P < .0001). Jewish girls reached menarche earlier than Arab girls, but both populations experienced a similar downward trend in the past approximately 14 years. Greater body mass index, higher socioeconomic status, and immigrant status were associated with younger menarche onset (P < .001). Age at menarche remained lower in 2015-2016 vs 2003-2004, even after adjustment for these potential confounders, with a high hazard ratio (HR), which decreased as a function of survival time (t): HRt = 15.417 × 0.813t. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the decline in age at menarche in Israel. Findings were associated with body mass index and population group but also indicated that other factors are likely involved.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Menarca/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Israel
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