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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860982

RESUMO

The incidence of breast cancer among Japanese women is substantially increasing. This study evaluated the effects of reproductive and lifestyle factors with respect to breast cancer overall and separately among pre- and postmenopausal women using data from the Three-Prefecture Cohort Study of Japan.A total of 33,410 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included items about menstrual and reproductive history and other lifestyle factors. The follow-up period was from 1984 to 1992 in Miyagi and 1985 to 2000 in Aichi Prefectures. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for confounding factors.After 9.8 mean years of follow-up, 287 cases of breast cancer were recorded. In the overall analysis, later menarche (≥16 years) and parity were significantly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, with HRs of 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.52-0.99), respectively. Further, there was a significant decline in the risk of breast cancer with increasing number of birth among parous women (P for trend = .010). On the contrary, a family history of breast cancer in the mother was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (HR 3.22, 95% CI 1.52-6.84). Analyses based on menopausal status at baseline indicated that height (≥160 cm) and weight (≥65 kg) were significantly associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, with HRs of 1.34 (95% CI 0.72-2.50) and 3.13 (95% CI 1.75-5.60), respectively. Risk associated with BMI significantly differs by menopausal status.Our findings suggest the important role of reproductive factors in the development of breast cancer in Japanese women; however, body mass index (BMI) may have different effects on breast cancer in Japanese women compared with western women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Anamnese , Menarca , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 286, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have looked at the age at menarche and risk of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate a pooled odds ratio of developing MS by increasing age at menarche. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Ovid, google scholar and gray literature (references of references, congress abstracts) up to 10th April 2019. RESULTS: The literature search found 312 articles. After eliminating duplicates, reviews, case reports and trials, 18 articles remained. Three articles were ultimately included in the final analysis. Two studies were from Iran, and one from Canada. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for increasing 1 year of age at menarche was 0.88 (95% CI:0.82-0.94), with no significant heterogeneity (I2 = 49%, p = 0.1). Mean age at menarche was significantly different between case and control groups (mean difference = - 0.22, 95% CI = -0.42,-0.02). CONCLUSION: The result of this systematic review showed that the risk of MS decreases by increasing age at menarche.


Assuntos
Menarca , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances
3.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(7): 410-416, ago.-sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182860

RESUMO

Introducción: Existen diversas controversias respecto a las pruebas diagnósticas y tratamiento de la pubertad precoz central (PPC). El objetivo de este estudio es exponer las experiencias adquiridas en un grupo de niñas con PPC tratadas con triptorelina, analizándose las características auxológicas y pruebas diagnósticas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo en un grupo de 60 niñas con PPC atendidas entre 2010 y 2017. Al diagnóstico se registraron datos sociodemográficos, auxológicos y hormonales, realizándose ecografía pélvica y resonancia craneal. Fueron tratadas con triptorelina, y tras su retirada fueron seguidas hasta la menarquia. Resultados: Al iniciar el tratamiento, la edad cronológica y edad ósea eran de 7,7±0,7 y 9,7±0,8 años, respectivamente (media±DE), con una velocidad de crecimiento de 8,3±1,6cm/año. La talla diana era de 161,1±5,8cm. El pico de LH tras estimulación era de 16,6±12,1 UI/l. El volumen ovárico era superior a 3 cc en el 35% de los casos. La resonancia magnética craneal fue patológica en 7 casos (11,7%). Al final del tratamiento, la edad cronológica y la edad ósea eran de 10,3±1,1 y 11,2±0,8 años, respectivamente, con una velocidad de crecimiento de 4,7±1,4cm/año. A la edad de la menarquia (11,9±0,9 años), la talla era de 157,5±5,7cm. Conclusiones: El tratamiento de la PPC con triptorelina parece resultar beneficioso. La posibilidad de bloquear el desarrollo puberal y ralentizar la maduración ósea permiten que las pacientes alcancen su talla diana. No obstante, sería preceptiva una monitorización auxológica personalizada


Introduction: There are several controversies regarding the diagnostic tests and management of central precocious puberty (CPP). The aim of this study is to present the experience acquired in a group of girls with CPP treated with triptorelin, and to analyze the auxological characteristics and diagnostic tests. Material and methods: An observational, retrospective study in a group of 60 girls with CPP was conducted between January 2010 and December 2017. Sociodemographic, auxological and hormonal data were recorded at diagnosis, and pelvic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging of the head were performed. Girls were treated with triptorelin and monitored after treatment discontinuation until menarche. Results: At treatment start, chronological age and bone age were 7.7±0.7 and 9.7±0.8 years respectively, and growth velocity was 8.3±1.6cm/year. Target height was 161.1±5.8cm. Peak LH level after stimulation was 16.6±12.1 IU/l. Ovarian volumes were greater than 3mL in 35% of cases. MRI of the head was pathological in seven girls (11.7%). At treatment completion, chronological age and bone age were 10.3±1.1 and 11.2±0.8 years respectively, and growth velocity was 4.7±1.4cm/year. At the age of menarche (11.9±0.9 years), height was 157.5±5.7cm. Conclusions: Treatment of CPP with triptorelin appears to be beneficial. The possibility to block pubertal development and slow skeletal maturation allows patients to reach their target height. However, individualized auxological monitoring would be mandatory


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Puberdade Precoce/diagnóstico , Puberdade Precoce/tratamento farmacológico , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/administração & dosagem , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/uso terapêutico , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Menarca/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Longitudinais
4.
5.
PLoS Med ; 16(8): e1002893, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various risk factors have been associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk in observational epidemiological studies. However, the causal nature of the risk factors reported, and thus their suitability as effective intervention targets, is unclear given the susceptibility of conventional observational designs to residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic variants as proxies for risk factors to strengthen causal inference in observational studies. We used MR to evaluate the association of 12 previously reported risk factors (reproductive, anthropometric, clinical, lifestyle, and molecular factors) with risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, invasive epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes, and low malignant potential tumours. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic instruments to proxy 12 risk factors were constructed by identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were robustly (P < 5 × 10-8) and independently associated with each respective risk factor in previously reported genome-wide association studies. These risk factors included genetic liability to 3 factors (endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, type 2 diabetes) scaled to reflect a 50% higher odds liability to disease. We obtained summary statistics for the association of these SNPs with risk of overall and histotype-specific invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (22,406 cases; 40,941 controls) and low malignant potential tumours (3,103 cases; 40,941 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). The OCAC dataset comprises 63 genotyping project/case-control sets with participants of European ancestry recruited from 14 countries (US, Australia, Belarus, Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Canada, Poland, UK, Spain, Netherlands, and Sweden). SNPs were combined into multi-allelic inverse-variance-weighted fixed or random effects models to generate effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three complementary sensitivity analyses were performed to examine violations of MR assumptions: MR-Egger regression and weighted median and mode estimators. A Bonferroni-corrected P value threshold was used to establish strong evidence (P < 0.0042) and suggestive evidence (0.0042 < P < 0.05) for associations. In MR analyses, there was strong or suggestive evidence that 2 of the 12 risk factors were associated with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 8 of the 12 were associated with 1 or more invasive epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes. There was strong evidence that genetic liability to endometriosis was associated with an increased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR] per 50% higher odds liability: 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P = 6.94 × 10-7) and suggestive evidence that lifetime smoking exposure was associated with an increased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (OR per unit increase in smoking score: 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.78; P = 0.02). In analyses examining histotypes and low malignant potential tumours, the strongest associations found were between height and clear cell carcinoma (OR per SD increase: 1.36, 95% CI 1.15-1.61; P = 0.0003); age at natural menopause and endometrioid carcinoma (OR per year later onset: 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16; P = 0.007); and genetic liability to polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrioid carcinoma (OR per 50% higher odds liability: 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96; P = 0.002). There was little evidence for an association of genetic liability to type 2 diabetes, parity, or circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and sex hormone binding globulin with ovarian cancer or its subtypes. The primary limitations of this analysis include the modest statistical power for analyses of risk factors in relation to some less common ovarian cancer histotypes (low grade serous, mucinous, and clear cell carcinomas), the inability to directly examine the association of some ovarian cancer risk factors that did not have robust genetic variants available to serve as proxies (e.g., oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy), and the assumption of linear relationships between risk factors and ovarian cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive examination of possible aetiological drivers of ovarian carcinogenesis using germline genetic variants to proxy risk factors supports a role for few of these factors in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer overall and suggests distinct aetiologies across histotypes. The identification of novel risk factors remains an important priority for the prevention of epithelial ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Menarca , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Menopausa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Paridade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1222: 9-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321756

RESUMO

Several studies have suggested a relationship between reproductive history and respiratory health. The present study explores the association between the age at menarche and the risk of respiratory diseases during early adulthood. The anthropometrical and questionnaire research was conducted among 1323 female university graduates. In a subsample of 152 non-allergic women spirometry tests were additionally performed. We found that the prevalence of allergic diseases, on average, was slightly higher among females having early menarche than in those with a later onset of menstruation; the difference failed to reach statistical significance. However, the risk of allergic rhinitis was significantly related with early menarche compared with average-time, taken as a reference, or late menarche (OR = 1.61 vs. OR = 1 (Ref.) vs. OR = 1.23, p = 0.020). The difference remained significant after adjusting for adiposity (p = 0.050) and socio-economic status (p = 0.001). There was no significant relationship between the age at menarche and the incidence of respiratory infections. We noticed a tendency for increased spirometry variables with increasing age at menarche. In conclusion, early menarche is a risk factor for allergic rhinitis in early adulthood.


Assuntos
Menarca/fisiologia , Menstruação/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Rinite Alérgica/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
7.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 42(sup1): 108-114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192723

RESUMO

Emotional response toward menarche is a psychological problem for female adolescents. In addition menarche is considered taboo and embarrassing by female adolescents. Many female adolescents have a negative feeling and do not prepare for menarche. The purpose of this paper is to identify female adolescents' preparation and emotional response toward menarche. This study used a qualitative method including focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interview. FGD was carried out with five female adolescents in a school setting about female adolescents' preparations and emotional response toward menarche. The participants were female adolescent students who had not entered menarche yet. Some teachers were also interviewed as key persons. The results of this study indicate that female adolesents do not prepare for menarche. The participants did not have adequate knowledge and felt ashamed and worried about menarche. This study recommended the use of reproductive health education related to menarcheal preparations in school and community settings to prepare female adolescents to confidently face menarche.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Menarca/psicologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Saúde Reprodutiva/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(3): 183-186, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169103

RESUMO

Genetic and environmental influences on age at menarche (AAM) have rarely been examined in Asian females. This study aimed to investigate the heritability of AAM in South Korean female twins. The AAM data from 1370 female twins (933 monozygotic [MZ] twins, 294 dizygotic [DZ] twins and 160 female members of opposite-sex DZ twins) born between 1988 and 2001 were analyzed. The age of the sample at the time of the assessment ranged from 16 to 28 years with a mean of 19.3 (SD = 2.2) years. The mean AAM in the total sample was 12.49 (SD = 1.41) years. Although the mean AAM decreased with increasing birth years, it levelled off in birth years 2000-2001. Maximum likelihood MZ and DZ twin correlations were 0.72 [95% CI (0.67, 0.76)] and 0.35 [95% CI (0.19, 0.50)], respectively. The results of model-fitting analysis indicated that the additive genetic and individual-specific environmental effects were 72% [95% CI (67%, 76%)] and 28% [95% CI (24%, 33%)], respectively. Neither nonadditive genetic nor shared environmental effects were significant.


Assuntos
Menarca , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Biol Lett ; 15(6): 20190091, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164060

RESUMO

Many studies during the past 50 years have found an association between father absence and earlier menarche. In connection with these findings, several evolutionary theories assume that father absence is a causal factor accelerating reproductive development. However, a recent study analysing data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) found that father absence does not predict age at menarche when adjusted for sibling relatedness. In this study, we have replicated these results in the Czech section of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC), which used the same questionnaires as ALSPAC to study a geographically distinct population. Our results support the conclusion that sibling relatedness rather than father absence predicts age at menarche. Furthermore, our results show that age at menarche in 1990s UK and Czech cohorts is very similar despite socioeconomic differences between the two countries.


Assuntos
Pai , Menarca , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Irmãos
10.
Wiad Lek ; 72(6): 1170-1174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Aim: To evaluate risk factors for dysmenorrhea in women of reproductive age and to review its characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and Methods: A questionnaire was conducted among 354 women followed by a statistical analysis of the gathered data. RESULTS: Results: Among the interviewed women 84.2 % suffer from painful menstruations. Women under 25 years of age are more likely to experience pain, which reduces with age. Dysmenorrhea is more common among women whose menstrual cycles are irregular (92.5%) with a number of bleeding days 4-7 (90.7 %), though still occurring within the normal 21-35 days interval (87.6 %). Nulliparous women are more likely to experience menstrual pain (89.9 %). CONCLUSION: Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea depends on women's age, length of menstrual bleeding, length of menstrual cycle and its regularity, age at menarche and parity, but does not depend on body mass index and smoking status.


Assuntos
Dismenorreia , Menstruação , Adulto , Dismenorreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca , Ciclo Menstrual , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15511, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045841

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between reproductive period and menarche age and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in South Korean postmenopausal women.This was a cross-sectional study of the data for 8510 postmenopausal women using the results of Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys over the past 6 years.Of the total 8510 postmenopausal women, 790 (10.23%) were CKD patients. The menarche age in the CKD group was 16.2 ±â€Š1.9 years old, which was higher than that in the non-CKD group (P < .001). The reproductive period of the CKD group was 32.4 ±â€Š5.7 years, which was shorter than 33.3 ±â€Š5.4 years in the non-CKD group (P < .001). The prevalence of CKD was 4.7% at a menarche age of 11 years or younger, which increased with increasing of menarche age, reaching 9.9% at menarche age of 16 years or older. According to the length of the reproductive period, the prevalence of CKD was 13.9% for the group less than 20 years of period and decreased significantly with increasing length of reproductive period. The prevalence of proteinuria was 7.2% in women with reproductive period of less than 20 years and significantly less in women with a reproductive period longer than 45 years (2.3%). The prevalence of CKD and proteinuria increased with increasing of menarche age, and the prevalence of CKD and proteinuria decreased with increasing of reproductive period.The results suggest that CKD was associated with older menarche age and a short reproductive period. Management of life patterns and medical problems in women with old age at menarche and a short reproductive period should be considered.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Menarca/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adolescente , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pós-Menopausa , Prevalência , Proteinúria/epidemiologia , Proteinúria/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Fertil Steril ; 112(2): 315-322, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro maturation (IVM) efficacy and oocyte retrieval rates after ovarian tissue cryopreservation in young premenarche girls facing chemo- and radiotherapy. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. PATIENT(S): A total of 84 chemotherapy-naïve patients ages 0-18 years referred for fertility preservation between 2004 and 2017: 33 premenarche and 51 postmenarche patients. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): IVM in the pre- and postmenarche groups and in the subgroups of very young (up to age 5 years) and older (5-10 years) premenarche girls. RESULTS: The number of oocytes retrieved did not significantly differ between the postmenarche and premenarche groups (10.8 ± 8.5 and 8.1 ± 6.8, respectively). However, the overall IVM rate was significantly higher in the postmenarche group (28.2% vs. 15.5%, respectively; odds ratio = 0.47). A separate analysis for patients up to 5 years of age demonstrated significantly lower oocyte yield compared with the older (5-10 years) premenarche girls (4.7 ± 5.2 vs.10.3 ± 7.0 oocytes, respectively) and much lower IVM rates (4.9% and 18.2%, respectively). Correlation of age with number of retrieved and matured oocytes showed a positive significant correlation (r = 0.45 and r = 0.64, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: IVM performed after ovarian tissue cryopreservation in premenarche girls and specifically in very young girls (4 years and younger) yields substantially decreased maturation rates compared with postmenarche patients, raising a question as to the utility of current IVM technique in this age group. Further studies are required to assess modification of the IVM technique for young girls.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Menarca/fisiologia , Recuperação de Oócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Oogênese/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Criopreservação , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Preservação da Fertilidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Ovário , Radioterapia/métodos , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(5): 492-496, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091607

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the current situation of spermarche/menarche of 13 ethnic minority groups in China in 2014, and analyze the association between spermarche/menarche and nutritional status among ethnic minority groups. Methods: The sample of 13 ethnic minorities (Bai, Hani, Dai, Lisu, Wa, Naxi, Miao, Shui, Buyi, Dong, Zhuang, Yao and Qiang) from Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan province and Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region were selected from Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Healthy of 2014. A total of 25 964 students with completed records of height, weight, spermarche and menarche were selected, including 11 276 boys aged 11-18 years old and 14 688 girls aged 9-18 years old. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median age at spermarche or menarche. All subjects were classification into four nutritional status groups (normal, malnutrition, overweight and obesity) according to the Screening standard for malnutrition of school-age children and adolescents (WS/T 456-2014) and the Screening for overweight and obesity among school-age children and adolescent (WS/T 586-2018) of China. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the association between spermarche, menarche and nutritional status. Results: The median age at spermarche (95%CI) of 13 ethnic minorities were ranged from 13.4 (13.1, 13.7) years old to 15.3 (15.1, 15.5) years old. In the 11 -year age group, all ethnic girls experienced menarche. The median age at menarche (95%CI) of 13 ethnic minorities were ranged from 12.1 (11.4, 12.7) years old to13.6 (13.4, 13.7) years old. Logistics regression analysis showed that students with malnutrition experienced spermarche or menarche later than normal weight students, the OR (95%CI) for boys about 0.49 (0.42, 0.56) and girls about 0.15 (0.12, 0.19), while overweight and obese students entered puberty at earlier age, the OR (95%CI) for boys about 1.37(1.10, 1.72) and girls about 3.21(2.51, 4.12). Conclusion: Boys from 13 ethnic minorities began to have spermatorrhea at the age of 13, and girls from 13 ethnic minorities began menstruating at the age of 9 in 2014. Nutrition status was closely related to spermarche and menarche.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Menarca/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Maturidade Sexual , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Maturitas ; 125: 70-80, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the relationship between several reproductive factors in women and the likelihood of reaching the age of 90 years (achieving longevity). STUDY DESIGN: For this study, data from the oldest birth cohort (1916-17) of the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) were used. These participants filled in a baseline questionnaire in 1986 (at age 68-70 years). Follow-up for vital status information until the age of 90 years (2006-07) was >99.9% complete. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses with a fixed follow-up time were based on 2,697 women with complete exposure and co-variable data to calculate risk ratios (RR) of reaching age 90. RESULTS: No associations were observed between the likelihood of reaching the age of 90 years, and age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, menstrual lifespan, and oral contraceptive use after adjustment for potential confounders. A later age at first childbirth pointed towards a higher chance of achieving longevity (age ≥30 vs. 20-24; RR,1.17; 95%CI,0.98-1.39). Ever-use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was significantly associated with a higher chance of achieving longevity compared with never HRT-users, but only in women who had had an early menopause (<50 years)(RR,1.32; 95% CI, 1.07-1.61). CONCLUSION: Age at first childbirth, and ever-use of HRT in women with an early menopause (<50 years) were associated with the likelihood of reaching the age of 90 years.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Longevidade , Idade Materna , Menarca , Menopausa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(3): 3325-3332, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006098

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fourth most common cancer among Pakistani, Scottish and Chinese women. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of potential risk factors with OC and analysis of Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125) in its monitoring and diagnosis. A total of 200 patients diagnosed with OC were included in this study. All the patients were interviewed and 54 OC patients (case group) and 35 age-matched healthy subjects (control group) gave their blood for analysis of CA125. The blood of case and control groups was subjected to an ELISA test for the evaluation of CA125 levels. Majority of the patients were of 40-50 years of age and most of the patients were diagnosed at this period of life. The majority of the patients experienced their first menarche and menopause at the age of 13-14 and 40-50 years respectively. There is no significant association between early menarche and OC family history, nor between late menopause and OC family history. There is a significant association between family history of breast cancer (BC) and age of menarche (P = 0.005). An OC patient with an age of menarche of 13 years or younger has 2.8 times the odds of having a family history of BC than those whose age of menarche is more than 13 years. Eleven percent of patients diagnosed with OC received no intervention. All other patients underwent treatment options including hysterectomy (69.5%), radiotherapy (39%) and chemotherapy (95%). The profiles of the patients showed that those who had a family history of OC were more likely to provide blood samples (OR = 3.87, P = 0.025), and similarly for those with a history of breast cancer (OR = 2.83, P = 0.022) in comparison to those who were not willing to provide blood for testing of biomarker. The distribution of CA125 for OC patients and control group showed that CA125 values were significantly higher (P = 0.034) in the case patients compared with the control group. The decrease in CA125 levels indicated the positive response to treatment, whereas increase in CA125 values showed resistant and disease progression. 52% of the patients with OC were correctly diagnosed as having OC (based on the optimal cut-point of CA125), while 83% of those without OC were also correctly diagnosed (with 48% of OC patients and 17% of non-OC patients incorrectly diagnosed). We concluded that there is significant association between family history of breast cancer and OC history and use of CA125 as a biomarker is not an ideal diagnostic and monitoring test as it has low sensitivity and high specificity.


Assuntos
Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/sangue , Menopausa/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215462, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998739

RESUMO

Timing of menarche has largely been studied in the context of a secular trend. However, since mortality and fertility rates are fundamental demographic factors linked to a population's developmental and reproductive characteristics, we expect that the timing of menarche, a precondition to reproduction, is also associated with these vital rates. We conduct an analysis of 89 countries and 21 demographic, socioeconomic, nutritional, and educational variables selected for their known influence on menarche. Model results predict that a country's fertility and adult female mortality rates are significant predictors of mean age at menarche, while other covariates are not. Specifically, menarche is delayed in countries with high mortality and high fertility, which may be proxies for assessing overall environmental quality. We emphasize that, for a comprehensive understanding of the timing of menarche, it is critical to take into account both individual- and population-level influences.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Menarca , Modelos Biológicos , Mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Idade Materna
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 138, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that earlier age at menarche is associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the relationship between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus is inconsistent across studies. We hypothesized that an earlier age at menarche would predict the gestational diabetes mellitus risk. METHODS: This was a population-based, retrospective cohort study of 70,041 women aged 18 to 53 years old, conducted between 2011 and 2018. The subjects were recruited from the Medical Birth Registry in Xiamen, China. Age at menarche was categorized as 8-12, 13, 14, 15, 16-19 years old. Logistic regression analysis and spline analysis was used to assess the risk of the menarche age group for gestational diabetes mellitus. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent associations between age at menarche and fasting plasma glucose and blood glucose 1 hour and 2 hours after a 75-g of glucose load between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of GDM was 17.6%. After adjustment for family history of diabetes, earlier age at menarche (8-12, and 13 years old) was associated with increased odds for GDM (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15, and OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14, respectively) compared with average age at menarche (14 years old). With further adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index, blood pressure, educational level, age at delivery, and hepatitis B surface antigen status, this association was attenuated (OR, 0.93, and OR, 1.02, respectively). Multivariable-adjusted spline regression models showed a linear dose-response association between age at menarche and GDM (P for nonlinearity, 0.203; P for linearity, 0.006). On linear regression analysis, earlier age at menarche was significantly associated with increased blood glucose one and 2 hours after a glucose load but not with the fasting plasma glucose. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, early age at menarche was found to be associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, this association may be mediated by potential confounding factors other than age. An additional finding was that earlier menarche was significantly related with elevated pregnancy glucose concentrations after a glucose load.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Menarca , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 56, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals born very preterm or with very low birth weight (VLBW) have a reduced likelihood to reproduce according to population-based register studies. Extremely low-birth weight born adults had a lower reproduction rate for both men and women in a follow-up study. AIM: To investigate if being born with VLBW is associated with differences in the reproductive health, i.e. age of menarche, menstrual cycle pattern, pregnancy rates and hormone profile compared with women born at term. METHODS: A prospective long-term follow-up of a cohort of live-born VLBW children and their controls studied repeatedly since birth and now assessed at 26-28 years of age. Of the totally 80 girls enrolled from birth 49 women (24 VLBW women and 25 controls) participated in the current follow-up. The women's anthropometric data and serum hormone levels were analysed. RESULTS: The reproductive hormone levels, including Anti-Mullerian Hormone, did not differ significantly between VLBW women and their controls. Both groups reported menstrual cycle irregularities and pregnancies to the same extent but the VLBW women reported 1.5 years later age of menarche. The VLBW subjects had a catch-up growth within 18 months of birth but remained on average 5 cm shorter in adult height. There were no significant differences in BMI, sagittal abdominal diameter, blood pressure or in their answers regarding life style between the VLBW women and the controls. CONCLUSION: No differences in the reproductive hormone levels were found between VLBW women and their controls. Although age at menarche was somewhat higher in the VLBW group menstrual cycles and pregnancy rates were similar in the VLBW and control groups. Further follow-up studies are required to elucidate the health outcomes of being born VLBW.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Menarca , Ciclo Menstrual , Taxa de Gravidez , Reprodução , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Maturitas ; 123: 82-88, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While the associations of genetic, reproductive and environmental factors with the timing of natural menopause have been extensively investigated, few epidemiological studies have specifically examined their association with premature (<40 years) or early natural menopause (40-45 years). AIM: The aim of this position statement is to provide evidence on the predictors of premature and early natural menopause, as well as recommendations for the management of premature and early menopause and future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature review and consensus of expert opinion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Strong genetic predictors of premature and early menopause include a family history of premature or early menopause, being a child of a multiple pregnancy and some specific genetic variants. Women with early menarche and nulliparity or low parity are also at a higher risk of experiencing premature or early menopause. Cigarette smoking (with a strong dose-response effect) and being underweight have been consistently associated with premature and early menopause. Current guidelines for the management of premature and early menopause mainly focus on early initiation of hormone therapy (HT) and continued treatment until the woman reaches the average age at menopause (50-52 years). We suggest that clinicians and health professionals consider the age at menopause of the relevant region or ethnic group as part of the assessment for the timing of HT cessation. In addition, there should be early monitoring of women with a family history of early menopause, who are a child of a multiple pregnancy, or who have had early menarche (especially those who have had no children). As part of preventive health strategies, women should be encouraged to quit smoking (preferably before the age of 30 years) and maintain optimal weight in order to reduce their risk of premature or early menopause.


Assuntos
Menopausa Precoce , Menopausa , Paridade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca , Menopausa/genética , Menopausa Precoce/genética , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Gêmeos
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