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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412531

RESUMO

The association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pubertal timing has been a topic of enduring controversy. A systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science databases was undertaken to quantify the magnitude of total and specific forms of ACEs effects on early pubertal timing among girls. Our search identified 3280 records, of which 43 studies with 46 independent data sets met inclusion criteria. We estimated pooled effect sizes (Cohen's ds) for the association between ACEs with early pubertal timing. Total ACEs was not associated with early pubertal timing. When we examined the specific types of ACEs, associations were small to medium for father absence (d = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.63, -0.16) and small for sexual abuse (d = -0.13, CI: -0.17, -0.10) and family dysfunction (d = -0.08, CI: -0.11, -0.02). We identified considerable heterogeneity between estimates for almost all of the outcomes. ACEs exposure may affect female reproductive reproduction, particularly father absence, sexual abuse, and family dysfunction. We propose that future research in this area test a theoretical model linking adversity with earlier reproductive strategy, which includes early pubertal timing as a core component linking early adversity and stress physiology with poor health outcomes later in life in females.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Menarca/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/psicologia , Puberdade Precoce/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/psicologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Puberdade Precoce/fisiopatologia
2.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 42(sup1): 108-114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192723

RESUMO

Emotional response toward menarche is a psychological problem for female adolescents. In addition menarche is considered taboo and embarrassing by female adolescents. Many female adolescents have a negative feeling and do not prepare for menarche. The purpose of this paper is to identify female adolescents' preparation and emotional response toward menarche. This study used a qualitative method including focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interview. FGD was carried out with five female adolescents in a school setting about female adolescents' preparations and emotional response toward menarche. The participants were female adolescent students who had not entered menarche yet. Some teachers were also interviewed as key persons. The results of this study indicate that female adolesents do not prepare for menarche. The participants did not have adequate knowledge and felt ashamed and worried about menarche. This study recommended the use of reproductive health education related to menarcheal preparations in school and community settings to prepare female adolescents to confidently face menarche.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Menarca/psicologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Saúde Reprodutiva/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Int J Public Health ; 64(2): 293-304, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study presents a scoping review of evidence relating to knowledge and experiences of puberty and menstruation among females aged 10-14 years in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Forty-four items from 12 countries were identified from a systematic scoping review and screening of 8083 items. Included studies were quality assessed. RESULTS: A majority (40/44) of studies used school-based samples, and fifteen studies reported on interventions. Girls had inadequate knowledge about menstruation; menarche as a trigger for girls learning about menstruation was common. Adolescents struggled with menstrual hygiene. Negative emotions were associated with menarche and menstrual management. A minority of studies dealt explicitly with puberty. Most girls obtained information about menstruation and/or puberty from their mothers, although mothers were not necessarily girls' preferred source for learning about these topics. CONCLUSIONS: Young adolescent girls are under-prepared for puberty and menstruation. Predominantly school-based studies mean we know little about young out-of-school adolescents. The evidence base lags behind the rise in interest from practitioners as well as the development (and evaluation) of puberty and/or menstruation interventions.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Menarca/psicologia , Menstruação/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Puberdade/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos
4.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 71(6): 2990-2997, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze overweight and associated factors in young adult student girls children in a capital city of Northeast Brazil. METHOD: An analytical, quantitative study was conducted with 546 young adults from 26 schools in a capital city of the Brazilian Northeast. After obtaining the data by the application of a specific questionnaire, the hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify the confounding variables and predictors of overweight. RESULTS: The frequency of cases of overweight in this group was 36.6%. In the bivariate analysis, Overweight presented a statistically significant association with ethnicity, marital status, weight in childhood and overweight in adolescence, overweight in the family and exposure to alcohol, number of children, and age of menarche. In the final regression model, overweight remained associated with weight in childhood and age of menarche. CONCLUSION: Characteristics related to nutritional status in earlier life stages and gynecological issues were associated with Overweight during the young adult stage of the woman.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/complicações , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 46(5): 192-199, sept.-oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174687

RESUMO

Introducción. La incidencia y heredabilidad de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) se incrementa durante la pubertad. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar los cambios en las influencias genéticas ambientales sobre un amplio espectro de actitudes y conductas alimentarias anómalas durante la pubertad. Metodología. participaron 160 parejas de gemelas adolescentes, que se categorizaron en dos grupos en función del estado de menarquia (pre y pos). Medidas de TCA: Las actitudes y conductas alimentarias anómalas fueron evaluadas mediante el ChEAT (Children's Eating Attitudes Test) y cuatro subescalas del EDI (Eating Disorders Inventory); Impulso a la delgadez, Insatisfacción corporal, Ineficacia y Perfeccionismo. Las correlaciones intrapareja en gemelas MZ (monozigotas) y DZ (dizigotas) se calcularon por separado en los grupos de premenarquia y posmenarquia para cada medida de TCA. Resultados. Cuarenta y ocho gemelas premenarquia (30 MZ y 18 DZ) y 110 gemelas posmenarquia (66 MZ y 44 DZ). Las correlaciones sugirieron que no hay una influencia genética en la puntuación total del ChEAT en las niñas en estado premenarquia, mientras que en las niñas posmenarquia el porcentaje de la varianza para las influencias genéticas es elevado. En relación a las subescalas del EDI, únicamente la variable "Ineficacia" mostró una moderada heredabilidad en las niñas en estadio premenarquia, mientras que las cuatro actitudes alimentarias mostraron una moderada heredabilidad en el grupo de niñas posmenarquia. Conclusiones. Nuestro abordaje revela cambios significativos relacionados con la menarquia en las contribuciones de las influencias genéticas y ambientales sobre las conductas y actitudes alimentarias anómalas. Los clínicos deberían centrar su atención en las niñas adolescentes con alto riesgo de desarrollar TCA especialmente durante el periodo crítico de la menarquia


Background. Eating disorders' incidence and heritability significantly increase during puberty. The goal of this research is to evaluate changes during puberty which could have genetic and environmental influences on a broad spectrum of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Methods. Participants were 158 pairs of adolescent female twins, categorized in two groups according to menarche stage (pre or post). ED measures: Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed by means of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test and four sub-scales of the Eating Disorders Inventory: Drive for thinness, Body dissatisfaction, Ineffectiveness, and Perfectionism. Intra-class correlations in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were calculated separately in premenarche and premenarche group for each ED subscale Results. 48 premenarche twins (30 MZ twins and 18 DZ twins) and 110 premenarche twins (66 MZ and 44 DZ twins) were included. The intra-class correlations suggested no genetic influence on the total ChEAT score of participants at the premenarche stage. For the premenarche participants, however, sources of variance suggested a very high heritability. Regarding the EDI sub-scales, only the trait "Ineffectiveness" exhibited a moderate heritability among premenarche subjects, while all the four eating sub-scales showed moderate heritability estimates in the premenarche stage group. Conclusions. Our findings reveal that there are significant differences in genetic and environmental effects on eating attitudes and behaviors depending on being in a premenarche or premenarche stage. Therefore, clinicians should pay attention to female adolescents at high risk of developing ED, especially during the critical period of menarche


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Menarca/fisiologia , Puberdade/genética , Nutrição do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Gêmeos/genética , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Menarca/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Puberdade/psicologia
6.
J Adolesc ; 69: 52-61, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248585

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Girls remain an understudied group when examining delinquency. Callous-unemotional traits are chief among personality traits that relate to delinquency. Some suggest, however, that girls who evince callous-unemotional traits delay their delinquent behavior until adolescence. This transitional period encompasses physical factors that relate to engagement in risky decision making, but we don't know how these factors relate to callous-unemotional traits. Early pubertal timing shows positive associations with delinquency; we tested if this was also the case for callous-unemotional traits. METHODS: We tested associations among pubertal timing (i.e., maturity and menarche age), delinquency, and callous-unemotional traits within girls (ages 11-18 years) sampled from two European countries (UK and Cyprus). We also tested the interaction between callous-unemotional traits and pubertal timing in statistically predicting delinquency to test if associations between early puberty and delinquency were moderated by callous-unemotional traits. RESULTS: Greater callous-unemotional traits were surprisingly negatively related to early pubertal timing. Those girls in the delayed menarche group had the highest level of callous-unemotional traits, higher than the typical and early menarche groups. Only callous-unemotional traits statistically predicted variance in delinquency and no moderation was evident. CONCLUSIONS: The implications are that callous-unemotional traits and the transition to puberty may be particularly important for girls' adjustment in adolescence, particularly if menarche is delayed allowing girls to avoid punishment by capitalizing on their immaturity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Menarca/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Chipre , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Masculino , Menarca/fisiologia , Reino Unido
7.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198804, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an association between puberty and depression, but many things remain poorly understood. When assessing puberty in females, most studies combine indicators of breast and pubic hair development which are controlled by different hormonal pathways. The contributions of pubertal timing (age at onset) and pubertal status (stage of development, irrespective of timing) are also poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that stage of breast development in female adolescents, controlled largely by increased estradiol, would be more strongly associated with depression than pubic hair development which occurs in both males and females, and is controlled by adrenal androgens. We investigated whether this association was independent of pubertal timing. METHODS: ROOTS is an ongoing cohort of 1,238 adolescents (54% female) recruited in Cambridgeshire (UK) at age 14.5, and followed-up at ages 16 and 17.5. Depression was assessed using the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) and clinical interview. Breast and pubic hair development were assessed at 14.5, using Tanner rating scales. RESULTS: For each increase in Tanner breast stage at 14.5, depressive symptoms increased by 1.4 MFQ points (95% CI 0.6 to 2.3), irrespective of age at onset. Pubic hair status was only associated with depressive symptoms before adjustment for breast status, and was not associated with depression in males. The same pattern was observed longitudinally, and for depression diagnoses. LIMITATIONS: We did not directly measure hormone levels, our findings are observational, and the study had a relatively low response rate. CONCLUSIONS: Females at more advanced stages of breast development are at increased risk of depression, even if their age at pubertal onset is not early. Alongside social and psychological factors, hormones controlling breast but not pubic hair development may contribute to increased incidence of female depression during puberty.


Assuntos
Mama/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Depressão/etiologia , Puberdade/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Desidroepiandrosterona/fisiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Menarca/fisiologia , Menarca/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Puberdade/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/química , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 21(6): 649-656, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804155

RESUMO

Menstrual problems and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are common in adolescent girls. This study examined whether onset of menstruation and menstrual problems were related to NSSI in Chinese female adolescents. A total of 5696 adolescent girls participated in the baseline survey of Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort (SABHC) study in Shandong, China. A structured questionnaire was used to ask about participants' lifetime and last-year NSSI, age at menarche, menstrual cycle interval, menstrual flow length, menstrual irregularity, period pain, body weight and height, and demographics. Impulsivity was assessed by the Eysenck I7 impulsiveness scale. Internalizing and externalizing problems were measured by the Youth Self-Report of Child Behavior Checklist. The mean age of the sample was 15.0 years (SD = 1.4). The prevalence of lifetime and last year NSSI were 28.1% and 21.4% in Chinese adolescent girls. After adjusting for adolescent and family covariates (age, body mass index, impulsivity, internalizing and externalizing problems, paternal education, and family economic status), onset of menstruation was significantly associated with increased risk of lifetime NSSI (OR = 1.62, 95%CI = 1.20-2.20) and last year NSSI (OR = 1.92, 95%CI = 1.37-2.67). Among adolescent girls who had menarche, often irregular menstruation and period pain were significantly and independently associated with lifetime NSSI (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.03-1.79; OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.05-1.58) and last year NSSI (OR = 1.46, 95%CI = 1.07-1.98; OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.03-1.61). Our findings suggest that onset of menarche, irregular periods, and period pain appear to be associated with increased risk of NSSI. These findings highlight the importance of menstruation hygiene education and treatment of menstrual problems to reduce the risk of NSSI among adolescent girls.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Menstruais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/psicologia , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Distúrbios Menstruais/psicologia , Distúrbios Menstruais/terapia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Adolesc Health ; 63(2): 213-218, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705494

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early pubertal onset may relate to more involvement in bullying in adolescent girls, both as a target and as a perpetrator. However, the few studies of the association between early menarche and school bullying have shown mixed findings. The present study examined whether early menarche is associated with bullying victimization and perpetration. METHODS: We obtained survey data on adolescent girls from the 2001-2002, 2005-2006, and 2009-2010 cycles of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study in 35 European and North American countries. We identified school bullying in the past 2 months using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. We defined early menarche as a reported onset of menarche before 11 years and tested the associations between early menarche and bullying victimization and perpetration using three-level logistic regression models. RESULTS: The sample included 227,443 adolescent girls with a mean age of 13.64 (standard deviation [SD] 1.63) years, of which 10,172 (4.47%) were early matured; 62,528 (28.33%) and 56,582 (25.67%) were occasional victims and perpetrators, respectively; and 21,985 (9.96%) and 14,115 (6.40%) were frequent victims and perpetrators, respectively. Early menarche related to occasional victimization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 [1.12-1.31]) and perpetration (aOR [95% CI] = 1.19 [1.11-1.27]) and to frequent victimization (aOR [95% CI] = 1.35 [1.22-1.50]) and perpetration (aOR [95% CI] = 1.46 [1.31-1.63]). CONCLUSIONS: Early menarche in European and North American adolescent girls positively relates to bullying victimization and perpetration. Early-maturing girls should not be neglected in antibullying programs.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Menarca/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 53(2): 92-98, 2018 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534377

RESUMO

Objective: To access the influence factors of diagnostic delay of endometriosis. Methods: We designed a questionnaire of diagnostic delay of endometriosis. From February 2014 to February 2016, 400 patients who had dysmenorrhea and diagnosed with endometriosis by surgery in Peking University Third Hospital were surveyed retrospectively. Time and risk factors of diagnostic delay were analyzed. Results: The diagnostic delay of 400 patients was 13.0 years (0.2-43.0 years), 78.5%(314/400) patients thought pain was a normal phenomenon and didn't see the doctor. Patients who suffered dysmenorrhea at menarche experienced longer diagnostic delay than those who had dysmenorrhea after menarche (18.0 vs 4.5 years; Z=191.800, P<0.01) . Patients who suffered aggravating dysmenorrhea experienced shorter delay time than those who suffered stable or relieving dysmenorrhea (11.0 vs 12.5 vs 18.0 years; Z=8.270, P<0.05) , with the difference statistically significant, single factor analysis shows. Severe dysmenorrhea, deep infiltration endometriosis (DIE) , family history of dysmenorrhea or endometriosis, previous surgical history of endometriosis, high stage, with infertility, adenomyoma or other symptoms, could help to shorten diagnostic delay with no significant difference (P>0.05) . By multiple logistic regression analysis, the results shown that whether have dysmenorrhea at menarche and clinical diagnosis time were the independent factors affecting delayed diagnosis (P<0.01) . Conclusions: Diagnostic delay of endometriosis is common and the mean delay time is 13.0 years mainly due to the unawareness of dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea at menarche, clinical diagnosis time and dysmenorrhea intensity are the factors affecting time of diagnostic delay.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Endometriose/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Erros de Diagnóstico , Dismenorreia/etiologia , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endometriose/psicologia , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/psicologia , Menstruação/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Health Commun ; 33(6): 733-742, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402199

RESUMO

Our study aims at understanding multigenerational communication among grandmothers, mothers, and daughters experiencing reproductive health transitions from menarche to menopause. Thirty women, 10 triads of grandmothers, mothers, and daughters, participated in narrative interviews to recount their menarche and menopause experiences. Analysis was read using a multilayered approach to interpret discourse positioned from self, reflexive others, and those stories informed by societal meanings. Four dialectical themes informed by generational discursive shifts in talk included (1) covert versus overt talk, (2) recollection of versus indifference to menarche, (3) bound to versus freedom from menstruation, and (4) controlling versus managing bodily changes. The theoretical significance of this piece indicates a slight, transformative change in how messages about menarche and menstruation are communicated or passed down from one generation to the next.


Assuntos
Relação entre Gerações , Menarca/psicologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Menopausa/psicologia , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Menstruação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 259: 32-35, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028521

RESUMO

To clarify the causal role of age at menarche in depressive symptoms we conducted a Mendelian randomization study using a large Southern Chinese cohort (n = 12,233). A genetic allele score was derived using stepwise regression with cross validation. Older age at menarche was not associated with geriatric depression scale score. Our findings suggest that higher rates of depression in women are likely attributable to other factors which require investigation.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Depressão/genética , Menarca/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , China , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Menarca/psicologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão
14.
Pediatrics ; 141(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early pubertal timing in girls is one of the best-replicated antecedents of a range of mental health problems during adolescence, but few researchers have examined the duration of these effects. METHODS: We leverage a nationally representative sample (N = 7802 women) managed prospectively from adolescence over a period of ∼14 years to examine associations of age at menarche with depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. RESULTS: Earlier ages at menarche were associated with higher rates of both depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors in early-middle adulthood largely because difficulties that started in adolescence did not attenuate over time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the emotional sequelae of puberty extend further than documented in previous research, and suggest that earlier development may place girls on a life path from which it may be difficult to deviate. The American Academy of Pediatrics already provides guidelines for identifying and working with patients with early pubertal timing. Pediatricians and adolescent health care providers should also be attuned to early maturers' elevated mental health risk and sensitive to the potential duration of changes in mental health that begin at puberty.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Menarca/psicologia , Puberdade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Menarca/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Compr Psychiatry ; 79: 70-79, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier age of pubertal maturation in females is associated with increased risk for mental health problems in adolescence, compared with on-time or later maturation. However, most investigations of pubertal timing and mental health consider risk for individual disorders and fail to account for comorbidity. A latent-modeling approach using a large, nationally representative sample could better explain the transdiagnostic nature of the consequences of early-onset puberty. METHODS: Data on age of menarche and mental disorders were drawn from a population-representative sample of adolescents (n=4925), ages 13-17. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit four latent disorder categories: distress, eating, and externalizing, and fear disorders. Timing of menarche included those with earlier (age≤10, age 11) and later age of onset (age 13, 14+), relative to those with average timing of menarche (age 12). Associations between timing of menarche and latent disorders were estimated in a structural equation model (SEM), adjusted for age, income, race, parent marital status, BMI, and childhood adversity. RESULTS: The measurement model evidenced acceptable fit (CFI=0.91; RMSEA=0.02). Onset of menarche before age 11 was significantly associated with distress disorders (coefficient=0.096; p<0.0001), fear disorders (coefficient=0.09; p<0.0001), and externalizing disorders (coefficient=0.039; p=0.049) as compared to on-time or late menarche. No residual associations of early menarche with individual disorders over and above the latent disorders were observed. CONCLUSION: The latent modeling approach illuminated meaningful transdiagnostic psychiatric associations with early timing of menarche. Biological processes initiated at puberty can influence cognitive and affective processes as well as social relationships for adolescents. Under developmentally normative conditions, these changes may be adaptive. However, for those out of sync with their peers, researchers and clinicians should recognize the potential for these processes to influence liability to a broad array of psychopathological consequences in adolescence.


Assuntos
Menarca/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Menarca/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia
16.
Behav Genet ; 47(5): 480-485, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785901

RESUMO

Menarche signifies the primary event in female puberty and is associated with changes in self-identity. It is not clear whether earlier puberty causes girls to spend less time in education. Observational studies on this topic are likely to be affected by confounding environmental factors. The Mendelian randomization (MR) approach addresses these issues by using genetic variants (such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) as proxies for the risk factor of interest. We use this technique to explore whether there is a causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education. Instruments and SNP-age at menarche estimates are identified from a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 182,416 women of European descent. The effects of instruments on time spent in education are estimated using a GWAS meta-analysis of 118,443 women performed by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium (SSGAC). In our main analysis, we demonstrate a small but statistically significant causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education: a 1 year increase in age at menarche is associated with 0.14 years (53 days) increase in time spent in education (95% CI 0.10-0.21 years, p = 3.5 × 10-8). The causal effect is confirmed in sensitivity analyses. In identifying this positive causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education, we offer further insight into the social effects of puberty in girls.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Menarca/psicologia , Puberdade/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Educação , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Menarca/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Puberdade/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Risco , Maturidade Sexual
17.
Health Care Women Int ; 38(9): 971-982, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28586269

RESUMO

The psychological meaning of menarche was explored in 102 college students from Mexico and the United States. The Natural Semantic Networks Technique was used and participants were asked to respond to the prompt "My first period was …" The strongest components of the Mexican women's semantic network were scary, confusing, and unexpected; the strongest components of the American women's semantic network were unexpected, annoying, and painful. Only the Americans listed positive words (i.e., nice). The Mexicans' network contained the most negative words (i.e., dirty). The results suggest a need for better education and greater social support, especially in Mexico.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Menarca/psicologia , Web Semântica , Estudantes/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/etnologia , Menarca/fisiologia , México , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pain ; 158(8): 1554-1560, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520646

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between early puberty and chronic nonspecific pain in 13- to 18-year-old girls. All adolescents in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, were invited to participate in the Young-HUNT3 study (2006-2008). Of the invited girls, 81% answered the questionnaire and of these 3982 were 13 to 18 years of age. Menarche and perceived physical maturation were used as exposure measures. Early menarche was defined as <12 years, normal menarche as ≥12 and <14 years, and late menarche as ≥14 years. Perceived physical maturation was divided into maturing earlier, the same or later than others of their own age. The main outcome measure was chronic nonspecific pain, defined as pain in at least one location not related to any known disease or injury, for at least once a week during the last 3 months. The median age at menarche was 13.2 years. Chronic nonspecific pain was more prevalent among girls with early menarche (68%, 95% CI: 64%-72%) compared to girls with either normal (55%, 95% CI: 53%-57%), late (50%, 95% CI: 46%-54%), or no menarche (35%, 95% CI: 29%-40%). The association persisted after adjusting for age, body mass index, socioeconomic factors, and anxiety and depression. A similar association was found between girls that perceived themselves as earlier physically matured than their peers and chronic nonspecific pain. Headache/migraine was the most common type of chronic nonspecific pain regardless of menarcheal age. In all reported locations, pain was more prevalent in the group with early menarche compared to normal or late menarche.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Menarca/psicologia , Puberdade Precoce/fisiopatologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Puberdade , Caracteres Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Reprod Health ; 14(1): 30, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28249610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menstruation is a natural physiological process that requires proper management. Unlike other normal bodily processes, menstruation is linked with religious and cultural meanings that can affect the perceptions of young girls as well as the ways in which the adults in the communities around them respond to their needs. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to answer the following questions: (1) how knowledgeable are adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries about menstruation and how prepared are they for reaching menarche, (2) who are their sources of information regarding menstruation, (3) how well do the adults around them respond to their information needs, (4) what negative health and social effects do adolescents experience as a result of menstruation, and (5) how do adolescents respond when they experience these negative effects and what practices do they develop as a result? METHODS: Using a structured search strategy, articles that investigate young girls' preparedness for menarche, knowledge of menstruation and practices surrounding menstrual hygiene in LMIC were identified. A total of 81 studies published in peer-reviewed journals between the years 2000 and 2015 that describe the experiences of adolescent girls from 25 different countries were included. RESULTS: Adolescent girls in LMIC are often uninformed and unprepared for menarche. Information is primarily obtained from mothers and other female family members who are not necessarily well equipped to fill gaps in girls' knowledge. Exclusion and shame lead to misconceptions and unhygienic practices during menstruation. Rather than seek medical consultation, girls tend to miss school, self-medicate and refrain from social interaction. Also problematic is that relatives and teachers are often not prepared to respond to the needs of girls. CONCLUSION: LMIC must recognize that lack of preparation, knowledge and poor practices surrounding menstruation are key impediments not only to girls' education, but also to self-confidence and personal development. In addition to investment in private latrines with clean water for girls in both schools and communities, countries must consider how to improve the provision of knowledge and understanding and how to better respond to the needs of adolescent girls.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Menarca/psicologia , Menstruação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Renda
20.
Psychol Rev ; 124(2): 215-244, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221088

RESUMO

An integrative developmental model is presented in which menstrual cycle-related symptoms are hypothesized to result in a cascade of developmental challenges that contribute to increased affective symptoms among adolescent girls, and to long-term developmental sequelae. To provide the basis for this model a broad foundation is developed considering (a) psychological symptoms and disorders associated with reproductive events across the life span, and (b) the many and complicated effects that female reproductive steroids (estrogen & progesterone) have which trigger a variety of physical and psychological changes that are commonly associated with the menstrual cycle. The Menstrual Cycle-Response and Developmental Affective-Risk Model is driven by 3 central concepts: (a) individual differences in response to steroids are very large and thus require analysis of individual response, rather than group-level tendencies; (b) the menstrual cycle itself represents an important and complex set of biological, physical, psychological, behavioral, and social changes, and should not be studied exclusively as changing steroid levels; and (c) the effects of the menstrual cycle during adolescence and early adulthood may have long-term developmental consequences. This model integrates specific effects of the menstrual cycle with contextual and social developmental variables, and with past theoretical models. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Afeto , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Ciclo Menstrual/psicologia , Participação Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Menarca/psicologia , Menopausa/psicologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Análise Multinível , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Transtorno Disfórico Pré-Menstrual/psicologia , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
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