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1.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 559: 111792, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309204

RESUMO

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has a critical role in bone development and anti-tumour function in breast cancer (BC). As the expression and role of PEDF in BC bone metastases is unknown, we aimed to characterise PEDF in primary and metastatic BC. Subcellular PEDF localisation was semi-quantitatively analysed via immunohistochemistry in patient-matched, archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary BC and liver, lung, and decalcified bone metastases specimens. PEDF localisation was evaluated in 23 metastatic BC patients diagnosed with ER+, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) negative BC or TNBC. Cytoplasmic (p = 0.019) and membrane (p = 0.048) PEDF was lower in bone metastases compared to primary ER+/HER2- BC. In contrast, nuclear PEDF scores were higher in metastases compared to primary TNBC (p = 0.027), and increased membrane PEDF in metastatic tissue had improved disease-free interval (p = 0.016). Nuclear PEDF was decreased in bone metastases compared to primary ER+//HER2- BC in post-menopausal patients (p = 0.029). These novel findings indicate PEDF plays a role in clinical BC metastasis. Significantly lower PEDF levels in the post-menopausal compared to pre-menopausal setting suggests future PEDF research may have greater clinical importance in the post-menopausal ER+/HER2- BC population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias da Mama , Serpinas , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas do Olho , Menopausa
2.
Maturitas ; 167: 82-89, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) and early menopause are each associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); whether APOs are associated with age at menopause is unclear. We examined the association of gestational diabetes (GDM), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), preterm birth, and multiple gestation with age at natural menopause. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, prospective study within the Nurses' Health Study II cohort (1989-2019). MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Risk of early natural menopause, defined as occurring before the age of 45 years, and age at onset of natural menopause (hazard ratio (HR) >1 indicates younger age at menopause). RESULTS: The mean [SD] baseline age of 69,880 parous participants was 34.5 [4.7] years. Compared with participants who had a term singleton first birth, those with a term multiple-gestation first birth had higher risk of early menopause (HR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.60) and younger age at natural menopause (HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.31, 1.63). Estimates for preterm multiple gestation were of similar magnitude. Menopause occurred at a younger age for those with a preterm birth with spontaneous labor (HR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14) compared to those with a term birth with spontaneous labor. Conversely, estimates for GDM (HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.02) and HDP (preeclampsia, HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89, 0.97) suggested an association with older age at menopause. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort study, several statistically significant associations between APOs and age at natural menopause were observed. A deeper understanding of the relationships among APOs, menopause, and CVD is needed to help identify people at higher risk for early menopause and later CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Gestacional , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Menopausa
3.
Maturitas ; 167: 39-45, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transition to menopause has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), attributed mainly to atherogenic dyslipidemia. Whether lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], an independent cardiovascular risk factor, also contributes to menopause-associated CVD has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate and meta-analyze the best available evidence regarding the effect of menopause on Lp(a) concentrations. METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus databases up to March 8th, 2022. Data were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The I2 index was employed to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in the qualitative and 15 in the quantitative analysis, yielding 4686 premenopausal and 8274 postmenopausal women. Lp(a) concentrations were lower in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women [WMD -3.77 (95 % CI -5.37, -2.18) mg/dl, p < 0.001; I2 99%, p < 0.001]. This difference was maintained when the analysis was restrained to good-quality studies (n = 9). Four studies included pre- and postmenopausal women, matched for age, and these found no difference in Lp(a) concentrations between groups [WMD -1.22 (95 % CI -3.15, 0.72) mg/dl, p < 0.001; I2 99%, p < 0.001]. Three studies provided data for Lp(a) in women before and after bilateral oophorectomy, and these found no difference between them [WMD -3.38 (95 % CI -7.29, 0.54) mg/dl, p = 0.09; I2 0%, p < 0.44]. CONCLUSIONS: Transition to menopause may increase Lp(a) concentrations, although the effect of aging cannot be excluded by current data.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Lipoproteína(a) , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ovariectomia
4.
Maturitas ; 167: 46-52, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify occupational hazards associated with earlier onset of natural menopause. STUDY DESIGN: A national cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the reproductive health of Chinese female workers. The final sample size was 17,948. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed a self-report instrument that recorded working conditions, chemical and physical agents in the occupational environment, socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, reproductive history, and occupational information. A Cox regression model was used to examine the association between each occupational hazard and onset of menopause. RESULTS: Abnormal workload (19.31 %), aromatic compounds (7.95 %), and noise (24.94 %) were the three most frequently self-reported occupational hazards in the three categories of working conditions, chemical agents, and physical agents, respectively. Abnormal workload (HR = 1.133, p = 0.038), noise (HR = 1.233, p < 0.001), and heat stress (HR = 1.178, p = 0.041) were associated with earlier age at natural menopause in the analyses of each hazard, after adjustment. Only noise (HR = 1.187, p = 0.003) remained statistically significant after including all possible occupational hazards. CONCLUSIONS: In a national survey of 17,948 female workers, this study investigated the association of age at natural menopause with multiple occupational hazards, some of which have not been addressed. Occupational noise was identified as a risk factor for reproductive senescence for the first time. However, further research is needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Menopausa , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
5.
Maturitas ; 167: 66-74, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine, in a European cohort, the prevalence and health-related quality-of-life (QOL) burden of moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS) in postmenopausal women, and among subgroups of women not taking hormone therapy (HT). STUDY DESIGN: Screening surveys were sent to a random sample of women aged 40-65 years; those meeting the inclusion criteria completed the full questionnaire. Women with successfully treated VMS or breast cancer or who were receiving HT for medical conditions were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency and duration of VMS, perceptions of menopause, seeking advice from a healthcare professional, treatment for VMS symptoms, perceptions of HT use, out-of-pocket costs, and other approaches to coping with menopause. The Menopause-Specific QOL (MENQOL) questionnaire and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire were included. RESULTS: Of 11,452 women who completed the screening survey, 5178 were postmenopausal and 2035 completed the full questionnaire. Prevalence of moderate-to-severe VMS ranged from 31 % in France to 52 % in Italy. The majority were in the HT-caution or HT-averse group, despite being eligible for HT. Most common menopausal symptoms reported in the MENQOL were "feeling tired or worn out," with aching in muscles and joints reported as the most common symptom in Spain. Weight gain was the most bothersome symptom in all countries, except for Spain, where low backache was more bothersome. Hot flashes and night sweats had a greater impact on daily than on working activities, as measured by the WPAI. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of European women reported experiencing moderate-to-severe VMS, with associated symptoms influencing QOL.


Assuntos
Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Menopausa/fisiologia , Fogachos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sudorese
6.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am ; 31(1): 1-10, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368854

RESUMO

The ovary resides in the pelvic cavity and is a dynamic organ with physiologic changes from birth to menopause. The imaging features of the normal ovary depend on the physiologic changes through puberty, reproductive age, and menopause. It is important for radiologists to understand the imaging features of normal physiologic changes in the ovaries and differentiate them from disease states.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ovário , Feminino , Humanos , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Menopausa , Puberdade , Pelve
7.
Maturitas ; 167: 113-122, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of pituitary-ovarian hormone levels with cognition before and after different formulations of hormone therapy (HT) or placebo independent of treatment group. METHODS: Recently menopausal, healthy women were randomized to 0.45 mg/day oral conjugated equine estrogens (o-CEE, n = 109), 50 µg/day transdermal 17ß (tE2, n = 107) or placebo pills and patches (n = 146); women on active treatment received oral 200 mg/day micronized progesterone for 12 days per month. Levels of estrone, 17ß-estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, androstenedione, and testosterone were determined prior to and after 48 months of study participation. Neuropsychological testing was administered at baseline, and months 18, 36 and 48. Latent growth curve models controlling for education level, age, APOE allele status, waist circumference, and treatment examined the trajectories of each cognitive domain after accounting for the effect of hormone levels at baseline and months 18, 36 and 48. A linear multivariate mixed model examined the effect of changes in hormone levels on changes in trajectories of complex attention tasks with varying degrees of difficulty. RESULTS: All women were adherent to treatment at month 48. Higher baseline estrone levels were associated with poorer global cognition, auditory attention and working memory, visual attention, and executive function, but not working memory. Higher levels of baseline 17ß-E2 were associated with poorer cognitive performance, with marginal significance at baseline in speeded language and mental flexibility (p = 0.013). Other hormone levels were not associated with cognition. Controlling for all treatments, hormone levels at baseline and at month 48 did not have any significant correlation with cognitive trajectories over time. SUMMARY: In healthy, recently menopausal women, baseline estrone levels were inversely associated with selected cognitive factors independent of two types of HT or placebo during 4 years of follow-up. Baseline levels of the other pituitary-ovarian hormones studied were not associated with baseline cognition, nor were changes in any hormones associated with changes in cognition during the study. The marginal association between estradiol levels and cognitive factors warrants further investigation. GOV NUMBERS: NCT00154180, NCT00623311.


Assuntos
Estrona , Menopausa , Feminino , Humanos , Cavalos , Animais , Hormônios Hipofisários , Cognição , Estradiol
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331921

RESUMO

Open-label (honestly prescribed) placebos are an ethical way to evoke placebo effects in patients. As part of a mixed-methods study, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight menopausal women who underwent and benefitted from open-label placebo treatment in a randomized-controlled trial of hot flushes. Data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. We found that the women had low expectations about the placebo treatment yet endorsed what they referred to as "hope" and openness to "see what happens". Recording hot flushes via the symptom diary was viewed as a valuable opportunity for self-examination and appraising outcomes. Receiving relief from the placebo treatment empowered women and enhanced their sense of control and agency. In summary, participants' initial openness towards placebos, their hopes to get better, monitoring symptoms closely, and taking the initiative to address symptoms were components of a positive open-label placebo experience.


Assuntos
Fogachos , Menopausa , Humanos , Feminino , Fogachos/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego
9.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 173(6): 775-778, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322310

RESUMO

The study involved 138 women aged 45-60 years in perimenopause (n=55) and postmenopause (n=83) with insomnia (main groups) and without it (control). The levels of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity were determined in erythrocytes; activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase were measured in blood serum. The differences with the control groups were found only in perimenopause: higher glutathione reductase activity and reduced GSSG level and GSH/GSSG ratio in women with insomnia (p<0.05). The results of the comparative analysis between the main groups showed lower glutathione reductase activity, increased GSSG level, and a decrease the GSH/GSSG ratio in the postmenopausal period compared with the perimenopause (p<0.05). These results can be used in choosing the tactics for complex therapy of insomnia in menopausal women to correct free radical homeostasis and prevention of oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Feminino , Humanos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Dissulfeto de Glutationa , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Menopausa
10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(45): e330, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although menopause is considered a risk factor for depression, no association has been established between the risk of suicidal ideation and age at menopause. This study aimed to evaluate the association between age at menopause and suicidal ideation in middle-aged menopausal Korean women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013-2018). Women aged 40-65 years were divided into the following three categories: primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), early menopause, and menopause, according to age at natural menopause (< 40, 40-45, and > 45 years, respectively). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). RESULTS: Among 2,232 menopausal women, 25 (1.1%) experienced POI and 114 (5.1%) experienced early menopause. The PHQ-9 items that pertained to low self-esteem and suicidal ideation scored higher in women with POI than in those who experienced menopause after 45 years of age. The prevalence of suicidal ideation differed significantly according to age at menopause (POI, 30.0%; early menopause, 12.7%; menopause, 8.0%; P = 0.016). Logistic regression analysis revealed that POI was significantly associated with suicidal ideation after the adjustment for age, body mass index, and education, household income, and walking levels (odds ratio, 4.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-17.7). CONCLUSION: Korean middle-aged women with POI were more likely to have suicidal ideation than those who experienced menopause at 45 years or above, despite not being diagnosed with major depressive disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ideação Suicida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Transversais , Menopausa , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 997808, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389844

RESUMO

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common female reproductive disorder and characterized by menopause, increased gonadotropin levels and estrogen deficiency before the age of 40 years old. The etiologies and pathogenesis of POF are not fully clear. At present, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the main treatment options for POF. It helps to ameliorate perimenopausal symptoms and related health risks, but can't restore ovarian function and fertility fundamentally. With the development of regenerative medicine, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have shown great potential for the recovery of ovarian function and fertility based on the advantages of abundant sources, high capacity for self-renewal and differentiation, low immunogenicity and less ethical considerations. This systematic review aims to summarize the possible therapeutic mechanisms of BMSCs for POF. A detailed search strategy of preclinical studies and clinical trials on BMSCs and POF was performed on PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science and Embase database. A total of 21 studies were included in this review. Although the standardization of BMSCs need more explorations, there is no doubt that BMSCs transplantation may represent a prospective therapy for POF. It is hope to provide a theoretical basis for further research and treatment for POF.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/terapia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/etiologia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/patologia , Medicina Regenerativa , Menopausa
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 994642, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339416

RESUMO

Background: Yin Huo Tang (YHT), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, is effectively used for the clinical treatment of menopause-like symptoms in China. This study aimed to investigate its efficacy on menopause-like symptoms in mice using behavioral tests and histopathological assessment, and to determine its possible mechanism of action based on network pharmacology. Methods: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology was used to identify the potential active ingredients of YHT. In mice, menopause-like symptoms were induced by combination of bilateral ovariectomy and empty bottle stimulation. The mice were then treated with the YHT aqueous extract for three weeks. Behavior, sleep state, body weight, organ index, and histomorphology were analyzed separately. Additionally, network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to predict the mechanisms underlying the action of YHT. Finally, serum estradiol was quantified to preliminarily verify the results of network pharmacology. Results: YHT not only improved the behavior of mice (attack and explore behavior reduced; modify behavior increased) but also ameliorated the sleep state (sleep time increased and incubation time reduced). YHT reduced body weight, increased uterine weight, and improved the histomorphology of some organs. Network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses revealed that the estrogen signaling pathway might play a key role in attenuating menopause-like symptoms. Furthermore, YHT treatment reversed the reduction in serum estradiol levels. Conclusions: YHT alleviates menopause-like symptoms in a mouse model, providing a rationale for using it as a potential therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Menopausa , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Estradiol
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064779, 2022 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375984

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of degenerative disorders, including osteoarthritis (OA), increases rapidly in women after menopause. However, the influence of the menopause is still insufficiently investigated due to the slowness of menopausal transition. In this study, a novel human model is used in which it is expected that menopausal-related changes will occur faster. This is the Females discontinuing Oral Contraceptives Use at Menopausal age model. The ultimate aim is to link these changes to OA and other degenerative disorders, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis and tendinopathies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a pilot observational prospective cohort study with 2 years of follow-up. Fifty women aged 50-60 who use oral contraceptive (OC) and have the intention to stop are included. Measurements are performed once before stopping OC, and four times thereafter at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. At every time point, a questionnaire is filled in and a sample of blood is drawn. At the first and final time points, a physical examination, hand radiographs and a MRI scan of one knee are performed. The primary OA outcome is progression of the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score. Secondary OA outcomes are the development of clinical knee and hand OA, development of knee OA according to the MRI definition, and progression of radiographic features for hand OA. Principal component analysis will be used to assess which changes occur after stopping OC. Univariate and multivariate generalised estimating equation models will be used to test for associations between these components and OA. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam (MEC-2019-0592). All participants must give informed consent before data collection. Results will be disseminated in national and international journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NL70796.078.19.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Menopausa , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 437, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbes were closely related to women's health. Previous studies reported that the gut microbes of premenopausal women were different from those of postmenopausal women. However, little was known about the relationship between gut microbiota dysbiosis and menopausal syndrome (MPS). The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between MPS and gut microbes. METHODS: Patients with MPS (P group, n = 77) and healthy women (H group, n = 24) at menopause were recruited in this study. The stool specimen and clinical parameters (demographic data, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), et al) of participants' were collected. We evaluated the differences in gut microbes by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We used LEfSe to identify gut microbes with varying abundances in different groups. The Spearman correlation coefficients of clinical parameters and gut microbes were calculated. PICRUSt was used to predict the potential KEGG Ortholog functional profiles of microbial communities. RESULTS: The abundance of 14 species differed substantially between the MPS and menopausal healthy women (LDA significance threshold > 2.0) according to LEfSe analysis. Using Spearman's correlation analysis, it was discovered that E2 had a positive correlation with Aggregatibacter segnis, Bifidobacterium animalis, Acinetobacter guillouiae (p < 0.05, these three species were enriched in menopausal healthy women), while FSH and LH had a negative correlation with them (p < 0.05). KEGG level3 metabolic pathways relevant to cardiovascular disease and carbohydrate metabolism were enriched in the MPS (p < 0.05), according to functional prediction by PICRUST and analyzed by Dunn test. CONCLUSION: There was gut microbiota dysbiosis in MPS, which is reflected in the deficiency of the abundance of Aggregatibacter segnis, Bifidobacterium animalis and Acinetobacter guillouiae related to the level of sex hormones. In MPS individuals, species with altered abundances and unique functional pathways were found.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Feminino , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Hormônio Luteinizante , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Menopausa
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 438, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopause that occurs before the age of 45 and is not medically induced (referred to here as 'early natural menopause') affects around one in 10 women and has serious health consequences. These consequences include increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We investigate risk factors for the onset of natural menopause before the age of 45 in two population-based prospective cohort studies in Britain: the 1958 cohort following 8959 women and the 1970 cohort following 8655 women. These studies follow women from birth to adulthood, and we use harmonized data on birth and early life characteristics, reproductive health, health behaviour, and socioeconomic characteristics for 6805 women who were pre-menopausal, peri-menopausal or had undergone natural menopause. Of these 6805 women, 3614 participated in the 1958 cohort (of which 368 had early menopause) and 3191 participated in the 1970 cohort (of which 206 had early menopause). Taking a life course approach, we focus on three distinct life stages - birth/early life, childhood, and early adulthood - to understand when risk factors are most harmful. Respecting the temporal sequence of exposures, we use a series of multivariable logistic regression models to estimate associations between early menopause and each potential risk factor adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: We find that early menopause is influenced by circumstances at birth. Women born in lower social class families, whose mother smoked during the pregnancy or who were breastfed 1 month or less were more likely to undergo early menopause. Early menopause is also associated with poorer cognitive ability and smoking in childhood. Adult health behaviour also matters. Smoking is positively correlated with early menopause, while regular exercise and moderate frequency of alcohol drinking in women's early thirties are associated with reduced risk of early menopause. The occurrence of gynaecological problems by women's early thirties is also linked to early menopause. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that characteristics at different periods of life are associated with early menopause. Some of these associations relate to modifiable behaviours and thus the risks of early menopause and the adverse health outcomes associated with it may be preventable.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Menopausa Precoce , Adulto , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Coorte de Nascimento , Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Etários
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2239491, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318208

RESUMO

Importance: During menopause, the levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease and 60% to 70% of women experience menopausal symptoms, including mood disturbances. The latter might be prevented by hormone therapy (HT), yet some studies have suggested that use of HT might be associated with increased risk of depression. Objective: To examine whether use of HT during menopause was associated with a subsequent diagnosis of depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide register-based cohort and self-controlled case series study included all women in Denmark aged 45 years between January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2017 (n = 825 238), without prior oophorectomy, breast cancer, or cancer in reproductive organs. Follow-up was completed on December 31, 2018. The statistical analysis was performed from September 1, 2021, through May 31, 2022. Exposures: Redeemed prescriptions of different types of HT identified by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system codes (G03C [estrogen] and G03F [estrogen combined with progestin]) in the Danish National Prescription Registry between 1995 and 2017. Type of administration was divided into systemic (oral or transdermal) and local (intravaginal or intrauterine). Main Outcomes and Measures: A hospital diagnosis of depression (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, codes F32-F33 and International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision, codes 296.09, 296.29, 298.0, and 300.49) between 1995 through 2018. Associations were examined in cohort and self-controlled case series analysis using Cox proportional hazards and fixed-effects Poisson regression models. Results: During follow-up from 45 years of age to a mean of 56.0 (range, 45.1-67.7) years, 189 821 women (23.0%) initiated systemically or locally administered HT and 13 069 (1.6%) were diagnosed with depression. Systemically administered HT was mainly initiated before 50 years of age and was associated with a higher risk of a subsequent depression diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] for 48-50 years of age, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.24-1.81]). The risk was especially elevated the year after initiation of both treatment with estrogen alone (HR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.21-3.41]) and estrogen combined with progestin (HR, 2.01 [95% CI,1.26-3.21]). Locally administered HT was initiated across all ages and was not associated with depression risk (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.70-1.87]). It was, however, associated with a lower risk of depression when initiated after 54 years of age (HR for 54-60 years of age, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.70-0.91]). In self-controlled analysis, which efficiently accounts for time-invariant confounding, users of systemically administered HT had higher rates of depression in the years after initiation compared with the years before treatment (incidence rate ratio for 0-1 year after initiation, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.30-2.14]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that systemically administered HT before and during menopause is associated with higher risk of depression, especially in the years immediately after initiation, whereas locally administered HT is associated with lower risk of depression for women 54 years or older.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Progestinas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Depressão , Menopausa , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Progesterona , Dinamarca
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 473, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether women's physical function in mid-life is related to their reproductive age is not known. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare changes in physical function in women by reproductive age, measured as time since final menstrual period (FMP), and chronological age, and to explore associations with repeatedly assessed levels of reproductive hormones. METHODS: We used data from 2319 UK women with up to three repeated measurements of physical function (median length of follow up: 2 years), focusing on changes occurring in women experiencing a natural menopausal transition. The main outcome was a composite physical function score that incorporated assessments of strength (grip strength), balance (one-leg stand) and cardiorespiratory fitness (timed chair rises). Associations with time since FMP, age, and time-updated measures of anti-Müllerian hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were assessed by multilevel models and generalised estimating equations models adjusted for the underlying effects of chronological age and confounding by education, age at first birth and smoking. RESULTS: The results showed that, adjusted for these confounders, time since FMP (- 0.21 SD per 10 years, 95% CI - 0.37, - 0.06) and chronological age (- 0.31 SD per 10 years, 95% CI - 0.46, - 0.15) were inversely associated with the physical function composite score. Grip strength seemed to be the main contributor to the decline in the composite score by time since FMP. There was no strong evidence of associations between any of the three reproductive hormones and the composite score. CONCLUSIONS: Physical function in women in mid-life declined with both chronological and reproductive age. The decline with reproductive age was independent of chronological age but did not seem to be driven by changes in reproductive hormones.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Menopausa , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Estudos Longitudinais , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Reprodução
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 452, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aging is associated with many different health-related challenges for women such as menopause and its associated problems. Self-care (SC) is a factor with potential effects on menopause and its consequences. SC education based on health literacy has the potential to improve menopausal women's SC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SC education based on the health literacy index (HLI) on SC and quality of life (QOL) among menopausal women. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Iran. Participants were 100 menopausal women purposively recruited from five comprehensive healthcare centers in the south of Tehran. They were randomly allocated to a control and an intervention group through block randomization. Intervention was an HLI-based SC education program implemented in four 1.5-hour weekly sessions through the lecture, group discussion, and question and answer methods. Data were collected before and eight weeks after the intervention using a demographic questionnaire, the Health Literacy for Iranian Adults scale, the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the Menopausal Self-Care Questionnaire. The SPSS software (v. 22.0) was used to analyze the data through the Chi-square, Fisher's exact, paired-sample t, and the independent-sample t tests as well as the analysis of covariance at a significance level of less than 0.05. FINDINGS: There were no significant differences between the intervention and the control groups respecting the pretest mean scores of QOL (88.15 ± 32.36 vs. 79.6 ± 36.99) and SC (104.75 ± 12.31 vs. 103.32 ± 13.8) (P > 0.05). However, the posttest mean scores of QOL and SC in the intervention group significantly differed from the control group (66.44 ± 28.41vs. 81.3 ± 38.04 and 125.6 ± 11.23 vs. 102.6 ± 14.34) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HLI-based SC education is effective in significantly improving menopausal women's QOL and SC and can be used to improve health-related outcomes among menopausal women. Clinical trial registration This research was registered (24/03/2020) in the www.thaiclinicaltrials.org with registration number: TCTR20200324002.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Autocuidado , Irã (Geográfico) , Menopausa
20.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364729

RESUMO

Menopause is a period during which women undergo dramatic hormonal changes. These changes lead to physical and mental discomfort, are greatly afflictive, and critically affect women's lives. However, the current safe and effective management measures for women undergoing menopause are insufficient. Several probiotic functions of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been recognized, including alleviation of lactose intolerance, protection of digestive tract health, activation of the immune system, protection against infections, improvement of nutrient uptake, and improvement of the microbiota. In this review, we highlight the currently available knowledge of the potential protective effects of LAB on preventing or mitigating menopausal symptoms, particularly in terms of maintaining balance in the vaginal microbiota, reducing bone loss, and regulating the nervous system and lipid metabolism. Given the increasing number of women entering menopause and the emphasis on the management of menopausal symptoms, LAB are likely to soon become an indispensable part of clinical/daily care for menopausal women. Herein, we do not intend to provide a comprehensive analysis of each menopausal disorder or to specifically judge the reliability and safety of complementary therapies; rather, we aim to highlight the potential roles of LAB in individualized treatment strategies for the clinical management of menopause.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Lactobacillales , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Menopausa/fisiologia
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