Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 61
Filtrar
1.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(3): 178-179, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623792

RESUMO

An overview of the work the approach taken by the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families in the rapid transition to remote working in response to the coronavirus lockdown. We outline some of the challenges of remote working and how we are seeking to mitigate them, informed by the over-riding principle that individual relationships and the experiences of the child, young person and family must remain the central concern. The importance of maintaining a mentalising stance in remote working is discussed. We argue that a mentalising relationship which generates epistemic trust is possible in remote working, but this will require particular thought and effort on the part of the therapist. In particular, it is suggested that mentalising processes can be supported in remote working through, in the absence of the more implicit communications that are possible in face-to-face work, more explicit communications about mental states.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Consulta Remota , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Psicologia , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
Dev Psychol ; 56(6): 1191-1206, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338933

RESUMO

Parental mentalization refers to parents' capacity to treat their children as having minds of their own and consider the mental states underlying their behaviors. This study examined the roles of mothers' executive functions (EFs), a group of processes supporting self-regulation, in 2 aspects of parental mentalization-spontaneity as measured by mind-mindedness (MM), and complexity as measured by parental reflective functioning (PRF)-while examining child- and family related contextual-moderators. Ninety-nine mothers of 66-month-old preschool children (40 full-term, 59 preterm) completed EFs tasks, were interviewed regarding their child and coparenting, and rated their perception of their child as being difficult (i.e., difficult behavior and negative emotionality). EFs were unrelated to MM. However, EFs were related to PRF when children were rated as more difficult, and when mothers reported high coparenting dissatisfaction; moreover, EFs and PRF were associated among mothers of full-term children, but not in the preterm group. Findings indicate that EFs contribute to the complexity and coherence of maternal mentalization, especially in contexts in which regulation is required for being able to consider the child's mind (difficult child, coparenting dissatisfaction), but not in stressful contexts that are likely to elicit automaticity (prematurity). EFs, however, do not seem to contribute to spontaneous attribution of mental states to the child, when complexity is not considered. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Mães , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
3.
Psychopathology ; 53(1): 48-58, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294649

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to traumatic stressful events in childhood is an important risk factor for the development of posttraumatic symptomatology. From a mentalization-based developmental perspective, childhood adversity can affect attachment in children and may result in insecure attachment and impaired mentalizing abilities, which increase the lifetime risk for psychopathology. The present cross-sectional study examined the potential mediating role of attachment insecurity and impaired mentalizing on the relationship between childhood trauma and posttraumatic symptomatology. METHOD: Adults who had experienced childhood neglect and abuse (n = 295, 184 patients with personality disorder and 111 community controls) completed self-report measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, dissociative experiences, adult attachment insecurity, and mentalizing. RESULTS: Structural equation modelling results revealed that attachment insecurity together with lower mentalizing mediated the link between childhood trauma and PTSD symptoms, and lower mentalizing mediated the link between childhood trauma and dissociative experiences. CONCLUSION: The findings show that attachment insecurity and lower mentalizing play significant mediating roles in the reporting of posttraumatic symptomatology among survivors of childhood abuse and neglect, with treatment implications for mentalization-based therapy as beneficial for individuals with a history of childhood trauma.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 74(5): 311-322, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910059

RESUMO

Context: Patients with eating disorders (EDs) may have a lower mentalization ability. To the best of our knowledge, no meta-analysis has so far addressed the multidimensional mentalization profile within these patients.Objective: To summarize the existing evidence of the mentalization profile and its association with EDs.Data sources: We searched for articles in PsychINFO, Embase and PubMed using the search terms mentalization, reflective function, adult attachment interview, alexithymia, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, eye test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, Theory of Mind, mind-mindedness, mind-blindness, facial expression recognition, metacognition, ED, anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN).Studies included: Quantitative studies including diagnosed patients with an ED, healthy controls (HCs) and relevant test methods.Data synthesis: Forty-four studies were included. Nine studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. Significantly lower mentalization ability about oneself was found in patients with an ED when compared to HCs. Groups were more comparable when dealing with mentalization ability of others. Non-significant but clinically relevant results include a tendency for a lower mentalization ability in patients with AN compared to patients with BN.Conclusion: The mentalization profile is complex and varies across dimensions of mentalization in patients with an ED. Different degrees of mentalization between various EDs were found, implying the necessity for further research on mentalization profiles in different ED diagnoses. The sparse existing literature was a limitation for this meta-analysis, emphasizing that further research on the mentalization profile in patients with EDs is needed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos
5.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 48, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996763

RESUMO

Extensive study of typically developing individuals and those on the autism spectrum has identified a large number of brain regions associated with our ability to navigate the social world. Although it is widely appreciated that this so-called "social brain" is composed of distinct, interacting systems, these component parts have yet to be clearly elucidated. Here we used measures of eye movement and neural typicality-based on the degree to which subjects deviated from the norm-while typically developing (N = 62) and individuals with autism (N = 36) watched a large battery of movies depicting social interactions. Our findings provide clear evidence for distinct, but overlapping, neural systems underpinning two major components of the "social brain," social orienting, and inferring the mental state of others.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neurociência Cognitiva/métodos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Mentalização/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Estudos de Coortes , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Filmes Cinematográficos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cerebellum ; 19(2): 235-242, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925668

RESUMO

In recent years, increasing evidence of the cerebellar role in social cognition has emerged. The cerebellum has been shown to modulate cortical activity of social brain regions serving as a regulator of function-specific mentalizing and mirroring processes. In particular, a mentalizing area in the posterior cerebellum, specifically Crus II, is preferentially recruited for more complex and abstract forms of social processing, together with mentalizing cerebral areas including the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), and the precuneus. In the present study, the network-based statistics approach was used to assess functional connectivity (FC) differences within this mentalizing cerebello-cerebral network associated with a specific cerebellar damage. To this aim, patients affected by spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), a neurodegenerative disease specifically affecting regions of the cerebellar cortex, and age-matched healthy subjects have been enrolled. The dmPFC, left and right TPJ, the precuneus, and the cerebellar Crus II were used as regions of interest to construct the mentalizing network to be analyzed and evaluate pairwise functional relations between them. When compared with controls, SCA2 patients showed altered internodal connectivity between dmPFC, left (L-) and right (R-) TPJ, and right posterior cerebellar Crus II.The present results indicate that FC changes affect a function-specific mentalizing network in patients affected by cerebellar damage. In particular, they allow to better clarify functional alteration mechanisms driven by the cerebellar damage associated with SCA2 suggesting that selective cortico-cerebellar functional disconnections may underlie patients' social impairment in domain-specific complex and abstract forms of social functioning.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Brain Cogn ; 138: 105507, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855701

RESUMO

The Dynamic Interacting Shape Clips (DISC) is a novel stimulus set designed to examine mentalizing, specifically social attribution, suitable for use with diverse methodologies including fMRI. The DISC offer some advantages compared to other social attribution stimuli including a large number of stimuli, subsets of stimuli depicting different kinds of social interactions (i.e., friendly approach, aggression, and avoidance), and two control tasks-one that contrasts interpretations of socially contingent movement versus random, inanimate movement, and the other that examines the impact of attentional shifts on mentalizing using the same visual stimuli with a different cue. This study describes both behavioral and fMRI findings from a sample of 22 typically developing adults (mage = 21.7 years, SD = 1.72). Behavioral data supports participants anthropomorphized the stimuli and the social intent of the clips were perceived as intended. Neuroimaging findings demonstrate that brain areas associated with processing animacy and mental state attribution were activated when participants were shown clips featuring social interactions compared to random movement, and when attention was cued to social versus physical aspects of the same stimuli. Results lend empirical support for the use of the DISC in future studies of social cognition.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Mentalização/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(4): 1133-1146, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865493

RESUMO

Time-based prospective memory (PM) is diminished under various task demands in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is still unclear what underpins their impairment or how it could be remediated. This study explored whether instructions to prioritise one element of a PM task over another improved performance in adults with ASD (compared to a group of matched neurotypical adults), and how that is related to cognitive abilities. Results indicated that importance instructions significantly improved the PM performance of participants with ASD. Moreover, the extent of the benefit was associated significantly with objectively-measured executive set-shifting ability and self-reported inhibitory control ability (the poorer the set-shifting/inhibitory control, the greater the benefit). Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Mentalização/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Neuropsychologia ; 133: 107187, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499047

RESUMO

A variety of objects are made to serve social functions. The use of these objects has greatly enriched and expanded our social behaviors. How do our brains represent the social knowledge of inanimate objects such as coins, telephones, and handcuffs? According to a recent version of the grounded theory, social knowledge of inanimate objects might be grounded in the mentalizing network, as the social functions of inanimate objects are closely associated with the intentions of the people using them. However, there is also evidence that the mentalizing network may only get activated when a human/mental agent is detected. Using fMRI, we explored the neural correlates of social knowledge of inanimate objects by comparing the brain activation evoked by high-sociality object nouns (e.g., banknote) with that evoked by low-sociality object nouns (e.g., battery). The left anterior superior temporal sulcus, a classic part of the mentalizing network, showed higher activation for the high-sociality inanimate object nouns than for the low-sociality ones in the whole-brain analysis. Several other areas of the mentalizing network showed sensitivity to object sociality in small volume correction and/or region-of-interest analyses. Our findings indicate that social knowledge of inanimate objects is supported by brain areas in the mentalizing network.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neuropsychologia ; 134: 107195, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545966

RESUMO

Recent research has shown that relational self-esteem (RSE) carries important implications, especially in collectivistic cultures. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanism underlying RSE and the behavioral and neural differences between RSE and personal self-esteem (PSE) in Chinese with interdependent self-construal. In Study 1, 581 participants completed a scale measuring RSE, the Rosenberg Personal Self-esteem Scale, and the Self-construal Scale. In Study 2, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan was conducted with 42 participants while they evaluated whether they agreed with sentences concerning the relational self-worth, the personal self-worth and the semantics. Results of study 1 showed that individuals with higher interdependent self-construal were more likely to have higher RSE than PSE. The behavioral results of RSE and PSE in study 2 were consistent with the results of Study 1. Moreover, fMRI results showed that the activation of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was responsible for processing the positive representation of RSE versus PSE. More importantly, higher relational self-worth rating was related to more vmPFC activation among individuals with high interdependent self-construal. These results suggest that individuals with high interdependent self-construal have a more positive representation of RSE rather than PSE.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mentalização/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 105: 106-114, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394116

RESUMO

The term 'action understanding' has been defined in several ways since it was first proposed to describe the psychological process subserved by mirror neurons. Here we outline and critique these definitions of 'action understanding' in order to evaluate the claim that mirror neurons perform such a process. We delineate three distinct definitions of 'action understanding', each involving a distinct psychological process. Action identification comprises using the specific configurations of body parts in observed actions to identify those actions, whereas goal identification and intention identification involve generalising across different observed actions to identify the immediate goal of, or the hidden mental state motivating, the actions. This paper discusses the benefits and drawbacks of using these definitions to describe the process purportedly performed by mirror neurons. We then examine each definition in relation to the mirror neuron literature. We conclude that although there is some evidence consistent with the suggestion that mirror neurons contribute to action identification, there is little evidence to support the claim that they contribute to goal or intention identification.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Objetivos , Intenção , Mentalização/fisiologia , Neurônios-Espelho/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Humanos
12.
Psychophysiology ; 56(12): e13465, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464351

RESUMO

Studies have suggested that there is a strong link between the bodily self and the mechanisms underlying vicarious representations. Here, we used somatosensory ERPs to investigate the temporal dynamics of vicarious touch for stimuli that are more or less related to one's own body (human hands vs. rubber gloves). We found that vicarious touch effects were restricted to self-relatable events (human hands) at early implicit stages of somatosensory processing (P45). At later more cognitive stages of processing (late positive complex, LPC), the vicarious touch effect was stronger for self-relatable events (touch on human hands) than nonself-relatable events (touch on rubber gloves) but present for both. Both effects, but especially the vicarious touch effect for human hands at P45, were stronger in individuals with higher levels of interoceptive awareness. Our results confirm that there is a tight link between vicarious touch and the bodily self and characterize P45 effects of vicarious touch as its likely neural basis. We propose that vicarious processes and the embodied self may be representationally indistinct (linked in a common neural representation) at early implicit somatosensory processing stages.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados/fisiologia , Interocepção/fisiologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neuroimage ; 202: 116102, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446128

RESUMO

Movements can inform us about what people are doing and also about how they feel. This phenomenologically evident distinction has been suggested to correspond functionally with differential neural correlates denoted as mirror neuron system (MNS) and mentalizing system (MENT). To separate out the roles of the underlying systems we presented identical stimuli under different task demands: character animations showing everyday activities (mopping, sweeping) performed in different moods (angry, happy). Thirty-two participants were undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while asked to identify either the performed movement or the displayed mood. Univariate GLM analysis revealed the expected activation of either in MNS or MENT depending on the task. A complementary multivariate pattern-learning analysis based on the "social brain atlas" confirmed the expected recruitment of both systems. In conclusion, both approaches converge onto clearly distinct functional roles of both social neural networks in a novel dynamic social perception paradigm.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Neurônios-Espelho/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Percepção Social
14.
Neuropsychologia ; 133: 107172, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425710

RESUMO

Sensorimotor resonance, the vicarious activation of the sensory motor system during observation of another's actions, is thought to contribute to important social functions including empathy. Previous research has shown that sensorimotor resonance, as measured by suppression of the electrophysiological (EEG) mu rhythm, is predicted by trait empathy, but findings are inconsistent. Here we report data from a high-powered study (N = 252) to clarify the relationship between sensorimotor resonance as indexed by mu suppression during action observation and trait empathy as measured by the well-established Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our initial pre-registered analyses at central electrode locations indicate that sensorimotor resonance is unrelated to general trait empathy or its sub-facets, however, these effects could not be isolated from attention-related occipital alpha. An additional non-registered analysis using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to look at the isolated central mu-component clarified the relationship. Results confirmed the lack of a relationship between the mu-component and the perspective taking, personal distress, or fantasy facets of the IRI, but suggest a possible association with empathic concern such that greater resonance is associated with greater empathic concern. These results question the previously assumed relationship between trait empathy and sensorimotor resonance and highlight the need to investigate experience sharing tendencies in the context of simulation-based resonance.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentalização/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Neurosci ; 39(33): 6555-6570, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263064

RESUMO

Artificial agents are becoming prevalent across human life domains. However, the neural mechanisms underlying human responses to these new, artificial social partners remain unclear. The uncanny valley (UV) hypothesis predicts that humans prefer anthropomorphic agents but reject them if they become too humanlike-the so-called UV reaction. Using fMRI, we investigated neural activity when subjects evaluated artificial agents and made decisions about them. Across two experimental tasks, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) encoded an explicit representation of subjects' UV reactions. Specifically, VMPFC signaled the subjective likability of artificial agents as a nonlinear function of humanlikeness, with selective low likability for highly humanlike agents. In exploratory across-subject analyses, these effects explained individual differences in psychophysical evaluations and preference choices. Functionally connected areas encoded critical inputs for these signals: the temporoparietal junction encoded a linear humanlikeness continuum, whereas nonlinear representations of humanlikeness in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and fusiform gyrus emphasized a human-nonhuman distinction. Following principles of multisensory integration, multiplicative combination of these signals reconstructed VMPFC's valuation function. During decision making, separate signals in VMPFC and DMPFC encoded subjects' decision variable for choices involving humans or artificial agents, respectively. A distinct amygdala signal predicted rejection of artificial agents. Our data suggest that human reactions toward artificial agents are governed by a neural mechanism that generates a selective, nonlinear valuation in response to a specific feature combination (humanlikeness in nonhuman agents). Thus, a basic principle known from sensory coding-neural feature selectivity from linear-nonlinear transformation-may also underlie human responses to artificial social partners.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Would you trust a robot to make decisions for you? Autonomous artificial agents are increasingly entering our lives, but how the human brain responds to these new artificial social partners remains unclear. The uncanny valley (UV) hypothesis-an influential psychological framework-captures the observation that human responses to artificial agents are nonlinear: we like increasingly anthropomorphic artificial agents, but feel uncomfortable if they become too humanlike. Here we investigated neural activity when humans evaluated artificial agents and made personal decisions about them. Our findings suggest a novel neurobiological conceptualization of human responses toward artificial agents: the UV reaction-a selective dislike of highly humanlike agents-is based on nonlinear value-coding in ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a key component of the brain's reward system.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Robótica , Adolescente , Adulto , Inteligência Artificial , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Conscious Cogn ; 74: 102773, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279131

RESUMO

In a recent study (Gilead et al., 2016), perspective taking (PT) was found to have a significant effect on affect ratings of negative pictures compared to neutrals. The current study explores the question whether PT would be affected equally by distinct negative emotions. We used neutral pictures and pictures classified as provoking sadness or disgust, matched for their intensity and arousal. Participants were asked to rate the pictures (on a scale from 1-no emotional reaction, to 5-very strong reaction) from 3 different perspectives - tough, sensitive, or their own - "me". In Experiment 1, all pictures were mixed in the same blocks. In Experiment 2, the sad and disgust pictures were separated into two different blocks (each including neutrals). Both experiments showed significant interaction between PT and emotion. PT was found to be influenced by valence; however, distinct negative emotions were found to affect PT similarly.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Asco , Mentalização/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Tristeza/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 167, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mentalization Based Therapy (MBT) has yielded promising outcomes for reducing self-harm, although to date only one study has reported MBT's effectiveness for adolescents (Rossouw and Fonagy, J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 51:1304-1313, 2012) wherein the treatment protocol consisted of an intensive programme of individual and family therapy. We sought to investigate an adaptation of the adult MBT introductory manual in a group format for adolescents. METHODS: The present study is a randomised controlled single blind feasibility trial that aims to (1) adapt the original explicit MBT introductory group manual for an adolescent population (MBT-Ai) and to (2) assess the feasibility of a trial of MBT-Ai through examination of consent rates, attendance, attrition and self-harm. Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to examine change over time in independent and dependent variables between groups, and multi level models (MLM) were conducted to examine key predictors in relation to change over time with self-report self-harm and emergency department presentation for harm as the primary outcome variables. RESULTS: Fifty-three young people consented to participate and were randomised to MBT-Ai + TAU or TAU alone. Five participants withdrew from the trial. Trial procedures seemed appropriate and safe, with acceptable group attendance. Self-reported self-harm and emergency department presentation for self-harm significantly decreased over time in both groups, though there were no between group differences. Social anxiety, emotion regulation, and borderline traits also significantly decreased over time in both groups. Mentalization emerged as a significant predictor of change over time in self reported self harm and hospital presentation for self-harm. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to carry out an RCT of MBT-Ai for adolescents already attending NHS CAMHS who have recently self-harmed. Our data gave signals that suggested a relatively brief group-based MBT-Ai intervention may be a promising intervention with potential for service implementation. Future research should consider the appropriate format, dosage and intensity of MBT for the adolescent population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02771691 ; Trial Registration Date: 25/04/2016.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 25(8): 896-900, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social cognitive deficits are an important consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS), yet our understanding of how these deficits manifest in progressive MS is currently limited. To this end, we examined theory of mind (ToM) ability in a sample of individuals with progressive MS using an ecologically valid virtual assessment tool that allows for delineation of cognitive ToM (inferring thoughts and intentions of others) from affective ToM (inferring emotions of others). METHODS & RESULTS: We compared 15 individuals with progressive MS and 15 healthy controls on their ToM ability using the Virtual Assessment of Mentalising Ability. We found that, relative to healthy controls, participants with progressive MS were impaired in cognitive ToM, but not in affective ToM. Furthermore, we found that the MS participants' deficits in cognitive ToM were mediated by their general cognitive ability such that poor cognitive ToM ability in MS was explained by poor performance on tests of memory and processing speed. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that ToM deficits in progressive MS may be limited to cognitive ToM, while affective ToM is conserved. This could be attributable to the MS-related deficits in general cognitive ability, which appear to negatively affect only the cognitive component of ToM.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/complicações , Pensamento/fisiologia
19.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(3): 472-482, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209821

RESUMO

The high rate of relapse among heroin users remains a significant public concern in China. In the present study, we utilized a Motivation-Skill-Desensitization-Mental Energy (MSDE) intervention and evaluated its effects on abstinence and mental health. Eighty-nine male heroin users in a drug rehabilitation center were enrolled in the study. The participants in the MSDE intervention group (n=46) received MSDE intervention, which included motivational interviewing, coping skills training, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and mindfulness-based psychotherapy. The participants in the control group (n=43) received a series of lectures on skills training. A significant increase in Contemplation Ladder score (P<0.001) and decreases in scores on the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale (P<0.001), Beck Depression Inventory (P<0.001), and Aggression Questionnaire (P=0.033) were found immediately after intervention. Compared to the control group, the MSDE intervention group reported significantly higher abstinence rates (P=0.027) and retention rates (P<0.001) at follow-up. Overall, the MSDE intervention, which uses a combined strategy for relapse prevention, could be a promising approach for preventing relapse among heroin users in China.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares/métodos , Dependência de Heroína/terapia , Mentalização/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , China , Seguimentos , Dependência de Heroína/psicologia , Dependência de Heroína/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inventário de Personalidade , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Med Hypotheses ; 128: 33-42, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203906

RESUMO

The capacity to understand another person's emotions, intentions, beliefs and personality traits, based on observed or communicated behaviors, is termed social cognition. During the last decade, social neuroscience has made great progress in understanding the neural correlates of social cognition. However, because the cerebellum is traditionally viewed as only involved in motor processing, the contribution of this major part of the brain in social processing has been largely ignored and its specific role in social cognition remains unclear. Nevertheless, recent meta-analyses have made its crucial contribution to social cognition evident. This raises the question: What is the exact function of the cerebellum in social cognition? We hypothesize that the cerebellum builds internal action models of our social inter-actions to predict how other people's actions will be executed, what our most likely responses are to these actions, so that we can automatize our interactions and instantly detect disruptions in these action sequences. This mechanism likely allows to better anticipate action sequences during social interactions in an automatic and intuitive way and to fine-tune these anticipations, making it easier to understand behaviors and to detect violations. This hypothesis has major implications in neurological disorders affecting the cerebellum such as autism, with detrimental effects on social functionality, especially on more complex and abstract social cognitive processes. Because the fundamental anatomical organization of the cerebellum is identical in many species (cerebellar microcomplexes), this hypothesis could have major impacts to elucidate social interactions in social animals.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cérebro/fisiologia , Comunicação , Condicionamento Operante , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Memória , Mentalização/fisiologia , Neurônios-Espelho/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurociências , Ratos , Recompensa
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...