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1.
Am Surg ; 86(2): 152-157, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106909

RESUMO

The professional use of social media is increasingly prevalent today, particularly in medicine and surgery. Several recent movements have highlighted the strengths of this forum for networking and mentorship for females in surgery who otherwise may lack mentors locally. We sought to describe modern uses for and strengths of social media for women in surgery globally via a systematic review of the literature. Multiple efforts and avenues have promoted gender equality in surgery, while also uniting female surgeons in a collaborative virtual network of colleagues. In particular, movements on Twitter, such as #ILookLikeASurgeon and #NYerORCoverChallenge, as well as other collaborative virtual fora have brought visibility to female surgeons, while drawing the young population of students and trainees toward surgical careers. Social media provides a unique opportunity for female trainees and established surgeons alike to network and establish mentorship relationships, which may aid in fostering interest in surgery and closing the gender gap in our field.


Assuntos
Tutoria , Médicas , Mídias Sociais , Cirurgiões , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Tutoria/métodos , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/organização & administração , Médicas/provisão & distribução , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo , Mídias Sociais/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Cirurgiões/organização & administração , Cirurgiões/provisão & distribução
2.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 20(9): 157-162, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355990

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that within radiation oncology, medical physicists (MP) experience high workloads. Little is known about how MPs use social support (SS) in times of stress. METHODS: In collaboration with the Workgroup on Prevention of Medical Error, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine administered this Human Investigation Committee (HIC) approved email survey to 8566 members. Respondents were considered likely to seek SS if they answered (probably/definitely would) and unlikely to seek support if they answered (probably/definitely would not). Logistic regression was applied to determine associations between demographic factors and willingness to seek support as well as perception of barriers. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred and ninety-seven members (15.1%) accessed and gave consent for the survey. One thousand and one (11.7%) respondents answered all relevant questions. Respondents were predominantly male (69.1%), MP in radiation oncology (81.8%), private practice (51.6%), with practice duration> 10 yr (60.2%). MPs were likely to seek SS for personal physical illness (78.63%), involvement in a medical error (73.94%) or adverse patient outcome (75.17%). MPs sought SS in the setting of personal fatigue (33.2%) or burnout (44.3%). Barriers to seeking SS were lack of time (80.3%), and uncertainty about whom to access (70.7%). MPs responded that they would be most likely to seek support from an equally experienced medical physicist colleague (81.0%). Most MPs (67.0%) identified as having experienced stressors, with serious family illness (35.2%), or burnout (32.8%) being most common. Factors associated with MPs unwillingness to seek SS for medical error included> 20 yr in practice (vs still in training - OR 0.30, P = 0.015), and male gender (OR 0.60, P = 0.003). Male gender was associated with the lowest willingness to seek support (OR 2.10, P = 0.0001), but also with fewer perceived barriers (OR 1.60, P = 0.0075). CONCLUSION: Willingness to seek SS is demonstrated, and MPs want colleagues to provide support. Given these results, peer support could be considered among MPs.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Física Sanitária , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo Associado , Médicos/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 93, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Latinos, African-Americans, and American Indians/Alaska Natives comprise 34% of Americans, these under-represented minorities (URMs) account for only 7% of US medical-school faculty. Even when URMs become faculty, they face many substantial challenges to success. Little has been published, however, on keys to academic success for URM young faculty investigators. METHODS: The Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) goal is to enhance the professional advancement of URM junior faculty pursuing research careers in general academic pediatrics. One important RAPID component is the annual mentoring/career-development conference, which targets URM residents, fellows, and junior faculty, and has included 62 URM participants since its 2013 inception. A conference highlight is the panel discussion on keys to academic success for URM young investigators, conducted by the RAPID National Advisory Committee, a diverse group of leading senior researchers. The article aim was to provide a guide to academic success for URM young investigators using the 2018 RAPID Conference panel discussion. A modified Delphi technique was used to provide a systematic approach to obtaining answers to six key questions using an expert panel: the single most important key to success for URM young investigators; ensuring optimal mentorship; how to respond when patients/families say, "I don't want you to see my child because you are ____"; best strategies for maximizing funding success; how to balance serving on time-consuming committees with enough time to advance research/career objectives; and the single thing you wish someone had told you which would have substantially enhanced your success early on. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: This is the first published practical guide on keys to academic success for URM young investigators. Identified keys to success included having multiple mentors, writing prolifically, being tenaciously persistent, having mentors who are invested in you, dealing with families who do not want you to care for their child because of your race/ethnicity by seeking to understand the reasons and debriefing with colleagues, seeking non-traditional funding streams, balancing committee work with having enough time to advance one's research and career by using these opportunities to generate scholarly products, and asking for all needed resources when negotiating for new jobs.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 104(5): 999-1008, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108141

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women remain underrepresented at all levels within the field of radiation oncology. We sought to study current female residents' experiences and concerns to inform interventions to promote gender equity. Furthermore, we evaluated interest in a professional society specifically for women radiation oncologists. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An anonymous 76-item survey was designed and distributed to current women residents in radiation oncology in 2017-2018. Analyses describe personal, program, and family characteristics and experiences before and after joining the field. RESULTS: Of 170 female residents surveyed, 125 responded (74% response rate). Over one-quarter were in programs with ≤2 female residents (29%) and ≤2 female attendings (29%). One-third (34%) reported having children. Over half (51%) reported that lack of mentorship affected career ambitions. Over half (52%) agreed that gender-specific bias existed in their programs, and over a quarter (27%) reported they had experienced unwanted sexual comments, attention, or advances by a superior or colleague. Only 5% reported no symptoms of burnout. Almost all (95%) agreed that radiation oncology is perceived as family friendly; however, only 52% agreed that it actually is. An overwhelming majority (90%) expressed interest in joining a professional group for women in radiation oncology. CONCLUSIONS: In the first study to our knowledge to focus specifically on the experiences of women residents in radiation oncology, a number of areas for potential improvement were highlighted, including isolation and underrepresentation, mentorship needs, bias and harassment, and gender-based obstacles such as need for support during pregnancy and motherhood. These findings support the organization of groups such as the Society for Women in Radiation Oncology, which seeks to target these needs to promote gender equity.


Assuntos
Gestão de Mudança , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/organização & administração , Sexismo , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Autoajuda , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
J Prof Nurs ; 35(3): 162-169, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126391

RESUMO

Clinical track faculty often lack mentoring opportunities needed to develop their scholarship which may hinder their academic promotion. The Clinical Track Faculty Mentoring Initiative was designed to foster scholarship development and academic promotion of clinical assistant professors. Fifteen clinical assistant professors in two cohorts and their mentors participated in the Initiative. Each Cohort lasted two years with one overlapping year. Participating clinical assistant professors were required to attend five check-in meetings, a summer writing workshop, school and university promotion information sessions, and mentor-protégé meetings. Program outcomes were assessed quarterly and they included knowledge of promotion processes, mentorship quality, scholarship productivity, and academic promotion. Scores on knowledge of promotion processes and perceived mentorship quality among participating clinical assistant professors were significantly increased. Participating clinical assistant professors published, on average, 3.33 papers and delivered 6.4 presentations in two years. The Initiative demonstrated an effective mentoring program that incorporated a multimethod approach with clear program goals, strong systems support, and high mentorship quality.


Assuntos
Docentes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Tutoria/métodos , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Universidades
6.
J Grad Med Educ ; 11(2): 221-225, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024657

RESUMO

Background: Mentorship models rarely seek generalizability across training programs at the graduate medical education (GME) level. Objective: We examined the sustainability and effectiveness of an intervention to increase the number and usefulness of trainee mentorship. Methods: A 0.20 full-time equivalent GME faculty adviser position (MD, MEd) implemented mentorship programs in residencies and fellowships. In group 1, 6 GME programs implemented the mentorship strategies prior to 2014, which were used to measure whether the number of mentor relationships were longitudinally sustained. In group 2, 10 different GME programs implemented the mentorship strategies in 2016, which were used to measure whether the intervention immediately increased the number of mentor relationships. To measure mentorship usefulness, trainees rated mentors' ability to promote clinical skills and personal and professional development. The remaining programs were the comparison. Responses from the 2014 and 2016 annual institutional trainee survey were analyzed. Results: The incidence of group 1 reporting mentor relationships in 2014 compared to the incidence of group 1 in 2016 were 89% (41 of 46) and 95% (42 of 44), respectively, suggesting that the intervention was sustained for 2 years (P = .26). Group 2 showed a higher proportion of trainees reporting mentors in 2016 (88%, 149 of 170) compared to preintervention (66%, 71 of 108; P = .00001). Groups 1 and 2 reported significant increases in mentorship usefulness. Conclusions: A GME initiative to enhance mentoring across specialties in 16 GME training programs was self-sustaining and effective.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Docentes de Medicina , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , California , Estudos de Coortes , Bolsas de Estudo/métodos , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(5): 1047-1054, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963649

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the effectiveness of a clinical reasoning teaching workshop (CRTW) in preceptors' teaching ability, self-efficacy of clinical reasoning teaching. BACKGROUND: Preceptors' teaching skills are crucial for training novice nurses. How to enhance preceptors' teaching ability is a pertinent concern in clinical practice. METHODS: This study comprised two stages. At stage I, we administered a pre- to post-test single group with 33 participants to investigate the changes in preceptors' knowledge and self-efficacy in clinical reasoning teaching after clinical reasoning teaching workshop. At stage II, a quasi-experimental design was adopted to assess the effectiveness of the clinical reasoning teaching workshop by comparing the preceptors' teaching ability by novice nurses. There were 22 nurses' preceptors who underwent the clinical reasoning teaching workshop and 70 nurses with preceptors who did not undergo clinical reasoning teaching workshop and matched with preceptors' age and working experience. RESULTS: After clinical reasoning teaching workshop, preceptors' knowledge and self-efficacy of clinical reasoning teaching ware increased significantly. Novice nurses (study group) scored their preceptors' teaching ability significantly higher than nurses' (control group). CONCLUSION: The clinical reasoning teaching workshop can enhance preceptors' teaching ability and confidence, thereby improving their teaching ability. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: A well-designed workshop with appropriated teaching method can allow preceptors to learn effectiveness. Clinical reasoning teaching workshop can be used in the training of preceptors.


Assuntos
Educação/normas , Preceptoria/métodos , Ensino/educação , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores/educação , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Preceptoria/normas , Competência Profissional/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/normas , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Nurs Outlook ; 67(4): 433-440, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) facilitator/mentor is a collaborative member of the project team, yet little has been reported about this role. This qualitative study explored the experiences of DNP project facilitators. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted using a purposeful sample of project facilitators. Focus group questions were developed using Gitlin, Lyons, and Kolodner's five-stage model of collaboration. Data were transcribed and content analyzed using Kruger and Casey methods. RESULTS: Three focus groups included 21 facilitators who were affiliated with an academic health system. Six themes emerged: (a) exploring student interest, (b) establishing a collaborative fit, (c) connecting with key stakeholders, (d) overcoming barriers, (e) role clarity, and (f) interaction. CONCLUSION: DNP project facilitators have an important role not only in students' formation, but also in contributing to the academic-practice partnership. The importance of the facilitator role as the student progresses through their DNP project cannot be overstated.


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Colaboração Intersetorial , Mentores/psicologia , Preceptoria/organização & administração , Preceptoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Prática Avançada de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(1): 38-44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860198

RESUMO

Background: Globally, the post-graduate medical education has undergone tremendous changes with emphasis on training, services and research to equip trainees with competence for independent professional development. However, not all the fellows and members of the West African Post-graduate Medical College and the National Post-graduate Medical College of Nigeria recognise the values of mentoring in achieving the career success. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the prevalence, benefits, barriers and predictors of mentoring in a cross-section of the Post-graduate Medical College fellows and members in a tertiary health institution in South-Eastern Nigeria. Participants and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 168 study participants who were sampled from the Post-graduate Medical College fellows and members in the Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Nigeria. Data collection was done using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire that elicited information on awareness, prevalence, barriers and benefits of mentoring. Results: The age of participants ranged from 26 to 59 (41 ± 9.4) years. All the respondents were aware of the mentorship. The prevalence of mentoring was 33.3%. The most common benefit was personal and professional growth and development (100.0%). The most common barrier was the pressure of professional duties and personal exigencies (100.0%). The most significant predictor of mentoring had departmental mentoring programme participants who had departmental mentoring programmes were two times more likely to have mentoring relationships when compared to their counterparts who had none (adjusted odds ratio = 2.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-3.10; P = 0.002). Conclusion: The level of awareness of mentoring was very high but did not translate to appropriate involvement in mentoring. The most common benefit was personal and professional growth and development. The most common barrier was the pressure of professional duties and personal exigencies. The most significant predictor of mentoring relationship had departmental mentoring programme.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213323, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861036

RESUMO

In scenarios where allocations are determined by participant's preferences, Two-Sided Matching is a well-established approach with applications in College Admissions, School Choice, and Mentor-Mentee matching problems. In such a context, participants in the matching have preferences with whom they want to be matched with. This article studies two important concepts in Two-Sided Matching: multiple objectives when finding a solution, and manipulation of preferences by participants. We use real data sets from a Mentor-Mentee program for the evaluation to provide insight on realistic effects and implications of the two concepts. In the first part of the article, we consider the quality of solutions found by different algorithms using a variety of solution criteria. Most current algorithms focus on one criterion (number of participants matched), while not directly taking into account additional objectives. Hence, we evaluate different algorithms, including multi-objective heuristics, and the resulting trade-offs. The evaluation shows that existing algorithms for the considered problem sizes perform similarly well and close to the optimal solution, yet multi-objective heuristics provide the additional benefit of yielding solutions with better quality on multiple criteria. In the second part, we consider the effects of different types of preference manipulation on the participants and the overall solution. Preference manipulation is a concept that is well established in theory, yet its practical effects on the participants and the solution quality are less clear. Hence, we evaluate the effects of three manipulation strategies on the participants and the overall solution quality, and investigate if the effects depend on the used solution algorithm as well.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Relações Interprofissionais , Tutoria/normas , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/educação , Metas , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 219(2): 67-72, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185700

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: los tutores son los responsables de planificar el aprendizaje de los residentes. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la situación de los tutores de Medicina Interna en España y detectar áreas de mejora que puedan facilitar su trabajo. Material y métodos: encuestas online a tutores de Medicina Interna de mayo a julio de 2017 con análisis posterior de los datos. Resultados: respondieron 110 tutores, de 13 comunidades autónomas y hospitales de todos los niveles con docencia en Medicina Interna. Sesenta y tres fueron hombres (57,3%), la media de edad fue de 48 años y tenían una experiencia como tutores de 8,5 años. En el 88,2% de los casos se respeta la ratio de cinco residentes por tutor; un 46% piensa que debería disminuirse esta ratio para optimizar su labor. Un tercio había sido elegido por el responsable del servicio y el 30% nunca ha realizado cursos sobre formación. La entrevista tutor-residentes es utilizada por la mayoría de los tutores (96,4%) como herramienta de comunicación. En relación a las rotaciones, la cuarta parte no son planificadas por los tutores y, solo la mitad, contacta con los centros donde los residentes realizan las rotaciones externas. El 61% cree que no se realiza bien la evaluación de residentes, con muy escasa utilización de las nuevas herramientas de evaluación. Conclusiones: disminuir la ratio tutor/residente y la formación en técnicas de evaluación y desarrollo del aprendizaje podría mejorar la calidad de la tutorización


Introduction and objectives: mentors are responsible for planning the residents' learning. The aim of this study was to determine the situation of internal medicine mentors in Spain and detect areas of improvement that can facilitate their work. Material and methods: online surveys were sent to internal medicine mentors from May to July 2017, the results of which were subsequently analysed. Results: a total of 110 mentors from 13 autonomous communities and from hospitals of all levels with courses in internal medicine responded to the survey. Of these mentors, 63 were men (57.3%), and the mean age was 48 years. The mean experience as mentors was 8.5 years. Some 88.2% of the cases had a ratio of 5 residents to 1 mentor; 46% of the mentors believed this ratio should be decreased to optimize their work. A third of the mentors were chosen by the heads of the department, and 30% had not previously taken courses on training. The mentor-resident interview was used by most mentors (96.4%) as a communication tool. A quarter of the rotations were not planned by the mentors, and only half had contact with the centres where the residents performed the external rotations. Sixty-one percent of the mentors were of the opinion that resident assessments were not conducted properly, with very little use of the new assessment tools. Conclusions: reducing the mentor-resident ratio and adding training in assessment techniques and learning development could improve the quality of the mentoring


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Medicina Interna/educação , Especialização/tendências , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Técnicas de Planejamento , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Capacitação de Professores/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210189, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699144

RESUMO

The Broadening Experiences in Scientific Training (BEST) program is an NIH-funded effort testing the impact of career development interventions (e.g. internships, workshops, classes) on biomedical trainees (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows). BEST Programs seek to increase trainees' knowledge, skills and confidence to explore and pursue expanded career options, as well as to increase training in new skills that enable multiple career pathways. Faculty mentors are vital to a trainee's professional development, but data about how faculty members of biomedical trainees view the value of, and the time spent on, career development are lacking. Seven BEST institutions investigated this issue by conducting faculty surveys during their BEST experiment. The survey intent was to understand faculty perceptions around professional and career development for their trainees. Two different, complementary surveys were employed, one designed by Michigan State University (MSU) and the other by Vanderbilt University. Faculty (592) across five institutions responded to the MSU survey; 225 faculty members from two institutions responded to the Vanderbilt University survey. Participating faculty were largely tenure track and male; approximately 1/3 had spent time in a professional position outside of academia. Respondents felt a sense of urgency in introducing broad career activities for trainees given a recognized shortage of tenure track positions. They reported believing career development needs are different between a graduate student and postdoctoral fellow, and they indicated that they actively mentor trainees in career development. However, faculty were uncertain as to whether they actually have the knowledge or training to do so effectively. Faculty perceived that trainees themselves lack a knowledge base of skills that are of interest to non-academic employers. Thus, there is a need for exposure and training in such skills. Faculty stated unequivocally that institutional support for career development is important and needed. BEST Programs were considered beneficial to trainees, but the awareness of local BEST Programs and the national BEST Consortium was low at the time surveys were employed at some institutions. It is our hope that the work presented here will increase the awareness of the BEST national effort and the need for further career development for biomedical trainees.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/educação , Docentes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Mentores/psicologia , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
13.
Acad Med ; 94(5): 715-722, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608269

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To measure community-based preceptors' overall satisfaction and motivations, the influence of students on preceptors' practices, and compare with 2005 and 2011 studies. METHOD: North Carolina primary care preceptors across disciplines (physicians, pharmacists, advanced practice nurses, physician assistants) received survey invitations via e-mail, fax, postcard, and/or full paper survey. Most questions in 2017 were the same as questions used in prior years, including satisfaction with precepting, likelihood to continue precepting, perceived influence of teaching students in their practice, and incentives for precepting. A brief survey or phone interview was conducted with 62 nonresponders. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences across discipline groups and to compare group responses over time. RESULTS: Of the 2,786 preceptors contacted, 893 (32.1%) completed questionnaires. Satisfaction (816/890; 91.7%) and likelihood of continuing to precept (778/890; 87.4%) remained unchanged from 2005 and 2011. However, more preceptors reported a negative influence for patient flow (422/888; 47.5%) in 2017 than in 2011 (452/1,266; 35.7%) and 2005 (496/1,379; 36.0%) (P < .0001), and work hours (392/889; 44.1%) in 2017 than in 2011 (416/1,268; 32.8%) and 2005 (463/1,392; 33.3%) (P < .0001). Importance of receiving payment for teaching increased from 32.2% (371/1,152) in 2011 to 46.4% (366/789) in 2017 (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: This 2017 survey suggests preceptor satisfaction and likelihood to continue precepting have remained unchanged from prior years. However, increased reporting of negative influence of students on practice and growing value of receiving payment highlight growing concerns about preceptors' time and finances and present a call to action.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Mentores/psicologia , Preceptoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Preceptoria/tendências , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , North Carolina , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Acad Psychiatry ; 43(1): 71-75, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although mentorship is essential for the professional development of physicians, the literature on trainees' mentorship experiences and perceptions of effective mentoring is more limited. This descriptive study examines residents' experiences of mentoring and their perceptions about the impact of mentorship on professional development, comparing experiences in mentoring that is assigned versus self-initiated. METHODS: A web-based self-administered cross-sectional survey of all senior residents (≥PGY-3) at a major urban academic medical center was conducted from March 27 to May 31, 2015. RESULTS: Of the 327 eligible senior residents, 204 (62%) responded and completed the survey. Most residents (82%) reported multiple mentors and 65% reported that their primary mentorship relationship was self-initiated. Residents who self-initiated their primary mentorship were significantly more likely to strongly/somewhat agree that their mentor had a positive impact on publications and scholarly projects (88 vs 44%, p = 0.0063) as well as research (88 vs 55%, p = 0.0001) compared to residents with assigned mentorship, with no significant differences measured by gender, race, or ethnicity. Forty-four percent of residents indicated they had unmet needs for mentoring in at least one of several professional areas. CONCLUSIONS: Most residents perceive mentoring relationships as important to many aspects of their career development. Still 44% of residents reported unmet needs for mentoring in one or more areas, a result that needs further exploration. Since the majority of residents' primary mentoring relationships were self-initiated rather than assigned, and these were seen as more important for research and publications, programs should consider how to support the connection between residents and potential mentors.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Internato e Residência , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Estudos Transversais , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores/psicologia , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/métodos
15.
Med Teach ; 41(3): 325-331, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801424

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the types of exemplary professional behaviors and the facilitators and barriers to professional behavior discussed by student-mentor dyads during appreciative inquiry (AI) dialogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a qualitative analysis of AI narratives discussing exemplary professional practice written by third-year medical students following a dialog with mentors. Narratives were thematically analyzed using directed content analysis to explore the types of exemplary professional behaviors discussed and the facilitators and barriers to professional practice. Narratives were coded independently by two investigators; codes were finalized, themes were derived, and a model on how exemplary professional behaviors are nurtured and reinforced was developed. RESULTS: Themes addressed humanism toward others and excellence, with altruism being an underlying implicit guiding principle behind professional behavior. Humanism toward self was infrequently discussed as an aspect of professionalism, but when discussed, was perceived to foster resilience. Principle-based attitudes and emotional intelligence facilitated professional behaviors. Programmatic scaffolds facilitated professional behavior and included curricula on reflective practice, mentorship, promoting learner autonomy and connectedness, and a safe environment. CONCLUSIONS: AI is an effective strategy that can be used to stimulate learner reflection on professionalism, humanism, and wellness and promote learner acknowledgement of positive aspects of the learning environment.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Humanismo , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionalismo/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Currículo , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 21(3): 304-313, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062521

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Spanish Society for Medical Oncology (SEOM, for its acronym in Spanish) and the National Commission for the Specialty of Medical Oncology seek to highlight the important workload and unrecognized dedication entailed in working as a Medical Oncology (MO) resident mentor, as well as its relevance for the quality of teaching units and the future of the specialty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current situation and opinion regarding the activity of MO resident mentors was analyzed by reviewing the standing national and autonomic community regulations and via an online survey targeting mentors, residents, and physicians who are not MO mentors. The project was supervised by a specially designated group that agreed on a proposal containing recommendations for improvement. RESULTS: Of the MO mentors, 90% stated that they did not have enough time to perform their mentoring duties. An estimated 172 h/year on average was dedicated to mentoring, which represents 10.1% of the total time. MO mentors dedicate an average of 6.9 h/month to these duties outside their workday. Forty-five percent of the mentors feel that their role is scantly recognized, if at all. CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals the substantial dedication and growing complexity of MO resident mentoring. A series of recommendations are issued to improve the conditions in which it is carried out, including the design of systems that adapt to the professional activity in those departments that have time set aside for mentoring tasks.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Oncologia , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho
17.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(1-2): 159-172, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091496

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To generate a theoretical explanation of nurse-to-nurse mentoring in the clinical setting. BACKGROUND: Despite an abundance of mentoring literature, the processes involved between nurses in mentoring relationships have yet to be studied. Nursing literature has focused on mentor attributes and relationship outcomes rather than focusing on theoretical discovery. DESIGN: Classical grounded theory (CGT). METHODS: CGT procedures (constant comparative method, coding and memoing) were used to analyse interview data exploring fifteen nurse protégés' experiences of mentoring. RESULTS: Confidencing, the protégés' need to become confident in the professional role, emerged as the main concern of study participants. Three dimensions are threaded throughout nurse-to-nurse mentoring: earnest intentions, filial bond and trust-worthiness. Earnest intentions are the sincere attitude that protégés and mentors demonstrate regarding their mentoring relationship. An exclusive, familial-type connection, filial bond, attends to the affective needs of protégés and mentors. Trust-worthiness, the explicit feeling of trust between protégés and mentors, strengthens as each demonstrates being worthy of the other's trust. Mentoring Up theory explains five phases of mentoring: seeding, opening, laddering, equalising and reframing. The initial phases are periods of relationship discovery (seeding) and testing (opening). Laddering is an intense period of reciprocal interactions between mentors and protégés. Equalising begins as protégés perceive themselves to be equal to their mentors in terms of their professional capability. Protégés reflect on the meaning of the relationship in the reframing phase. CONCLUSIONS: Mentoring Up is a dense theory that reveals insights, explanations and predictions for initiating, developing and engaging in mentoring relationships. Mentoring Up fills a gap in the existing literature and provides a framework for future mentoring research. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The theory has implications for healthcare organisations, nursing education and individual nurses. Mentoring Up expounds on the interpersonal connections and reciprocal interactions vital for successful nurse-to-nurse mentoring.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Tutoria/métodos , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Confiança , Educação em Enfermagem , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Mentores/psicologia
18.
J Pediatr Urol ; 15(1): 51-57, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340928

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women are entering the subspecialty of pediatric urology at an accelerated rate. Gender differences affecting fellowship and job selection have been identified in other fields of medicine. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand gender differences in pediatric urology fellowship and job selection and how they may affect the workforce. STUDY DESIGN: A 47-question electronic survey consisting of questions regarding demographics, residency training, and factors influencing fellowship and job selection was distributed to current fellows and recent graduates in pediatric urology in May 2017. RESULTS: A total of 111 recent and current fellows were contacted, and 72% completed the survey (55% female [F] and 45% male [M]; 61% current fellows and 39% recent fellows). Respondents rated factors important in choosing pediatric urology on a scale of 1-5 (1, not important and 5, extremely important), and the top three for both genders were 1-working with children, 2-influential mentors, and 3-bread and butter cases such as inguinal orchiopexy. During residency, 93% of respondents reported having influential mentors in pediatric urology. However, mentorship was more important in fellowship choice for males than females (3.6 F, 4.1 M; P-value = 0.048), and 45% reported having only male mentors. Rating factors important in job choice on a scale of 1-5, respondents reported the top factors as 1-rapport with partners/mentorship (4.5), 2-geography/family preferences (4.3), and 3-participation in mentoring/teaching (3.8). Although most job selection criteria were rated similarly between genders, females rated call schedule higher than males (3.5 F, 2.9 M, P-value = 0.009). Although most females and males (79% of F, 78% of M, P-value = 0.868) sought primarily academic positions, a smaller proportion of females accepted academic positions (52% of F, 72% of M, P-value 0.26), and females reported lower satisfaction regarding the availability of jobs on a scale of 1-5 (1, very dissatisfied and 5, very satisfied; 3.1 F, 3.7 M; P-value = 0.034), particularly in academic positions (3.1 F, 3.7 M; P-value = 0.06). This difference was more pronounced in current fellows than recent graduates and may represent a worsening trend. CONCLUSION: Although significant gender differences in fellowship and job selection may exist in other fields, we found that women and men choose pediatric urology fellowships and jobs using similar criteria, which include work-life balance. Gender differences exist in the influence of mentors, indicating a need for more female mentors. While men and women sought similar types of jobs, women were less satisfied with the availability of jobs, particularly academic jobs, than men, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Urologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo
19.
Acad Med ; 94(5): 708-714, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520806

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This analysis examined the role of a National Institutes of Health (NIH) individual Mentored Career Development Award (K01, K08, K23) on launching and sustaining independent research careers for early-career scientists, and investigated the effects of these awards during and after the doubling of the NIH budget. METHOD: The authors used grants data from the NIH covering the period 1990 through 2016, and compared success in receipt of R01 equivalent awards (R01 Eq.) and Research Project Grants (RPGs) for K awardees and K applicants who did not receive funding. The analysis combined regression discontinuity design with coarsened exact matching, and regression. RESULTS: Overall, receipt of K award was associated with a 24.1% increase in likelihood of first independent NIH award (P < .01), and a larger number of R01 Eq. and RPG awards. After accounting for first major independent awards, K awards were uncorrelated with receiving second major independent research awards. Comparing different funding periods, K01 awards were predictive of subsequent R01 Eq. and RPG awards after but not during the NIH doubling, K08 awards were predictive only during the NIH doubling, and K23 awards were predictive during both periods. CONCLUSIONS: Receipt of Mentored Career Development Awards was linked to increased likelihood that early-career scientists successfully transitioned to an independent research career. These findings indicate that extending funding to additional K award applicants with meritorious scores could significantly strengthen the pipeline of biomedical researchers. In addition, enhancing K awards may be relevant to sustaining research careers for clinician scientists.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Escolha da Profissão , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Organização do Financiamento/economia , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Pesquisadores/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
World Neurosurg ; 122: 245-251, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2011, more women than men have graduated from medical school, yet there remains a paucity of female physicians in surgical specialties. After the 2018 Neurosurgery Match, only 17.5% of neurosurgery residents are women. Previous literature documented gender inequality, poor medical school exposure, and lack of female mentorship as reasons for this disparity. We sought to further explore factors that deter female medical students from pursuing neurosurgery. METHODS: A comprehensive survey was created and distributed to the 2017-2018 Rutgers New Jersey Medical School student body, requesting anonymous input from female medical students. RESULTS: Of 104 female respondents, 26.9% had considered neurosurgery as a career and felt dissuaded because of their gender. Of respondents, 88% did not have a senior female medical student pursuing neurosurgery or a female neurosurgical resident as a mentor. More than half of respondents disagreed that they would be dissuaded from a field if they did not have a female mentor. The 88.46% of women who felt that there was a glass ceiling in medicine were also more likely to feel that they would face inequality and adversity that would inhibit training in a male-dominated field. Women who described themselves as seeking challenging and competitive careers strongly felt that they would benefit from exposure to surgical subspecialties during their preclinical years. CONCLUSIONS: Female medical students remain resilient, ambitious, interested in competitive specialties, and eager to explore surgical subspecialties during preclinical years. A multifaceted approach is imperative to recruit and retain qualified women interested in neurosurgery.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurocirurgia/educação , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , New Jersey , Sexismo , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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