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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110957, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888620

RESUMO

Due to growing commercial interest as a fishing resource and its intermediate position in the marine trophic chains as both prey and predator, cephalopods can play an important role in mercury (Hg) transfer along the marine food webs, since they can bioaccumulate this metal in its tissues. Our study aims to analyze Hg accumulation in Loligo forbesi caught in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal) quantifying Hg in different tissues (mantle and stomach), as well in the squid stomach content, in order to evaluate the efficiency of Hg transfer from prey to predator. Hg data from the tissues was used to estimate the weekly tolerable Hg intake due to squid consumption. Overall data indicate that Hg measured in the stomach tissue (0.1 ± 0.01 µg g-1) was significantly higher than Hg levels found in the mantle (0.04 ± 0.001 µg g-1) and stomach contents (0.01 ± 0.001 µg g-1). BMF (bioaccumulation factor) was >1 for all the samples, indicating a biomagnification process from prey to predator. Hg concentration in the mantle tissue was correlated with mantle size; although females present higher Hg levels than males, the difference was found to be not related to gender but rather to the fact that females had larger bodies. Finally, considering the Hg concentration found in the mantle and the permitted Hg levels, it is advisable to consume up to 1050-1890g of squid per week, according to the regulatory agencies. Thus, our results indicate that, since these doses are respected, consumption of squids from the Azorean waters do not pose a risk to humans.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Exposição Dietética/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Loligo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Portugal , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126904, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957297

RESUMO

Estimating bioaccessible content of mercury in soils is essential in evaluating risks that contaminated soils pose. In this study, soil samples spiked with HgCl2 through adsorption were used to test the effects of liming, soil organic matter, soil depth, and Hg concentration on the following bioaccessibility tests: dilute nitric acid at room temperature, dilute nitric acid at body temperature, Simplified Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET) method, and gastric phase of the In vitro Gastrointestinal (IVG) protocol. Soil and sediment samples from Descoberto, Minas Gerais (Brazil), a city with a well-known record of Hg contamination from artisanal mining, were subjected to these bioaccessibility tests for the first time, and the different methods of estimating bioaccessible content were compared. Bioaccessible fractions in spiked samples ranged from 10% to 60%, and this high bioaccessibility was due to the highly soluble species of Hg and the short time under adsorption. In general, clay and organic matter decreased bioaccessible content. Although the soil in Descoberto is undoubtedly polluted, mercury bioaccessibility in that area is low. In general, dilute nitric acid estimated higher bioaccessible content in soil samples, whereas the SBET method estimated higher bioaccessible content in sediment samples. In multivariate analysis, two groups of bioaccessibility tests arise: one with the two nitric acid tests, and the other with SBET and the gastric phase of the IVG protocol. The addition of pepsin and glycine in the last two tests suggests a more reliable test for assessing mercury bioaccessibility.


Assuntos
Argila/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brasil , Cidades , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Ácido Nítrico/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105567, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745893

RESUMO

The increasing contamination of water bodies with mercury (Hg) raises concerns about the possible effects of this metal on native fish species. Our current understanding of its dynamics in fish organs remains limited. In this study, adult individuals of the native species Astyanax eigenmanniorum were exposed to three environmentally relevant HgCl2 concentrations (5, 100, and 170 µg L-1) for 96 h. To evaluate total Hg (THg) elimination, new individuals were exposed to 100 µg L-1 of HgCl2 (96 h), and at the end of the exposure period, half of the fish were placed in tanks with clean water for 168 h. In both assays, the organs were removed, and THg levels were measured using ICP-MS. The uptake of IHg in A. eigenmanniorum showed a differential accumulation in the organs. Gills, intestine, and brain were the tissues with the highest THg levels. Finally, no elimination of THg in the water was observed, but intestine and gills significantly removed the THg accumulated. Probably a Hg redistribution through the tissues could take place.


Assuntos
Characidae/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Bioacumulação , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Characidae/sangue , Monitoramento Ambiental , Brânquias/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110950, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800226

RESUMO

Human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) through rice consumption is raising health concerns. It has long been recognized that MeHg found in rice grain predominately originated from paddy soil. Anaerobic conditions in paddy fields promote Hg methylation, potentially leading to high MeHg concentrations in rice grain. Understanding the transformation and migration of Hg in the rice paddy system, as well as the effects of farming activities, are keys to assessing risks and developing potential mitigation strategies. Therefore, this review examines the current state of knowledge on: 1) sources of Hg in paddy fields; 2) how MeHg and inorganic Hg (IHg) are transformed (including abiotic and biotic processes); 3) how IHg and MeHg enter and translocate in rice plants; and 4) how regular farming activities (including the application of fertilizer, cultivation methods, choice of cultivar), affect Hg cycling in the paddy field system. Current issues and controversies on Hg transformation and migration in the paddy field system are also discussed.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
5.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127599, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758775

RESUMO

Mercury, particularly methylmercury, can accumulate through food webs and generate high risks for species at higher trophic levels. Inorganic mercury can be methylated into the organic species methylmercury if suitable reducing conditions exist, for example, in hotspots like oilfields. We developed a conceptual model to conduct an ecological risk assessment based on the food web structure of the Shengli oilfield area, China. The model can identify species at risk and elucidate the sources of risks according to their diet. A risk rating criteria was developed based on the food web structure to categorize the different levels of risks for different species. As expected, the results indicate increasing risks for the biota higher in the food web hierarchy. Grasshoppers were mostly at no risk throughout the study area, whereas grubs at southwest were at minimal risks due to local high Hg concentration in the soil. Mantises, which are insect predators, were also at minimal risk. Herbivorous birds with similar feeding habits than grasshoppers were at no risk, but omnivorous and carnivorous birds were at moderate risk. The conceptual model is a useful tool to improve pollution remediation and establish risk control strategies based on ecological risks of the food web rather than just Hg concentrations in the environment.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Animais , China , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
6.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127611, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758780

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is known as a highly toxic heavy metal, and its toxicity varies depending on its form due to different toxicokinetics between inorganic and organic Hg. Limited information on comparison of Hg toxicity concerning its chemical form by oral exposure is currently available in cultured fishes. Therefore, we conducted a comparative study to have a better understanding of distinct toxic effects between mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury chloride (CH3HgCl) in Korean rockfish. The 12-weeks dietary exposure of HgCl2 and CH3HgCl with its graded levels (0.4-6.4 ppm) (2 × 5 factorial design) in the young-of-the-year rockfish (initial weight: 82 ± 0.3 g) resulted in neither interactive nor main effects on whole-organism responses, including growth, feed utilization, and survival. However, the distinct pattern of Hg accumulation between the two forms in dorsal muscle, brain, liver and kidney tissues was observed, showing that the rockfish fed the CH3HgCl-contained diets exhibited the dose-dependent accumulation throughout the sampling points (1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post feeding), whereas those fed the HgCl2-contained diets did not show such response. The CH3HgCl exposure induced higher oxidative stress and immunotoxicity, reflected by the elevated plasma superoxide dismutase and lysozyme activities, respectively. In addition, the CH3HgCl-induced alteration in plasma measurements, including the plasma aspartate transaminase activity and total protein level was found. Taken together, the dietary exposure of methylmercury chloride had more pronounced toxic effects than mercuric chloride in the young-of-year rockfish, needed to be taken into consideration for regulation of maximum allowed levels for Hg by its chemical form.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Perciformes/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dieta , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Perciformes/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656653

RESUMO

Aerial insectivorous birds such as swallows have been the steepest declining groups of birds in North America over the last 50 years but whether such declines are linked to contaminants has not been examined. We sampled feathers from five species of swallow at multiple locations to assess total mercury [THg] exposure for adults during the non-breeding season, and for juveniles on the breeding grounds. We assessed Hg exposure to juvenile birds in crop- and grass-dominated landscapes to determine if land-use practices influenced feather [THg]. We assayed feathers for stable isotopes (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) as proxies for relative habitat use and diet to determine their potential influence on feather [THg]. Feather [THg] was highest in adult bank swallows (Riparia riparia) and purple martins (Progne subis) from Saskatchewan and adult cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) from western regions, indicating differential exposure to Hg on the non-breeding grounds. Juvenile bank, barn (Hirundo rustica) and tree (Tachycineta bicolor) swallows had lower feather [THg] in crop-dominated landscapes than grass-dominated landscapes in Saskatchewan, potentially resulting from lower use of wetland-derived insects due to wetland drainage and intensive agriculture. Feather [THg] was related to juvenile feather stable isotopes for several species, suggesting complex interactions with diet and environmental factors. Many individuals had feather [THg] values >2 µg/g, a threshold at which deleterious effects may occur. Our findings indicate differential Hg exposure among species of swallow, regions and land-uses and highlight the need for additional research to determine dietary and finer-scale land-use impacts on individual species and populations.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Andorinhas/metabolismo , Migração Animal , Animais , Canadá , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Washington
8.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127515, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682130

RESUMO

In this work we present an assessment of mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation in different species of marine sponges collected off the Northwestern Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic coasts. Overall the results showed significant accumulation of Hg in sponges, with the Mediterranean sponge Chondrilla nucula exhibiting the highest total Hg content (up to 0.5 mg kg-1) and bio-concentration factor (BCF) up to 23. A significant inter-species variability of Hg bioaccumulation was observed among species collected at the same site. The sponges, collected in marine environment contaminated with Hg show consistently higher Hg accumulation, meaning that the bioaccumulation is proportional to the Hg availability in the surrounding environment. Different extraction protocols were tested for MeHg analysis and, generally, a low MeHg ratio in Hg species (4% and 17% average for Mediterranean and Irish sponges respectively) was detected suggesting a possible demethylation process and therefore a promising role of sponges for Hg bioremediation Additionally, the Hg isotopic composition in these organisms was determined and it showed that MDF (mass dependent fractionation) is the main process in sponges, with the absence of significant MIF. This result suggests a dominant role of associated microbial population in the methylation and/or demethylation processes.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Poríferos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Biotransformação , Fracionamento Químico , Mar Mediterrâneo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
9.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127536, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683018

RESUMO

There is an acute deficit of data on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and mercury (Hg) in the open waters of Lake Victoria, East Africa, relative to nearshore areas. We analyzed stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C), PFASs and Hg in Nile Perch and Nile Tilapia muscle and liver samples from nearshore and open lake locations from the Ugandan part of the lake. The δ15N values of Nile Perch muscle indicated a higher trophic level for samples from the open lake than from nearshore locations. Averages of ∑PFAS concentrations in Nile Perch muscle and liver (0.44 and 1.75 ng/g ww, respectively) were significantly higher than in Nile Tilapia (0.24 and 0.50 ng/g ww, respectively). ∑PFAS concentrations in muscle of open lake Nile Perch were significantly higher than for nearshore samples. A similar observation was made for total mercury concentrations in muscle (THg_Muscle) of Nile Perch. THg was dominated by methyl mercury (MeHg+, 22-124 ng/g ww) and mercuric mercury (Hg2+,

Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , África Oriental , Animais , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lagos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Músculos/química , Percas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
10.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127247, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534296

RESUMO

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing macrophyte plant Typha latifolia L. commonly known as cattail, is gaining much attention worldwide. The present study investigated the effects of Lead (Pb) and Mercury (Hg) on physiology and biochemistry of plant, Pb and Hg uptake in T. latifolia with and without citric acid (CA) amendment. The uniform seedlings of T. latifolia were treated with various concentrations in the hydroponics as: Pb and Hg (1, 2.5, 5 mM) each alone and/or with CA (5 mM). After four weeks of treatments, the results revealed that Pb and Hg significantly reduced the plant agronomic traits as compare to non-treated plants. The addition of CA improved the plant physiology and enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activities to overcome Pb and Hg induced oxidative damage and electrolyte leakage. Our results depicted that Pb and Hg uptake and accumulation by T. latifolia was dose depend whereas, the addition of CA further increased the concentration and accumulation of Pb and Hg by up to 22 & 35% Pb and 72 & 40% Hg in roots, 25 & 26% Pb and 85 & 60% Hg in stems and 22 & 15 Pb and 100 & 58% Hg in leaves respectively compared to Pb and Hg treated only plants. On other hand, the root-shoot translocation factor was ≥1 and bioconcentration factor was also ≥2 for both Pb & Hg. The results also revealed that T. latifolia showed greater tolerance towards Hg and accumulated higher Hg in all parts compared with Pb.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Typhaceae/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Typhaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110811, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544744

RESUMO

Xenobiotic mediated renal toxicity is one of the major health concerns to the organisms, including humans. New chemicals with nephrotoxic potential are continuously being added to the list of existing nephrotoxicants. To predict the nephrotoxicity of these new chemicals, reliable and cost-effective alternative animal models are required. It is a prerequisite for the identification and assessment of these compounds as potential nephrotoxicants to prevent renal toxicity in the exposed population. Drosophila melanogaster, a genetically tractable invertebrate animal model, has a renal system functionally analogous to humans. The Malpighian tubules (MTs) of D. melanogaster are similar to the tubular part of nephron of the human kidney. Besides, it recapitulates the renal toxicity hallmark with mammals when exposed to known nephrotoxicants. In this study, first instar larvae of D. melanogaster (Oregon R) were exposed to different concentrations of two well-known nephrotoxicants, cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). Akin to higher organisms, Cd and Hg exposure to D. melanogaster produce similar phenotypes. MTs of exposed D. melanogaster larvae exhibited increased oxidative stress, activated cellular antioxidant defense mechanism, GSH depletion, increased cleaved caspase-3 expression, increased DEVDase activity and increased cell death. The functional status of MTs was assessed by fluid secretion rate (FSR), efflux activity of transporter protein, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP level and expression of junctional protein (Dlg). All the phenotypes observed in MTs of D. melanogaster larvae recapitulate the phenotypes observed in higher organisms. Increased uric acid level, the hallmark of renal dysfunction, was also observed in exposed larvae. Taken together, the study suggests that MTs of D. melanogaster may be used as a functional model to evaluate xenobiotic mediated nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Alternativas aos Testes com Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos de Malpighi/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos de Malpighi/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenobióticos/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/toxicidade
12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105502, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480176

RESUMO

The present study examined the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nanoTiO2) and mercury (Hg) compounds on the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mixtures containing nanoTiO2 of different primary sizes (5 nm, 15 nm and 20 nm), inorganic Hg (IHg) or monomethyl Hg (CH3Hg+, MeHg) were studied and compared with individual treatments. Oxidative stress and membrane damage were examined. Stability of nanoTiO2 materials in terms of hydrodynamic size and surface charge as well as Hg adsorption on different nanoTiO2 materials were characterized. The uptake of Hg compounds in the absence and presence of nanoTiO2 was also quantified. Results show that increasing concentrations of nanoTiO2 with different primary size diminished oxidative stress and membrane damage induced by high concentrations of IHg or MeHg, due to the adsorption of Hg on the nanoTiO2 aggregates and consequent decrease of cellular Hg concentrations. The observed alleviation effect of nanoTiO2 materials on Hg biouptake and toxicity was more pronounced for the materials with smaller primary size. IHg adsorbed onto the nanoTiO2 materials to a higher extent than MeHg. The present study highlights that the effects of contaminants are modulated by the co-existing engineered nanomaterials; therefore, it is essential to get a better understanding of their combined effect in the environment.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adsorção , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
13.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126614, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443241

RESUMO

The contamination, bio-concentration and distribution of mercury (Hg) in wild mushrooms of the genus Tricholoma such as T. equestre, T. portentosum, T. columbeta, and T. terreum were studied, and the possible dietary intake and risk for human consumers in Europe was estimated. Mushrooms, together with the associated forest topsoils were collected from 10 unpolluted and geographically distant areas, far from local or regional emission sources, in Poland (2 sites) and Croatia (8 sites). The Hg contents were in the range 0.10 ± 0.06 to 0.71 ± 0.34 mg kg-1 dry matter in caps and 0.04 ± 0.02 to 0.38 ± 0.13 mg kg-1 in stems. The corresponding topsoil concentrations varied over a relatively narrow range between sites, from 0.013 ± 0.003 to 0.028 ± 0.006 mg kg-1 dry matter. Overall, the study results showed low levels of mercury both, in edible Tricholoma mushrooms and forest topsoils from background (unpolluted) forested areas in Croatia and Poland. The morphological distribution showed considerably greater concentrations of mercury in the caps relative to the stems with ratios ranging from 1.6 ± 0.6 to 3.9 ± 1.8. T. equestre showed good ability to bioconcentrate Hg, with bioconcentration factors (BCF) values in the range 18 ± 7 to 37 ± 18. The data suggests that Tricholoma mushrooms from unpolluted areas in southern and northern regions of Europe can be considered as a low risk food from the point of view of the tolerable Hg intake.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tricholoma/metabolismo , Croácia , Humanos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Polônia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126941, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388259

RESUMO

With the aim of evaluating health risk to hake consumers, mercury and selenium were measured in muscle, liver, gonads, kidney, and gills of 62 specimens of Merluccius productus from northern Gulf of California. Means ± confidence interval (95% confidence level) concentrations (mg kg-1 wet weight) of Hg in tissues were: gonads (1.01 ± 0.25) > muscle (0.44 ± 0.06) > gills (0.29 ± 0.04) > kidneys (0.20 ± 0.07) > liver (0.02 ± 0.004). No significant differences between sexes were found for Hg. The distribution of mean concentrations of Se (mg kg-1 wet weight) were: kidneys (4.61 ± 1.27) > liver (1.66 ± 0.22) > gonads (1.66 ± 0.75) > gills (0.86 ± 0.04) > muscle (0.40 ± 0.09). Se in gonads showed a significant difference between sex (females > males). Positive significant correlations with total length (p < 0.05) and total weight (p < 0.05) were found in the same tissue for both morphological variables: Hg in muscle, Se in muscle and Se in liver. An excess of Se over Hg (molar ratio Se:Hg > 1) was found in all tissues. The Hazard Quotient health risk index was evaluated for humans that consume muscle and gonads. The recommended Hg safe intake for adults and children were 110.0 and 33.0 g week-1, respectively for muscle; for gonads weekly consumption portions of 35.0 and 14.0 g for adults and children represent no Hg risk. There was no risk of exposure to Se.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Gadiformes/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , California , Criança , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Peixes , Gônadas , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Músculos/metabolismo , Perciformes , Medição de Risco , Selênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105494, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422488

RESUMO

Little is known about the impacts of dietary exposure to inorganic mercury (Hg) for a long duration on the health indicators, growth, and disease resistance in Oreochromis niloticus. Accordingly, the current study was designed to assess the effects of Hg contaminated diets on blood biochemistry, growth, chemical composition, Hg bioaccumulation in the tissues, histopathology of liver and head kidneys, and disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila of O. niloticus. Also, the efficiency of citronella oil, geranium oil (GO), curcumin (CUR), Bacillus toyonensis (BT), and Bacillus subtilis (BS) as dietary supplements on reversing the negative impacts of Hg were assessed. A total of 240 tilapia fingerlings were assigned to eight dietary treatments fed on the basal diet (G1), G1 diet contaminated with 50 ppm Hg (G2), whereas the other groups fed the G2 diet and enriched with 400 mg CO (G3), 400 mg GO (G4), 200 mg CUR (G5), 7 × 107 cells BT (G6), 7 × 107 cells BS (G7), and 7 × 107 BT + BS/ kg diet (G8) for 16 weeks. The obtained results showed that fish fed on the G2 diet had significantly impaired growth performance indicators, blood parameters, and resistance to bacterial infection compared with fish in the control group. Additionally, distinct pathological perturbations in liver and head kidneys were observed. In contrast, fish groups G3 to G8 had a significant enhancement in the growth performance, Hg bioaccumulation in fish tissues, blood biochemistry, and resistance against A. hydrophila infection compared with fish in the G2 group. Maximum improvement was recorded in G5, G6, and G8. Conclusively, from both health and an economic point of view, these results suggested that several benefits might be gained by adding these additives, especially CUR, BT, and BT + BS, on growth enhancement and ameliorating Hg negative impacts in O. niloticus.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bioacumulação , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aeromonas hydrophila/patogenicidade , Animais , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Rim Cefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim Cefálico/metabolismo , Rim Cefálico/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231870, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interference with the transmission of sensory signals along visual and auditory pathways has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hallucinations. The relay centres for vision (the lateral geniculate nucleus) and hearing (the medial geniculate nucleus) appear to be susceptible to the uptake of circulating mercury. We therefore investigated the distribution of mercury in cells of both these geniculate nuclei. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissue sections containing the lateral geniculate nucleus were obtained from 50 adults (age range 20-104 years) who at autopsy had a variety of clinicopathological conditions, including neurological and psychiatric disorders. The medial geniculate nucleus was present in seven sections. Sections were stained for mercury using autometallography. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of mercury. RESULTS: Ten people had mercury in cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and in the medial geniculate nucleus of three of these. Medical diagnoses in these individuals were: none (3), Parkinson disease (3), and one each of depression, bipolar disorder, multiple sclerosis, and mercury self-injection. Mercury was distributed in different groups of geniculate capillary endothelial cells, neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of mercury. CONCLUSION: Mercury is present in different combinations of cell types in the lateral and medial geniculate nuclei in a proportion of people from varied backgrounds. This raises the possibility that mercury-induced impairment of the function of the geniculate nuclei could play a part in the genesis of visual and auditory hallucinations. Although these findings do not provide a direct link between mercury in geniculate cells and hallucinations, they suggest that further investigations into the possibility of toxicant-induced hallucinations are warranted.


Assuntos
Corpos Geniculados/citologia , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126645, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283423

RESUMO

Worldwide shark populations have experienced rapid declines over the last decades, mainly due to overfishing. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have thus become an indispensable tool for the protection of these marine predators. Two recently-created MPAs in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, the Revillagigedo National Park and Clipperton Atoll, are characterized by different trophic structures potentially influencing the trophic niche and contaminant exposure of resident sharks in these two sites. In this context, we used carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope analyzes as well as total mercury concentrations ([THg]) to assess the effect of foraging site on the trophic niche and Hg levels of juvenile silvertip (ST) sharks Carcharhinus albimarginatus. Analyzing fin clip samples from Revillagigedo and Clipperton, we found that shark δ15N varied spatially in relation to δ15N baselines, suggesting similar trophic position in both MPAs. Moreover, δ13C values indicated that ST sharks from Revillagigedo would feed on different food webs (i.e. both benthic and pelagic) while individuals from Clipperton would only rely on benthic food webs. These differences between MPAs led to a weak overlap of isotopic niches between the two populations, highlighting the site residency of juvenile ST sharks. Within each population, [THg] was not correlated with trophic tracers (δ15N and δ13C) and was also similar between populations. This study revealed no influence of site or food web in [THg] and raises the question of the origin of Hg exposure for reef shark populations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/toxicidade , Tubarões/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Oceano Pacífico , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(5): 595-601, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242255

RESUMO

Total mercury (THg) and selenium (TSe) levels were measured in stomach contents (SC) and twelve tissues of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) occurring in three high-elevation lakes of Colorado, USA, inhabiting watersheds absent past and current mining activities. For 32 of 36 tissues, including muscle, mean THg wet weight (ww) concentrations were greater than in the diet (SC) for all sites, indicating biomagnification. Ranges of THg (µg/kg ww) for SC and stomach tissue (ST) were 1.23-73.54 and 14.55-61.35, respectively. Selenium concentrations in fish muscle were not greater than in the SC indicating a trophic transfer factor < 1.0. However, in several other tissues, mean Se dry weight (dw) levels were greater than in SC for all three lakes. Ranges of TSe for SC and ST were 166-7544 and 797-7523 (µg/kg dw), respectively. The muscle to egg/ovary ratio for Se averaged 2.30, 4.60, and 2.68 for the three populations. The variability of SC (planktonic vs. benthic) and differential distributions of THg and TSe in SC and organ-tissues generated questions focusing on the seasonal, physiological, and genetic drivers of these organometal(loid)s in subalpine trout.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Colorado , Cadeia Alimentar , Lagos/química , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Plâncton/química , Selênio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126562, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224360

RESUMO

The present study tested whether the presence of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg and Ni), commonly found in wastewaters, interferes with the ability of macroalgae (Ulva intestinalis, Ulva lactuca, Fucus spiralis, Fucus vesiculosus, Gracilaria sp. and Osmundea pinnatifida) to remove rare earth elements (REEs) (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy and Y), which are key elements for most high technologies (e.g. electronics, aerospace, renewable energy). Results proved the high capacity of living macroalgae to remove REEs from multielement solutions, with the following sequence of bioconcentration factors being observed: U. intestinalis (2790) > Gracilaria sp. (2119) > O. pinnatifida (1742) > U. lactuca (1548) > F. vesiculosus (944) > F. spiralis (841). Competition among REEs to sorption sites on the six macroalgae was minor due to the chemical similarities between the elements. However, Ce and Y were the less removed while Gd, La and Eu the most removed among REEs. Ionic strength was an important factor in the sorption process, with salinity affecting differently the six macroalgae. Surprisingly, the presence of potential toxic elements in solution enhanced the removal of REEs. The most plausible explanation is the preferentially complexation of those elements by carbonates over REEs, which facilitates the binding of REEs cations onto the surface of macroalgae.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Fucus , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Salinidade , Ulva , Poluição da Água
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297060

RESUMO

Experiments examining mercury (Hg) toxicity in Daphnia are usually conducted in highly standardized conditions that prevent the formation of biofilm. Although such standardization has many advantages, extrapolation of results to natural conditions and inference of ecological effects is challenging. This is especially true since biofilms can accumulate metals/metalloids and play a key role in their transfer to higher trophic level organisms. In this study, we experimentally tested the effects of spontaneously appearing biofilm in Daphnia cultures on accumulation of Hg and its natural antagonist selenium (Se) in Daphnia magna. We added Hg (in the form of mercury (II) chloride) at two concentrations (0.2 µg/L and 2 µg/L) to experimental microcosms and measured the uptake of Hg and Se by D. magna in the presence and absence of biofilm. To test for consistent and replicable results, we ran two identical experimental sets one week apart. Biofilm presence significantly reduced the accumulation of Hg, while increasing the tissue Se content in D. magna, and these findings were reproducible across experimental sets. These findings indicate that highly standardized tests may not be adequate to predict the bioaccumulation and potential toxicity of metals/metalloids under natural conditions.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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