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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 249: 133-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879139

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that has been reported in many wildlife species worldwide. The organic form of Hg bioaccumulates in higher trophic levels, and thus, long-lived predators are at risk for higher Hg exposure. Although ecological risk assessments for contaminants such as Hg include pertinent receptor species, snakes are rarely considered, despite their high trophic status and potential to accumulate high levels of Hg. Our current knowledge of these reptiles suggests that snakes may be useful novel biomarkers to monitor contaminated environments. The few available studies show that snakes can bioaccumulate significant amounts of Hg. However, little is known about the role of snakes in Hg transport in the environment or the individual-level effects of Hg exposure in this group of reptiles. This is a major concern, as snakes often serve as important prey for a variety of taxa within ecosystems (including humans). In this review, we compiled and analyzed the results of over 30 studies to discuss the impact of Hg on snakes, specifically sources of exposure, bioaccumulation, health consequences, and specific scientific knowledge gaps regarding these moderate to high trophic predators.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Serpentes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Humanos
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 85: 9-16, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471035

RESUMO

Photoreduction characteristics of divalent inorganic mercury (Hg2+) in the presence of specific algae species are still not well known. Laboratory experiments were conducted in the present study to identify the effects of different concentrations of living/dead algae species, including Aphanizomenon flosaquae (AF) and Microcystis aeruginosa (MA), on the photoreduction rate of Hg2+ under various light conditions. The experimental results showed that percentage reduction of Hg2+ was significantly influenced by radiation wavelengths, and dramatically decreased with the presence of algae. The highest percentage reduction of Hg2+ was induced by UV-A, followed by UV-B, visible light and dark for both living and dead AF, and the order was dark > UV-A > UV-B > visible light for both living and dead MA. There were two aspects, i.e., energy and attenuation rate of light radiation and excrementitious generated from algae metabolisms, were involved in the processes of Hg2+ photoreduction with the presence of algae under different light conditions. The percentage reduction of Hg2+ decreased from 15% to 11% when living and dead AF concentrations increased by 10 times (from 106 to 105 cells/mL), and decreased from11% to ~9% in the case of living and dead MA increased. Algae can adsorb Hg2+ and decrease the concentration of free Hg2+, thus inhibiting Hg2+ photoreduction, especially under the conditions with high concentrations of algae. No significant differences were found in percentage reduction of Hg2+ between living and dead treatments of algae species. The results are of great importance for understanding the role of algae in Hg2+ photoreduction.


Assuntos
Aphanizomenon/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Microcystis/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109447, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325809

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg) in rice grains grown in Hg-contaminated areas has raised environmental health concerns. Pot experiments found that selenium (Se) could reduce MeHg levels in rice grains. However, relatively high levels of Se (up to 6 mg/kg) were applied in these pot experiments, which may have adverse effects on the soil ecology due to the toxicity of Se. The aims of this work were thus to study 1) the effect of low levels of Se on the accumulation and distribution of Hg, especially MeHg, in rice plants grown in a real Hg-contaminated paddy field and 2) the effect of Se treatment on Se and other nutritional elements (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn) in grains. A field study amended with different levels of Se was carried out in Hg-contaminated paddy soil in Qingzhen, Guizhou, China. The levels of MeHg and total Hg were studied using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The distribution and relative quantification of elements in grains were examined by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF). This field study showed that low levels of Se (0.5 µg/mL, corresponding to 0.15 mg Se/kg soils) could significantly reduce total Hg and MeHg in rice tissues. Se treatment also reduced Hg distribution in the embryo and endosperm and increased the levels of Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in grains and especially embryos. This field study implied that treatment with an appropriate level of Se is an effective approach to not only decrease the level of MeHg but to also increase the levels of nutritional elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in rice grains, which could bring beneficial effects for rice-dependent residents living in Hg-contaminated areas.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Fazendas , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
4.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1957-1965, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242536

RESUMO

A total of 600 freshly caught fish samples (200 each of Nile tilapia, flathead grey mullet, and African catfish) were collected from Manzala Lake, Egypt, and analyzed for determination of heavy metal residues using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Metal concentrations (µg/g wet weight) were detected in all examined samples in quantities of 0.045, 0.0145, and 0.017 µg/g for Hg; 0.511, 0.621, and 0.568 µg/g for As; 0.704, 0.635, and 0.64 µg/g for Pb; and 0.024, 0.006, and 0.020 µg/g for Cd in Nile tilapia, flathead grey mullet, and African catfish, respectively. The mean concentrations of Hg, Pb, and Cd among the three fish species tested followed the order Nile tilapia > African catfish > flathead grey mullet; meanwhile, As concentration followed the order flathead grey mullet > African catfish > Nile tilapia. The contamination levels of Hg and Cd showed significant differences between summer and winter in the three different fish species examined. Both the mullet and catfish tested revealed significant negative correlations between fish size and their residual levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd. Health-risk assessment indices suggesting that consuming such fishes from Manzala Lake could have a potential health hazard to consumers.


Assuntos
Lagos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Egito , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Smegmamorpha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 648-658, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150885

RESUMO

Fish consumption is considered to be a major human exposure route for mercury (Hg), but assessing the actual Hg bioavailability from consumed fish is challenging. In this study, we conducted both in vivo bioavailability (using a mouse model) and in vitro bioaccessibility (using various gastrointestinal digestion methods) assessments of Hg from consumed fish. Lyophilized fish muscles which already absorbed Hg through natural incorporation were introduced to mice by active feeding. Assimilation efficiency (AE) was measured as a short-term kinetic parameter, while a 7-day accumulation of Hg in mice blood, liver and kidney was determined. The AEs of Hg in mice ranged between 82 and 96% and showed a positive relationship with MeHg in fish independent of the fish species. For long-term bioavailability tests in which the Hg retention in organs was measured after a 7-day exposure, most Hg was found to be accumulated in liver and kidney, resulting in a strong correlation between Hg dosage and accumulation in mice organs. The long-term absolute bioavailability of mice was comparable between the liver and kidney, but much lower in the blood. The calculated absolute total Hg bioavailability ranged between 38% and 99% and decreased as the Hg dosage increased. Results of bioaccessibility tests varied considerably among different methods, illustrating that there were limitations for the in vitro bioaccessibility assay to predict the digestive dynamics of Hg in mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Our study strongly demonstrated the expediency of direct determination of Hg bioavailability, but more bioaccessibility assessments should be explored and optimized as an alternative to traditional animal experimentation.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21363-21370, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124073

RESUMO

Specimens of the Cichla pinima are of ecological and economic importance in the Amazon region and are a good bioindicator species of Hg bioaccumulation. Adult specimens of Cichla pinima were obtained by fisheries in the Tapajós river region's impacted gold mining area. Tissues such as muscle, liver, skin, and gill were submitted for total mercury (THg) analysis. For hepatic bioavailability, assays were carried out in the whole liver and in the sub-cellular hepatic fraction. The weight-length relationship showed an equation of W = 2E - 06L3.3002 (R2 = 0.856) indicating an allometric growth. The mean THg values found in the muscle tissue of 676 ± 258 µg kg-1 were below the maximum limit established for human consumption, but were similar to Cichla fish from other areas impacted by Hg in the Amazon region. The trends of levels in the tissues were as follows: liver>muscle>gonads>skin>gill, with no significant differences between the gills and skin. A significant and positive correlation as rs = 0.65 was obtained between the THg contents in cytosolic fraction and the total hepatic THg (liver homogenate). However, only 7% of the THg were found and were available to the sub-cellular hepatic fraction. This profile can be an indicative of a hepatic cellular transference in fish exposed to high Hg levels in the Amazon region now that low concentrations of Hg have been found in the sub-cellular fraction. However, data of differential THg partition in the subcellular compartments should be considered, since others' hepatic fractions can act in the Hg linkage into the cell.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Ciclídeos , Ecologia , Ouro/análise , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Músculos/química , Rios , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1158-1167, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096329

RESUMO

The levels of Cr, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined in muscle and liver samples from 30 specimens of fish belonging to the species Labeobarbus aeneus, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis, and Labeo umbratus from the Vaal Dam. Health risks for human fish consumers were estimated using the target hazard quotient (THQ), the Se:Hg-ratio, and Se health benefit value (Se HBV). This is the first comprehensive report on Hg levels in fish from this lake. Mean concentrations ranging from 0.247-0.481 mg/kg dw in muscle and from 0.170-0.363 mg/kg dw in liver clearly show a contamination with this element. Although levels in muscle did not exceed maximum allowances for human consumption, a calculated THQ of 0.12 and 0.14 for the two Labeobarbus species, respectively, showed a potential risk due to additive effects. All Se:Hg-ratios as well as Se HBVs clearly suggested positive effects for fish consumers. Levels of Cu were remarkably high in the liver of L. umbratus, calling for further investigation on this species. Cadmium levels were above the maximum allowances for fish consumption in the liver of all three species (means between 0.190 and 0.460 mg/kg dw), but below the LOD in all muscle and intestine samples. This is also the first report of Ag in fish from South Africa. Levels were below the LOD in muscle, but well detectable in liver; they varied significantly between the two Labeobarbus species (0.054 ±â€¯0.030 and 0.037 ±â€¯0.016 mg/kg dw) compared to L. umbratus (1.92 ±â€¯0.83 mg/kg dw) and showed a positive correlation with Cu levels (63.7 ±â€¯17.0; 70.3 ±â€¯9.0 and 1300 ±â€¯823 mg/kg dw), possibly due to similar chemical affinities to metallothioneins. The detected Ag levels can serve as a basis to monitor the development of this new pollutant in aquatic environments in South Africa and worldwide.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo , África do Sul
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19549-19559, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079304

RESUMO

In general, the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique is an effective tool for evaluating metal bioavailability; however, its applicability is subject to the type of metal and organism involved. In this study, the accumulated masses of Hg in DGT probes and in the earthworm species Eisenia fetida were monitored for 10 days, to test if the DGT technique can be used as a predicting method for the bioavailability of soil Hg to earthworms. In the Hg exposure tests using soils prepared with different peat moss concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20% and varying pH values of 4.6, 5.6, and 6.2, the experimentally determined DGT-soil accumulation factor (DSAF) and biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) both increased as the peat moss content decreased and the pH increased. According to a one compartment model, this was a result of the increased Hg uptake rate constant (k1) and the relatively stable Hg elimination constant (k2) under lower peat moss and higher pH conditions. It is interesting to note that the Hg uptake rates by DGT and earthworms were considerably higher for fresh soils than for aged soils, while porewater (and acid-extractable) Hg concentrations were rather similar between the two types of soils. Across diverse soil properties, steady-state Hg in earthworm tissue showed a strong positive correlation with DGT-measured Hg flux ([earthworm Hg] = 354(DGT-Hg flux)-34, r2 = 0.88), while meager correlations were found between Hg concentration in earthworms and that in porewater (and acid-extractable). The overall results indicate that DGT-measured Hg flux is a better tool than conventional methods for predicting Hg bioavailability for earthworms inhabiting diverse types of soil.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Oligoquetos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 540-547, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096383

RESUMO

Mercury is a potentially toxic trace metal that poses threats to aquatic life and to humans. In this study, a mercury-binding peptide was displayed on the surface of Escherichia coli cells using an N-terminal region ice nucleation protein anchor. The surface-engineered E. coli facilitated selective adsorption of mercury ions (Hg2+) from a solution containing various metal ions. The Hg2+ adsorption capacity of the surface-engineered cell was four-fold higher than that of the original E. coli cells. Approximately 95% of Hg2+ was removed from solution by these whole-cell sorbents. The transformed strains were fed to Carassius auratus, so that the bacteria could colonize fish intestine. Engineered bacteria-fed C. auratus showed significantly less (51.1%) accumulation of total mercury when compared with the group that had not been fed engineered bacteria. The surface-engineered E. coli effectively protected fish against the toxicity of Hg2+ in aquatic environments by adsorbing more Hg2+. Furthermore, the surface-engineered E. coli mitigated microbial diversity changes in the intestine caused by Hg2+ exposure, thereby protecting the intestinal microbial community. This strategy is a novel approach for controlling Hg2+ contamination in fish.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Carpa Dourada/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Engenharia Genética , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Peptídeos/genética
10.
Chemosphere ; 230: 360-368, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108447

RESUMO

Andean Patagonian lakes are oligotrophic systems characterized by low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels and moderate to high Hg concentration that determine naturally high Hg/DOC ratios and bioavailability. In these lakes, microbial food webs are extremely important in Hg trophodynamics, being that the picophytoplankton fraction is a major entrance path of Hg2+ into pelagic food webs. This study analyzed the bioaccumulation of Hg2+ by the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. using the radiotracer 197Hg2+ and water from four Andean Patagonian lakes presenting a natural gradient of DOM concentration and quality. Hg2+ bioaccumulation by Synechococcus was calculated as the uptake of Hg2+ per biovolume unit (volume concentration factor VCF; pL µm-3). Hg uptake showed a wide variation (13 < VCF< 300 pL µm-3) in the natural DOC gradient tested (0.7-4 mg L-1; Hg2+/DOC ratio: 1.8-14 ng mg-1). The bioaccumulation of Hg2+ in Synechococcus decreased exponentially with DOC concentration. Differences in the quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) among lake water influenced also Hg2+ bioaccumulation. Naturally degraded DOM, with low molecular weight/size, promoted higher Hg uptakes in Synechococcus compared to humic DOM, rich in high molecular weight/size aromatic compounds, that retained Hg in the dissolved phase. In Andean Patagonian lakes picocyanobacteria are pivotal organisms in the Hg cycling, taking dissolved Hg2+ and transferring it to pelagic food webs, as well as fueling the benthic Hg pathway through sedimentation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Lagos/química , Mercúrio/análise , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Argentina , Cadeia Alimentar , Lagos/microbiologia , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
11.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 102(5): 628-634, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053869

RESUMO

The antagonistic effect between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) is conclusively established in animals and human beings in the past decades. However, the underlying mechanisms of the interactions between Hg and Se in plants, as well as the metabolism of Hg-Se compounds in crops are still far from being understood. The botanic metallomics of Hg and Se mainly focuses on the translocation, transformation, and metabolism of Hg and Se in the environmental and botanic systems employing metallomics methods. An adequate understanding of the biological behavior of Hg and Se in plant is beneficial for sequestration of Hg and Se in soil-plant systems with high Hg and Se contamination. It can also provide a molecular mechanistic basis for Se supplementation in Se-deficient areas. Here, the key developments in current understanding of Hg and Se interactions in plants are reviewed. The metabolism and antagonism of Hg and Se in various plants, as well as the advanced analytical methods commonly used in this field, are summarized and discussed. As suggested, plant Hg and Se uptake, metabolism, and antagonism can be taken into account for detoxification and remediation strategies for the reduction of Hg and Se in the food chain.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Solo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 677: 466-473, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063889

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are of great concern for food safety and infants are especially sensitive to exposure to the maternal body burden. We quantified these elements in breast milk from Norwegian mothers and determined their association with dietary habits, maternal amalgam fillings, and smoking. Breast milk (n = 300) from the Norwegian Human Milk Study (HUMIS) was analyzed using triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, after an acidic decomposition using microwave technique. We used multiple linear regression to examine predictors of Hg and Cd in breast milk, and logistic regression to test predictors of Pb above the quantification limit. The median breast milk concentrations (minimum - maximum) were 0.20 µg Hg/kg (<0.058-0.89), 0.057 µg Cd/kg (0.017-1.2), and <0.67 µg Pb/kg (<0.2-7.5). Cadmium showed no significant relation with any exposure variable investigated. Lead was associated with intake of liver and kidneys from game. For Hg concentration in breast milk, number of amalgam fillings and high fish consumption were significant predictors (p < 0.001). We detected a significant association (p < 0.01) between Hg in breast milk and maternal consumption of Atlantic halibut, lean fish, mussels and scallops and lifetime consumption of crab. Seafood intake alone explained 10% of variance, while together with amalgam explained 46% of variance in Hg concentration in breast milk. Our findings emphasize the importance of following consumer advice with respect to fish and seafood and points to amalgam as an important source for Hg exposure.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Amálgama Dentário/análise , Dieta , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Noruega , Adulto Jovem
13.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 102(5): 612-620, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101929

RESUMO

Research on mercury (Hg) in aquatic ecosystems in China has focused mainly on fish, with little research on the base of the food chain and Hg bioaccumulation mechanisms. This paper summarizes research progress pertaining to the characteristics, current status, and trends of Hg accumulation in the aquatic food chain in China, analyzes the effects of human activities on the transmission and accumulation of Hg in aquatic food chains, and assesses their risks to human and ecosystem health. A comparison of fish samples in China between 2000 and 2018 indicates that their total Hg content remains at relatively safe levels. However, because current information is generally insufficient to confirm how anthropogenic activities affect transformation and bioaccumulation in the aqueous environment, Hg isotope studies should be a focus of research on aquatic food webs. Additionally, more attention should be paid to Hg transport and bioaccumulation in the basic food chain by focusing on multi-contaminant joint exposure studies and establishing Hg bio-transport models.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , China , Humanos
14.
Chemosphere ; 231: 194-206, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129400

RESUMO

Among reptiles, freshwater turtle species have high potential for metal accumulation because of their long lifespan or their aquatic and terrestrial habits. In order to monitor metal bioaccumulation, determine potential toxic effects, and investigate tools for non-invasive metal sampling in reptiles, we studied lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) accumulation in Mediterranean pond turtles (Mauremys leprosa) inhabiting two former mining areas, one of them with high environmental concentrations of Pb (Sierra Madrona-Alcudia Valley district) and the other one with high environmental concentrations of Hg (Almadén district). Individuals from the Pb mining area showed mean blood concentrations (i.e. 5.59 µg Pb/g dry weight, d.w.) that were higher than those measured in other populations. Blood Hg concentrations were highest (8.83 µg Hg/g d.w.) in the site close to the former Hg mines, whereas blood Hg concentrations in terrapins from another site of Almadén district, located ∼28 km downstream, were not different from locations at the non-mining area. Animals from the Pb-contaminated site showed evidence of oxidative stress, whereas those from the Hg-contaminated site showed increased activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, as well as reduced circulating levels of the main endogenous antioxidant peptide, glutathione. Concentrations measured in feces and carapace scutes were useful indicators to monitor blood concentrations of Pb, but not of Hg. Our results provide evidence of the usefulness of freshwater turtles as sentinels of chronic metal pollution, and validate non-invasive tools to advance Pb monitoring in reptiles.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais/metabolismo , Mineração , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Poluição Ambiental , Água Doce , Região do Mediterrâneo , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Metais/análise , Tanques/química
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 676: 268-277, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048158

RESUMO

Using the blood of grey seal pups, the blood and milk of female grey seals inhabiting the Hel Marine Station of Gdansk University's Institute of Oceanography (HMS), we monitored the transfer of total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and selenium (Se) with blood during foetal life and nursing. Changes in the concentration of mercury and selenium were characterised in the pups' blood during their first three months of life when they transition from suckling, to a post-weaning fast, to eating fish. In the blood of pregnant females, there was a significant decrease in THg and MeHg concentrations throughout the gestation, indicating the transfer of these toxins through the placenta into the foetus. At no other stage of the pup's development was there such a high level of THg and MeHg as on the day of birth, despite the incorporation of mercury into the lanugo during foetal growth. This suggests that the maternal transfer of mercury during gestation may be the time of greatest mercury exposure for a young seal pup. The consumption of milk caused a rapid increase in weight and a lowering of the mercury level in the blood in the subsequent days of the pups' life. The postweaning fast was the period of the lowest mercury concentration. The switch to a diet consisting of fish caused a systematic increase in the concentration of mercury in the blood of the pups. Milk was the significant source of selenium for pups and the selenium concentration in females' blood was reduced during lactation. The nursing period seemed to have the greatest impact on the mercury and selenium blood levels in examined seals. Natural development of the grey seal pup created an opportunity to decrease the levels of toxic substances obtained through the maternal transfer during foetal growth.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/sangue , Focas Verdadeiras/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Animais , Países Bálticos , Feminino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo
16.
Planta ; 250(2): 667-674, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104129

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Mercury accumulation in Arabidopsis shoots is accelerated by endodermis specific expression of fusion proteins of a bacterial mercury transporter MerC and a plant SNARE SYP121 under control of SCARECROW promoter. We previously demonstrated that the CaMV 35S RNA promoter (p35S)-driven ubiquitous expression of a bacterial mercury transporter MerC, fused with SYP121, an Arabidopsis SNARE protein increases mercury accumulation of Arabidopsis. To establish an improved fine-tuned mercury transport system in plants for phytoremediation, the present study generated and characterized transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing MerC-SYP121 specifically in the root endodermis, which is a crucial cell type for root element uptake. We generated four independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing a transgene encoding mCherry-MerC-SYP121 under the control of the endodermis-specific SCARECROW promoter (hereafter pSCR lines). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that expression levels of the transgene in roots of the pSCR lines were 3-23% of the p35S driven-overexpressing line. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that mCherry-MerC-SYP121 was dominantly expressed in the endodermis of the meristematic zone as well as in the mature zone of the pSCR roots. Mercury accumulation in shoots of the pSCR lines exposed to inorganic mercury was overall higher than the wild-type and comparable to the p35S over-expressing line. These results suggest that endodermis-specific expression of the MerC-SYP121 fusion proteins in plant roots sufficiently enhances mercury uptake and accumulation into shoots, which would be an ideal phenotype for phytoremediation of mercury-contaminated environments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Transporte Biológico , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Meristema/genética , Meristema/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Qa-SNARE/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 679: 307-316, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085411

RESUMO

Many contaminants persist in the environment for decades or more, influencing ecosystem health. Environmental contamination with mercury (Hg) is a particular concern due to its ability to biomagnify in food webs and its lethal and sub-lethal effects in exposed organisms. Despite the known impacts of anthropogenic contamination, there remains a need for data on wildlife exposure to Hg and other contaminants, and the effects of exposure on wildlife health. The objectives of this study were to: 1) quantify differences in concentrations of mercury and other trace elements among three sympatric semiaquatic mammals of different assumed trophic position: North American river otter (Lontra canadensis), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and North American beaver (Castor canadensis), 2) compare trace element concentrations between animals captured on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, where known inputs of Hg and other trace elements have occurred, and reference sites in South Carolina (SC) and Georgia (GA), USA, and 3) investigate the relationship between host trace element concentrations and endoparasite communities. River otters, beavers, and raccoons were sampled from the SRS, SC, and GA to quantify trace element concentrations in liver tissue and quantify endoparasite communities. Both species and sampling location were important factors determining hepatic trace element concentration, however, there was no consistent trend of elevated trace element concentrations among animals sampled on the SRS. Only Hg demonstrated biomagnification based on assumed trophic position, with river otters having the highest Hg concentrations among the sampled species. Additionally, the results suggest a possible relationship between host hepatic mercury concentration and endoparasite abundance, while hepatic selenium concentration may be related to endoparasite diversity. These findings further demonstrate how wildlife can accumulate anthropogenic contamination, although future research is needed to determine the mechanisms contributing to patterns observed between endoparasite communities and the contaminant concentrations of their mammalian hosts.


Assuntos
Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Lontras , Guaxinins , Roedores , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Acantocéfalos/fisiologia , Animais , Cestoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Nematoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Lontras/metabolismo , Guaxinins/metabolismo , Roedores/metabolismo , South Carolina
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 801-812, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085496

RESUMO

Climate warming and mercury (Hg) are concurrently influencing Arctic ecosystems, altering their functioning and threatening food security. Non-anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in small lakes were used to biomonitor these two anthropogenic stressors, because this iconic Arctic species is a long-lived top predator in relatively simple food webs, and yet population characteristics vary greatly, reflecting differences between lake systems. Mercury concentrations in six landlocked Arctic char populations on Cornwallis Island, Nunavut have been monitored as early as 1989, providing a novel dataset to examine differences in muscle [Hg] among char populations, temporal trends, and the relationship between climate patterns and Arctic char [Hg]. We found significant lake-to-lake differences in length-adjusted Arctic char muscle [Hg], which varied by up to 9-fold. Arctic char muscle [Hg] was significantly correlated to dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations in water; neither watershed area or vegetation cover explained differences. Three lakes exhibited significant temporal declines in length-adjusted [Hg] in Arctic char; the other three lakes had no significant trends. Though precipitation, temperature, wind speed, and sea ice duration were tested, no single climate variable was significantly correlated to length-adjusted [Hg] across populations. However, Arctic char Hg in Resolute Lake exhibited a significant correlation with sea ice duration, which is likely closely linked to lake ice duration, and which may impact Hg processing in lakes. Additionally, Arctic char [Hg] in Amituk Lake was significantly correlated to snow fall, which may be linked to Hg deposition. The lack of consistent temporal trends in neighboring char populations indicates that currently, within lake processes are the strongest drivers of [Hg] in char in the study lakes and potentially in other Arctic lakes, and that the influence of climate change will likely vary from lake to lake.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Mercúrio/química , Nunavut , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 680: 10-12, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085441

RESUMO

Japans' decision to withdraw from the International Whaling Commission and reinstate commercial hunting on minke, sei and Bryde's whales has recently been discussed in several journals. Here we discuss mercury exposure to the public eating baleen whales, toothed whales and tuna in relation to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) tolerable weekly intake (TWI).


Assuntos
Cetáceos/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética/análise , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Japão , Saúde Pública
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 671: 676-684, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939320

RESUMO

Reducing Hg contamination in soil using eco-friendly approaches has attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, a novel multi-metal-resistant Hg-volatilizing fungus belonging to Lecythophora sp., DC-F1, was isolated from multi-metal-polluted mining-area soil, and its performance in reducing Hg bioavailability in soil when used in combination with biochar was investigated. The isolate displayed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 84.5mg·L-1 for Hg(II) and volatilized >86% of Hg(II) from LB liquid medium with an initial concentration of 7.0mg·L-1 within 16h. Hg(II) contents in soils and grown lettuce shoots decreased by 13.3-26.1% and 49.5-67.7%, respectively, with DC-F1 and/or biochar addition compared with a control over 56days of incubation. Moreover, treatment with both bioagents achieved the lowest Hg content in lettuce shoots. Hg presence and DC-F1 addition significantly decreased the number of fungal ITS gene copies in soils. High-throughput sequencing showed that the soil fungal community compositions were more largely influenced by DC-F1 addition than by biochar addition, with the proportion of Mortierella increasing and those of Penicillium and Thielavia decreasing with DC-F1 addition. Developing the coupling of Lecythophora sp. DC-F1 with biochar into a feasible approach for the recovery of Hg-contaminated soils is promising.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal , Micobioma , Volatilização
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