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1.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: 1-120, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645127

RESUMO

This Catalogue is a collection of information on the use of raw asbestos and asbestos-containing materials used in several industries and occupational activities, with particular attention to the situation of Tuscany, a region of Central Italy. The work was developed at the Institute for Cancer Research, Prevention and Clinical Network (ISPRO) of Florence, where epidemiologic research and surveillance activities have been developing since 1988 and where the coordination and evaluation of the regional health surveillance programme provided to past asbestos workers started in 2016 and is still ongoing. The Catalogue aims at being a working tool for all health professionals engaged in examining and classifying the occupational asbestos exposures of subjects both affected by diseases that could be associated to this carcinogen and examined within the regional health surveillance programme. It is necessary for the health personnel engaged in the above-mentioned activities to know or to have the possibility to find exact and detailed data on asbestos exposure by occupational sector. These data are briefly described in the 29 factsheets this Catalogue consists of. In each factsheet, the presence and every use of asbestos are described, with reference to a precise occupational sector. Several occupational sectors can be considered together because of analogies on asbestos exposure. Occupations are considered on the basis of existing evidence on the use of raw asbestos or asbestos-containing materials (as semi-finished or finished products or as auxiliary materials in production processes). Besides the presence and use of asbestos, a description of the possible exposures of workers is reported. Sources of information were scientific and grey literature as well as the 7,187 occupational histories of mesothelioma registered by the specific Tuscan registry. Some factsheets have been revised and enhanced by Italian experts on the asbestos exposure with a specific competence in the examined sectors. Each factsheet includes also questions to be addressed to workers in order to examine in depth their possible asbestos exposure. For those who would like to expand their knowledge on this topic, references are reported both at the end of each factsheet and at the end of the volume. In all industrialized countries, also in those which have not already banned asbestos use, a decrease in the use of this material and in the relative exposure have been observing since the end of the Seventies, few years after the general consensus within the scientific community on asbestos carcinogenicity. This decreasing trend has been becoming greater and greater since the end of the Eighties, when more restrictive regulations have been approved and applied, especially in occupational settings. Nevertheless, nowadays asbestos-related diseases are still diagnosed due to past exposures, although during next decade a decreasing incidence of malignant mesothelioma - the cancer most specifically related to this carcinogen and characterized by a very bad prognosis and the longest latency - could be observed. Particular attention will be paid to jobs regarding renovation of old buildings containing asbestos and to decontamination activities. In conclusion, this Catalogue is a working tool - although it is not exhaustive and could be upgraded with new information - for all professionals engaged in asbestos risk prevention activities as health personnel, personnel of insurance companies, employers, and employee representatives.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Pleurais , Asbestos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia
2.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(4): 289-295, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549571

RESUMO

Pleural mesothelioma clusters from outdoor environmental exposure have been highlighted also in Italy and, on the basis of epidemiological surveillance coordinated by the Italian National Mesothelioma Register, their frequency has been estimated at about 4.5%. Epidemiological studies and evaluations of some regional mesothelioma registers have made it possible to highlight that the dispersion of asbestos fibers in the outdoor environment was the only ascertained cause of mesothelioma in subjects from asbestos-cement factories, from the Balangero mine (Piedmont Region), from some serpentine rock quarries with tremolite outcrops in the Southern Apennines and in Alta Val di Susa (Piedmont Region); from chrysotile and serpentine caves in Valmalenco (Lombardy Region). Furthermore, cases of pleural mesothelioma were clearly caused by environmental pollution from fluoroedenite fibers in Biancavilla (Sicily Region). On the other hand, regional mesothelioma registers have also reported other circumstances of environmental asbestos exposure, like in the case of steel industry, shipbuilding, chemical plants, railway lines, and repair/demolition of railway carriages. However, these reports have not found confirmation on the basis of ad-hoc studies and it is likely that there is a lack of homogeneity in the assessment of individual cases. Apart from the scenarios which have been the subject of ad-hoc studies, the assessment of the causal role of environmental exposure to "in place" asbestos in the onset of pleural mesothelioma is problematic without an effort to more carefully examine the circumstances of possible exposure, harmonization of the attribution criteria used in the individual regional registers, analytical assessment of the impact of such exposure on the risk of onset of mesothelioma.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Pleurais , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Sicília
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046456, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to establish hospitalisation costs of mesothelioma in Italy and to evaluate hospital-related trends associated with the 1992 asbestos ban. DESIGN: This is a retrospective population-based study of Italian hospitalisations treating pleura, peritoneum and pericardium mesothelioma in the period 2001-2018. SETTINGS: Public and private Italian hospitals reached by the Ministry of Health (coverage close to 100%). PARTICIPANTS: 157 221 admissions with primary or contributing diagnosis of pleural, peritoneal or hearth cancer discharged from 2001 to 2018.Primary and secondary outcome measures: number, length and cost of hospitalisations with related percentages. RESULTS: Each year, Italian hospitals treated a mesothelioma in 6025 admissions on average. Mean annual costs by site were €20 293 733, €3183 632 and €40 443 for pleura, peritoneum and pericardium, respectively. Pericardial mesothelioma showed the highest cost per admission (€6117), followed by peritoneal (€4549) and pleural cases (€3809). Percentage of hospitalisation costs attributable to mesothelioma was higher when it is located in pleura (53.4%) and pericardium (51.8%) with respect to peritoneum (41.2%). Overall annual hospitalisation cost, percentages of number and length of admissions showed an inverted U-shape, with maxima (of €25 850 276, 0.064% and 0.096%, respectively) reached in 2011-2013. Mean age at discharge and percentages of surgery and of urgent cases increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: The highest impact of mesothelioma on the National Health System was recorded 20 years after the asbestos ban (2011-2013). Hospitals should expect soon fewer but more severe patients needing more cares. To study the disease prevalence could help assistance planning of next decade.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Pleurais , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/terapia , Alta do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444165

RESUMO

Sailors have long been known to experience high rates of injury, disease, and premature death. Many studies have shown asbestos-related diseases among shipyard workers, but few have examined the epidemiology of asbestos-related disease and death among asbestos-exposed sailors serving on ships at sea. Chrysotile and amphibole asbestos were used extensively in ship construction for insulation, joiner bulkhead systems, pipe coverings, boilers, machinery parts, bulkhead panels, and many other uses, and asbestos-containing ships are still in service. Sailors are at high risk of exposure to shipboard asbestos, because unlike shipyard workers and other occupationally exposed groups, sailors both work and live at their worksite, making asbestos standards and permissible exposure limits (PELs). based on an 8-h workday inadequate to protect their health elevated risks of mesothelioma and other asbestos-related cancers have been observed among sailors through epidemiologic studies. We review these studies here.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Militares , Asbestos/análise , Asbestos/toxicidade , Asbestos Serpentinas , Humanos , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Navios
5.
Acta Oncol ; 60(10): 1250-1256, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesothelioma of the pleural or peritoneal cavities is one of the deadliest cancer types. The incidence of pleural subtypes has decreased over time due to decrease in asbestos exposure, and the current treatment landscape is changing due to introduction of novel therapies. In this study we have analysed contemporary epidemiological data of mesothelioma on a national level before the advent of immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Complete national data on 1509 pleural and peritoneal malignant mesothelioma from the Cancer Registry of Norway from 2000 to 2019 are presented. Age standardised incidence and median survival were calculated. RESULTS: The age-standardised incidence of pleural mesothelioma among males has decreased from 1.7 per 100 000 in 2000-2004 to 1.1 in 2015-2019, whereas the incidence for females has been stable, lower than 0.3 per 100 000 throughout the period. Incidence of peritoneal mesotheliomas remained low, below 0.08 per 100 000. The female to male ratio among pleural mesotheliomas was 1:7 with no differences among morphological subtypes, whereas this ratio was 1:1.2 in peritoneal mesotheliomas. Median age at diagnosis for pleural mesothelioma was 73 years and 76 years for females and males respectively in the last 5-year period, and 67 years for peritoneal mesotheliomas of both sexes. Median survival among pleural mesotheliomas has been stable, with significantly worse prognosis among sarcomatoid subtype (5.4 months) compared to epithelioid subtype (15.8 months). Peritoneal mesothelioma of the epithelioid subtype, representing 38% of cases, had a median survival of 43.3 months, contrasting the non-epithelioid subtype of 5.1 months. DISCUSSION: Mesothelioma is still a significant disease with a dismal prognosis. Improvement in treatment is warranted.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Neoplasias Pleurais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/terapia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/terapia , Prognóstico
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205400

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a cancer that is largely caused by exposure to asbestos. Although asbestos is no longer used in South Korea, the incidence of MM continues to increase due to its long latent period. We aimed to update the previous prediction of MM incidence until 2038. We predicted the incidence of MM over the next 20 years (2019-2038) in South Korea using Møller's age-period-cohort (APC) model and a Poisson regression model based on asbestos consumption. The APC model predicted that the crude incidence rate would increase sharply in men and slowly in women. Despite the sex discrepancy in the rate of increase, the incidence rate for both sexes is expected to continue increasing until 2038. In the Poisson model, the crude incidence rate was predicted to increase continuously until 2038, and far more cases of MM were predicted to occur compared with the results of the APC model. When compared with actual incidence data, the APC model was deemed more suitable than the Poisson model. The APC model predicted a continuous increase over the next 20 years with no peak, suggesting that the incidence of MM will continue to rise far into the future.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
9.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 51(4): 301-327, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060417

RESUMO

Chrysotile was formerly used in the manufacture of casting ring liner (CRL) and periodontal dressing powder (PDP). The purpose of this study was to describe the potential for airborne asbestos exposure among dental professionals who may have used these products and to assess their risk of asbestos-related disease (ARD). Task-specific exposure data associated with CRL and PDP were identified and compared to regulatory standards for asbestos and health-based benchmarks. Personal airborne fiber concentrations ranged from 0.008-3.5 f/cc by PCM (duration: 3-420 minutes) for CRL (tearing, placement), and from <0.0044-<0.297 f/cc by PCM (duration: 5-28 minutes) for PDP (mixing). Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were calculated using the reported task-based airborne fiber concentrations and associated sampling durations. For CRL tasks, the upper-bound calculated 8-hour TWA of 0.022 f/cc (tearing, placement) did not exceed regulatory standards for asbestos (≥0.1 f/cc). All samples collected during the mixing of PDP resulted in non-measurable fiber concentrations. The greatest estimated cumulative asbestos exposure for dental professionals using CRL (tearing, placement) of 0.33 f/cc-years is well below "best estimate", published chrysotile no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAEL) for ARD (lung cancer = 89-168 f/cc-years; pleural mesothelioma = 208-415 f/cc-years). As such, the use of asbestos-containing CRL and/or PDP is not expected to pose an increased risk of ARD among dental professionals. This conclusion is consistent with the lack of an increased risk of ARD reported in epidemiological studies of these occupations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Asbestos , Odontologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Asbestos Serpentinas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Medição de Risco
10.
Geospat Health ; 16(1)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000787

RESUMO

Exposure to asbestos causes a wide range of diseases, such as asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma (MM) and other types of cancer. Many European countries have reduced production and use of asbestos and some have banned it altogether. Based on data derived from the World Health Organisation (WHO) Cancer Mortality Database, we investigated whether some regions in Europe could have a higher relative risk of MM incidence than others. The data were compared, including the number of MM deaths per million inhabitants and aged-standardized mortality rates. Applying Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi statistic on the agedstandardized mortality rates of MM cases assisted the spatial analysis of the occurrence of health events leading to an assessment of the heterogeneity of distribution and cluster detection of MM. We found a statistically significant positive autocorrelation for the male population and also the general population, while there was no statistically significant positive one for the female population. Hotspots of relative risk of developing MM were found in northwestern Europe. For the general population, Great Britain and the Netherlands stood out with high levels at the 99% and 95% confidence levels, respectively. For the male population, the results were similar, but with addition of risk also in Belgium and Switzerland. However, in many European countries with high asbestos use per capita, the MM incidence was found to still be low. The reasons for this are not yet clear, but part of the problem is certainly due to incomplete data in registers and databases. The latency time can be longer than 40 years and is related to the intensity and time of exposure (occupational, para-occupational and environmental). In Europe, even though peak production occurred in the 1960s and 1970s, a significant decrease in production did not occur until 25 years later, which means that the impact will continue for as late as The mid 2030s.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Suíça
11.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 43(4): 383-394, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902201

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a pleura-derived malignant tumor, with a gradually increasing incidence in recent years based on domestic and foreign epidemiologic data. Most patients with MPM are diagnosed at an advanced stage due to its insidiousness and aggressiveness. The therapeutic strategies of MPM mainly include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, the immunotherapy has altered the treatment pattern and further improved the survival of these patients. In order to timely present the domestic and foreign progress in the diagnosis and treatment of MPM, and to further improve the level of standardized diagnosis and treatment in MPM in China, this guideline was formulated on the basis of existing clinical research evidence combined with experts' opinions. The guideline covers the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, treatment and follow-up of MPM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , China , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/terapia , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/terapia
12.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(1-2): 72-81, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to define the most frequent health pathways of cases affected by malignant pleural mesothelioma according to those suggested and evaluated by the most recent specific guidelines. DESIGN: epidemiological descriptive study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 100 cases histologically or cytologically well defined during 2015-2017 are extracted from the archive of two Regional Mesothelioma Registries: in Tuscany Region (Central Italy) they are randomly extracted, while in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) cases treated by a highly-specialized health centre are collected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: frequency of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures; development and application of the checklist with evaluation of the duration of some phases of the predefined pathway. RESULTS: all hospital medical records were collected only for 34 cases in Tuscany and 20 cases in Lombardy. The health examinations were supplied according to each case's health condition and it was not possible to define one or more structured and standardized pathways. The pre-diagnostic phase has a variable duration according to the initial health condition of the patient, also for his/her comorbidity, and to the hospital where he/she was hospitalized at first. The examinations in outpatient services (medical examinations, blood chemistry tests and radiological examinations) are several, but they are specially requested during the pre-diagnostic phase and during the period of chemotherapy. The checklist applied to a subset of Tuscan cases shows a large variation of the length of the pre-diagnostic phase (6-330 days), of the time interval between diagnosis and reporting to mesothelioma registry (1-200 days), and of the survival time (8 days - alive at 31.12.2019). CONCLUSIONS: to obtain the best health pathways for malignant pleural mesotheliomas, it is necessary a strong network among the health regional services with a clinical multiprofessional coordination located in hospitals characterized by a long experience on these cases, and with an active regional monitoring on all clinical, psychological, epidemiological, and legal aspects of the pathway. The regional mesothelioma registries could give a high contribution thanks to their epidemiological skills which are necessary for the monitoring.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/terapia , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/terapia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669843

RESUMO

Increased mortality due to malignant mesothelioma has been demonstrated by several epidemiologic studies in the area around Broni (a small town in Lombardy, northern Italy), where a factory producing asbestos cement was active between 1932 and 1993. Until now, the inorganic fiber burden in lungs has not been investigated in this population. The aim of this study is to assess the lung fiber burden in 72 individuals with previous occupational and/or anthropogenic environmental exposure to asbestos during the activity of an important asbestos cement factory. Inorganic fiber lung burden was assessed in autoptic samples taken from individuals deceased from asbestos-related diseases using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer. Significant differences in the detected amount of asbestos were pointed out among the three types of exposure. In most lung samples taken from patients who died of mesothelioma, very little asbestos (or, in some cases, no fibers) was found. Such subjects showed a significantly lower median amount of asbestos as compared to asbestosis. Almost no chrysotile was detected in the examined samples. Overall, crocidolite was the most represented asbestos, followed by amosite, tremolite/actinolite asbestos, and anthophyllite asbestos. There were significant differences in the amount of crocidolite and amosite fibers according to the kind of exposure. Overall, these findings provide novel insights into the link between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma, as well as the different impacts of the various types of asbestos on human health in relation to their different biopersistences in the lung microenvironment.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Microambiente Tumoral
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669318

RESUMO

Lung cancer (LC) mortality remains a consistent part of the total deaths occurring worldwide. Its etiology is complex as it involves multifactorial components. This work aims in providing an epidemiological assessment on occupational and environmental factors associated to LC risk by means of an ecological study involving the 8092 Italian municipalities for the period 2006-2015. We consider mortality data from mesothelioma as proxy of asbestos exposure, as well as PM2.5 and radon levels as a proxy of environmental origin. The compensated cases for occupational respiratory diseases, urbanization and deprivation were included as predictors. We used a negative binomial distribution for the response, with analysis stratified by gender. We estimated that asbestos is responsible for about 1.1% (95% CI: 0.8, 1.4) and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) of LC mortality in males and females, respectively. The corresponding figures are 14.0% (95% CI: 12.5, 15.7) and 16.3% (95% CI: 16.2, 16.3) for PM2.5 exposure, and 3.9% (95% CI: 3.5, 4.2) and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.4, 1.7) for radon exposure. The assessment of determinants contribution to observed LC deaths is crucial for improving awareness of its origin, leading to increase the equity of the welfare system.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/toxicidade , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia
15.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 24(1): 62-73, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691040

RESUMO

The commercialization of asbestos in Europe in the second half of the 20th century translated into consumption of millions of tons of this material. Occupational exposure to asbestos is controlled under the 2009 European Union Directive. Currently, through epidemiological surveillance and pathology registries (mainly mesotheliomas), it is possible to record past exposures. Despite prohibiting its use, large amounts of asbestos remain in buildings, infrastructures and vehicles, among others. The road to elimination of existing asbestos began with a 2013 European Parliament Resolution and the Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (2015 / C 251/03).To better understand barriers to implementing these plans, we reviewed the experience in Poland the only country that to date has implemented an action plan with great financial support, together with actions carried out in Spain generally, and Navarre specifically, given the latter's exhaustive registry of exposed workers.The enormous economic effort required to implement these plans, along with the environmental risks associated with asbestos abatement, require detailed planning, which should consider understanding why the objectives set by Poland, a benchmark country, have not been achieved to date.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestos/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Mesotelioma/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Polônia , Espanha
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781046

RESUMO

Asbestos has high fire resistance, electrical insulation and thermal insulation. It is an important fire prevention, insulation and insulation material. It is widely used in industrial production and daily life. In 1987, the international agency for research on cancer (IARC) has listed asbestos as a class I carcinogen; in 2012, IARC confirmed that all types of asbestos have carcinogenic effect. By 2019, asbestos has been banned in 66 countries and regions around the world. Asbestos exposure increases the risk of human malignant tumor. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are known asbestos induced tumors. Epidemiological studies also support that asbestos exposure is related to the incidence of malignant tumors in reproductive system, digestive system, urinary system, nasopharynx head and neck. We summarized the epidemiological studies of asbestos induced tumors in order to provide reference for further research.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562413

RESUMO

Asbestos-related diseases (ARDs)-mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis-are well known as occupational diseases. As industrial asbestos use is eliminated, ARDs within the general community from para-occupational, environmental, and natural exposures are more prominent. ARD clusters have been studied in communities including Broni, Italy; Libby, Montana; Wittenoom, Western Australia; Karain, Turkey; Ambler, Pennsylvania; and elsewhere. Community ARDs pose specific public health issues and challenges. Community exposure results in higher proportions of mesothelioma in women and a younger age distribution than occupational exposures. Exposure amount, age at exposure, fiber type, and genetic predisposition influence ARD expression; vulnerable groups include those with social and behavioral risk, exposure to extreme events, and genetic predispositions. To address community exposure, regulations should address all carcinogenic elongated mineral fibers. Banning asbestos mining, use, and importation will not reduce risks from asbestos already in place. Residents of high-risk communities are characteristically exposed through several pathways differing among communities. Administrative responsibility for controlling environmental exposures is more diffuse than for workplaces, complicated by diverse community attitudes to risk and prevention and legal complexity. The National Mesothelioma Registries help track the identification of communities at risk. High-risk communities need enhanced services for screening, diagnosis, treatment, and social and psychological support, including for retired asbestos workers. Legal settlements could help fund community programs. A focus on prevention, public health programs, particularization to specific community needs, and participation is recommended.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Montana , Pennsylvania , Saúde Pública , Turquia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
18.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 417: 115461, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617892

RESUMO

Cosmetic talc has been suggested to cause mesothelioma. To assess a potential causal relationship between cosmetic talc and mesothelioma, a quantitative weight of evidence analysis was performed in accordance with Hill's nine original guidelines for causal inference using a published empirical model to weight each respective guideline. Various epidemiological, toxicological, and exposure studies related to cosmetic talc and risk of mesothelioma were included in an evaluation of each of Hill's guidelines. Probabilities that the guidelines were true were assigned based on expert judgment. We applied a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the variability of our probability estimates. The overall probability of causality for cosmetic talc and mesothelioma was approximately 1.29% (range: 0.73%-3.96%). This low probability of causality supports the conclusion that cosmetic talc is not related to the development of mesothelioma.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pleurais/induzido quimicamente , Talco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Causalidade , Humanos , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Probabilidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Toxicidade
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466544

RESUMO

Cohort studies showed consistently low risks for malignant mesothelioma (MM) among agricultural workers, however the investigated exposures did not include asbestos. Our aim is to describe sources of asbestos exposure of MM in agriculture. Twenty-six MM cases in agricultural or seed trades workers were identified through the MM registry of the Lombardy region, Italy in 2000-2016. Asbestos exposures were investigated through a standardized questionnaire. The most frequent exposure circumstances were recycled jute bags previously containing asbestos (11 cases) and maintenance and repair of asbestos roofs (12 subjects). Three subjects performed maintenance and repair of tractor asbestos brakes and two used asbestos filters for wine production. Our data suggest asbestos exposure opportunities in the agricultural setting, underlining the need to look for this exposure in subjects affected with mesothelioma.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestos/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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