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1.
Perspect Biol Med ; 64(1): 136-154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746135

RESUMO

Comics have always responded to pandemics/catastrophes, documenting the way we deal with such crises. Recently, graphic medicine, an interdisciplinary field of comics and medicine, has been curating comics, editorial cartoons, autobiographical cartoons, and social media posts under the heading "COVID-19 Comics" on their websites. These collected comics express what we propose to call covidity, a neologism that captures both individual and collective philosophical, material, and wide-ranging emotional responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Treating such comics as the source material and drawing insights from theorists Ian Williams, Alan Bleakley, Susan Sontag, and others, this article examines graphic medicine's representation of the COVID-19 pandemic. The conceptual metaphors of war, anthropomorphism, and superheroism are used to represent and illustrate the lived experience of the pandemic, and the article investigates metaphor types, their utility, and motivational triggers for such representations. In doing so, the essay situates graphic medicine as a productive site that presents the pandemic's multifarious impact.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Histórias em Quadrinhos como Assunto , Metáfora , Desenhos Animados como Assunto , Cultura , Humanos
2.
J Med Humanit ; 42(1): 103-107, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683510

RESUMO

We have never been so aware of masks. They were in short supply in the early days of COVID-19, resulting in significant risk to health care workers. Now they are highly politicized with battles about mask-wearing protocols breaking out in public. Although masks have obtained a new urgency and ubiquity in the context of COVID-19, people have thought about both the literal and metaphorical role of masks in medicine for generations. In this paper, we discuss three such metaphors-the masks of objectivity, of infallibility, and of benevolence-and their powerful role in medicine. These masks can be viewed as inflexible barriers to communication, contributing to the traditional authoritarian relationship between doctor and patient and concealing the authenticity and vulnerability of physicians. COVID masks, by contrast, offer a more nuanced and morally complex metaphor for thinking about protecting people from harm, authentic and trustworthy communication, and attention to potential inequities both in and beyond medical settings. We highlight the morally relevant challenges and opportunities that masks evoke and suggest that there is much to be gained from rethinking the mask metaphor in medicine.


Assuntos
Máscaras , Medicina , Metáfora , Humanos , Princípios Morais
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 25, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616771

RESUMO

As witnessed over the last year, immunity emerged as one of most highly debated topics in the current Covid-19 pandemic. Countries around the globe have been debating whether herd immunity or lockdown is the best response, as the race continues for the development and rollout of effective vaccines against coronavirus and as the economic costs of implementing strict containment measures are weighed against public health costs. What became evident all the more is that immunity is precisely what bridges between biological life and political life in the current climate, be it in terms of the contentious notion of herd immunity, the geopolitical struggle for vaccines, or the possible emergence of "Covid-elite", i.e. holders of so-called "immunity passports". Immunity, as such, is certainly not only a matter of science and biology alone, but is inherently political in the way that pandemics themselves are often highly politicised. Drawing on the work of Roberto Esposito and other literature from the field of biopolitics and immunology, this paper provides a critical examination of the concept of immunity in light of the recent events, highlighting the intersections between the politics of defence and the politics of sacrifice which animate governments' immunitary responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper ends with a discussion on the forms of solidarity and local initiatives that have been mobilised during the current pandemic and their potential for an affirmative form of biopolitics. Overall, the main aim of this paper is to provide a critical cultural and philosophical analysis of Covid-19 debates and responses and a nuanced account on the biopolitical effects of the current pandemic, highlighting the paradoxical nature of immunity which straddles at once negative practices of defence and sacrifice as well as affirmative forms of community and solidarity beyond state apparatuses.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Participação da Comunidade , Saúde Global , Governo , Imunidade Coletiva , Imunidade , Política , Conflitos Armados , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Metáfora , Classe Social , Cobertura Vacinal
4.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e2, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599585

RESUMO

We propose that the metaphor of cleansing was a by-product of modernization processes. Based on cultural and historical evidence, we claim that the activation of cleansing metaphor triggered positive associations in times when separation was a positively regarded element of human culture and agriculture, but it should not exert the same effect in times when separation became culturally anachronistic.


Assuntos
Genocídio , Metáfora , Agricultura , Humanos
6.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 50-58, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167731

RESUMO

Metaphors have been widely used in communication about the Covid-19 pandemic. The virus has been described, for example, as an "enemy" to be "beaten," a "tsunami" on health services and even as "glitter" that "gets everywhere." This paper discusses different metaphors for the pandemic, and explains why they are used and why they matter. War metaphors are considered first, as they were particularly frequent and controversial at the beginning of the pandemic. An overview of alternative metaphors is then provided, drawing from the "#ReframeCovid" crowd-sourced multilingual collection of metaphors for Covid-19. Finally, based on both the #ReframeCovid collection and a systematic analysis of a large corpus of news articles in English, it is suggested that Fire metaphors are particularly appropriate and versatile in communication about different aspects of the pandemic, including contagion and different public health measures aimed at reducing it.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Metáfora , Conflitos Armados , Fogo , Humanos , Desastres Naturais , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
7.
Soins ; 65(850): 31-34, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357736

RESUMO

Cross-cultural consultation often uses metaphors. These promote narration, facilitate the therapeutic alliance, and allow psychic elaborations that release our patients' pains. The terms and conditions of their use, as well as their purposes, are more and more determined. They draw from imagination and therapists' lived experiences, in classical stories, in tales and fables from various cultures. This gives them real therapeutic potential, which must be learned to use.


Assuntos
Metáfora , Narração , Dor , Humanos
8.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 857-869, out.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145475

RESUMO

Este artigo trabalha na perspectiva histórica e na revisão bibliográfica de autores que analisam os recursos da linguagem, como a metáfora, para perceber a construção discursiva do HIV/aids na medicina, na mídia, no campo literário, na militância LGBTI e nos relatos em canais no YouTube de pessoas vivendo com HIV. O objetivo é utilizar as análises da terminologia e da história de luta pela significação de termos associados à doença e ao vírus em cada período. Dessa forma, verificamos que as representações iniciais sobre a condição clínica relacionada à culpa e ao julgamento moral de grupos, já vulneráveis antes da epidemia, não foram totalmente superadas no discurso. Observamos ainda os esforços, ao longo desses 40 anos, no campo da ciência para reduzir o estigma e a discriminação a partir da palavra.


This article works in the historical perspective and in the bibliographic review of authors who analyze language resources, such as the metaphor, to understand the discursive construction of HIV/AIDS in medicine, in the media, in the literary field, in LGBTI activism and in reports on YouTube channels of people living with HIV. The objective is to use the analysis of terminology and history of struggle for the meaning of terms associated with the disease and the virus in each period. We found that the initial representations about the clinical condition related to guilt and the moral judgment of groups, already vulnerable before the epidemic, were not completely overcome in the discourse. We also observe the efforts, over these 40 years, in the field of science to reduce stigma and discrimination based on words.


Este artículo trabaja en la perspectiva histórica y en la revisión bibliográfica de autores que analizan recursos del lenguaje, como la metáfora, para comprender la construcción discursiva del VIH/SIDA en la medicina, en los medios de comunicación, en el campo literario, en el activismo LGBTI y en canales de YouTube de personas que viven con el VIH. El objetivo es utilizar el análisis de la terminología y la historia de las luchas por el significado de los términos asociados a la enfermedad y al virus en cada período. Así, encontramos que las representaciones iniciales sobre el cuadro clínico relacionado con la culpa y el juicio moral de grupos, ya vulnerables antes de la epidemia, no fueron superadas por completo en el discurso. También hemos visto esfuerzos, durante estos 40 años, en el campo de la ciencia para reducir el estigma y la discriminación basados en las palabras.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Semântica , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/história , HIV , Metáfora , Webcasts como Assunto , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Preconceito , Comportamento Sexual , Meios de Comunicação , Jornalismo , Estigma Social , Epidemias , Mídias Sociais , Narrativa Pessoal , Terminologia como Assunto
9.
11.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(5): 20-29, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095486

RESUMO

There are two widespread beliefs about the use of metaphors in clinical medicine. The first is that military metaphors are harmful to patients and should be discouraged in medical practice. The second is that the metaphors of clinical practice can be judged by and standardized in reference to neutral criteria. In this article, I evaluate both these beliefs, exposing their shared flawed logic. This logic underwrites the false empiricist assumptions that metaphorical language and literal language are fundamentally distinct, play separate roles in communication, and therefore can be independently analyzed, systematized, and prescribed. Next, using the resources of ordinary language philosophy, I lay out a theoretical view of medical metaphors that is grounded in metaphor use within clinician-patient relationships. Finally, drawing on the work of philosopher Max Black, I diagram a practical conceptual framework for clinicians to use when they consider whether a metaphor is appropriate for a specific patient encounter.


Assuntos
Metáfora , Verduras , Pai , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Núcleo Familiar
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0240010, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997720

RESUMO

Doctors and nurses in these weeks and months are busy in the trenches, fighting against a new invisible enemy: Covid-19. Cities are locked down and civilians are besieged in their own homes, to prevent the spreading of the virus. War-related terminology is commonly used to frame the discourse around epidemics and diseases. The discourse around the current epidemic makes use of war-related metaphors too, not only in public discourse and in the media, but also in the tweets written by non-experts of mass communication. We hereby present an analysis of the discourse around #Covid-19, based on a large corpus tweets posted on Twitter during March and April 2020. Using topic modelling we first analyze the topics around which the discourse can be classified. Then, we show that the WAR framing is used to talk about specific topics, such as the virus treatment, but not others, such as the effects of social distancing on the population. We then measure and compare the popularity of the WAR frame to three alternative figurative frames (MONSTER, STORM and TSUNAMI) and a literal frame used as control (FAMILY). The results show that while the FAMILY frame covers a wider portion of the corpus, among the figurative frames WAR, a highly conventional one, is the frame used most frequently. Yet, this frame does not seem to be apt to elaborate the discourse around some aspects involved in the current situation. Therefore, we conclude, in line with previous suggestions, a plethora of framing options-or a metaphor menu-may facilitate the communication of various aspects involved in the Covid-19-related discourse on the social media, and thus support civilians in the expression of their feelings, opinions and beliefs during the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Infecções por Coronavirus , Metáfora , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Humanos , Idioma
13.
Ther Umsch ; 77(6): 236-238, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930080

RESUMO

The sociolinguistic meaning of hand and nerves and their emotional expression Abstract. This article on the sociolinguistic occurrence of the hand and nerves in our everyday language reveals that the German language has a rich repertoire of metaphors and proverbs referring to fingers, hands, arms and nerves, expressing our feelings including pain. There are - on the one hand - not only plenty of expressions and phrases describing the physical purpose of the upper extremity, but - on the other hand - also countless metaphorical terms related to psychological, emotional or social contents. In contrast to medical terminology, everyday language does not hesitate to name the psychosocial dimension of things - High five!


Assuntos
Emoções , Metáfora
15.
Adv Mind Body Med ; 34(2): 14-23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822330

RESUMO

Psychotherapy is predominantly a sedentary practice that, with rare exceptions, does not involve much physical activity on the part of either the client or the therapist. In response to this situation, the article examines three concerns: the impact of sedentarism on psychotherapists; the disconnection between the evidence of the benefit of physical exercise on psychological wellbeing and the predominant focus in psychotherapy on the sedentary mind; and the implications of the disconnection between psychotherapists' own minds and bodies. of the method employed was an heuristic enquiry conducted by the first author (reflected in the "I" and the "my" voice in the article), under the supervision of the second author. Drawing on and interweaving relevant literature throughout, the enquiry explores the first author's own relationship with exercise and, specifically, boxing, as both a practice (i.e., physical exercise) and as a metaphor for the heuristic research process (a psychological and intellectual exercise).


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Heurística , Psicoterapia , Emprego , Humanos , Metáfora
18.
Australas Psychiatry ; 28(5): 521-523, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As the world struggles to come to terms with "corona," we find our collective experience to be entirely alien, struggling to find meaning in the forms of feeling being evoked. When words cannot provide meaning to experience, metaphor is often utilized. CONCLUSIONS: Words like "love" are informed autobiographically as "growing words," with no rules defining their use. The significance of "love" to an individual is created through personal history, such that sophisticated understanding is only constructed following a lifetime of experience. "Corona" is perhaps a growing word; we cannot yet grasp its meaning in the face of cólera (passion) and pati (suffering) informing our collective traumatic script. Psychiatrists should aim to focus on the positive forms of feeling emerging during the pandemic, in order to be better equipped to meet the impending "second wave" of mental health complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Emoções , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Amor , Metáfora , Pandemias
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