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1.
Exp Suppl ; 111: 419-441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588542

RESUMO

Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and output, influenced by numerous environmental, biological, and genetic factors. Only a minority of people with obesity have a genetic defect that is the main cause of their obesity. A key symptom for most of these disorders is early-onset obesity and hyperphagia. For some genetic obesity disorders, the hyperphagia is the main characteristic, often caused by disruptions of the leptin-melanocortin pathway, the central pathway that regulates the body's satiety and energy balance. For other disorders, obesity is part of a distinct combination of other clinical features such as intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, or organ abnormalities. This chapter focuses on genetic obesity disorders and also summarizes the present knowledge on the genetics of the more common polygenic/multifactorial obesity.


Assuntos
Hiperfagia/genética , Obesidade/genética , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Leptina , Melanocortinas , Saciação
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 2966-2971, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602841

RESUMO

To study the effects of saikosaponin b2( SS-b2) on inflammatory factors and energy metabolism against lipopolysaccharide/galactosamine( LPS/Gal N) induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were randomly divided into normal group( equal amount of normal saline),model group( 100 g·kg~(-1) LPS and 400 mg·kg~(-1) Gal N),low,medium,high dose group of SS-b2( SS-b25,10,20 mg·kg~(-1)·d-1) and positive control group( dexamethasone,10 mg·kg~(-1)). All of the groups except for the normal group were treated with LPS/Gal N though intraperitoneally injection to establish the acute liver injury model. The organ indexes were calculated. The levels of serum transaminases( ALT and AST) and the activities of ATPase( Na+-K+-ATPase,Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase) in liver were detected. The activity of tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α),interleukin-1ß( IL-1ß) and interleukin-6( IL-6) were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA). The contents of lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) in liver were determined by micro-enzyme method. HE staining was used to observe the histopathological changes of the liver. Histochemical method was used to investigate the protein expression of liver lactate dehydrogenase-A( LDH-A). The protein expressions of Sirt-6 and NF-κB in the liver were detected by Western blot. According to the results,compared with the model group,there were significant changes in organ indexes in the high-dose group of SS-b2( P<0. 05). The level of ALT,AST,TNF-α,IL-1ß,IL-6 and the activities of LDH in serum of mice with liver injury were significantly reduced in the medium and high dose groups of SS-b2( P<0. 01). With the increase of the concentration of SS-b2,the range of hepatic lesions and the damage in mice decreased. The activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in liver of mice were significantly enhanced in each dose group( P<0. 01). The expression of NF-κB in liver tissues was significantly down-regulated in the medium and high dose group( P<0. 01). Meanwhile,the expression of Sirt-6 protein in the liver of mice with acute liver injury was significantly increased in each dose group( P<0. 01).In summary,SS-b2 has a significant protective effect on LPS/Gal N-induced acute liver injury in mice,which may be related to the down-regulation of NF-κB protein expression and up-regulation of Sirt-6 protein expression to improve inflammatory injury and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo Energético , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Galactosamina , Lipopolissacarídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3786-3791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602954

RESUMO

It is reported that energy metabolism is the core feature of tumor cells. This study is aimed to investigate the regulatory effect of two flavonoids( glabridin and quercetin) on energy supply and glycolysis of breast cancer cells,and provide reference for developing some anticancer herbal drugs with the function of regulating tumor energy metabolism. Based on the characteristics of each pathway during energy metabolism,in the present study,the triple negative breast cancer tumor cells( MDA-MB-231) were selected to investigate the effects of glabridin and quercetin on the energy metabolism of breast cancer cells and discuss the possible mechanisms from the following five potential targets: glucose uptake,protein expression of glucose transporter 1( GLUT1),adenosine triphosphate( ATP) level,lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) activity,and lactic acid( LD) concentration. The results showed that both quercetin and glabridin could decrease the glucose uptake capacity of breast cancer cells by down-regulating the protein expression of GLUT1. Quercetin had no significant effect on LDH activity and LD concentration; it did not affect the glycolysis process,but increased the intracellular ATP level. Glabridin decreased the activity of LDH and reduced LD concentration,thereby inhibiting the glycolysis metabolism of breast cancer cells. Therefore,both quercetin and glabridin can regulate the energy metabolism of breast cancer cells and can be used as potential anticancer agents or anti-cancer adjuvants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Humanos
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3798-3805, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602956

RESUMO

Based on metabolomics,the metabolites of larvae zebrafish with overdose of Panax notoginseng saponins( PNS) were compared with those in normal group of larvae zebrafish to investigate the possible toxicity mechanism of overdose PNS in larvae zebrafish. An experimental animal model of long-term toxicity induced by PNS overdose was established by administering 1-6 dpf at low,medium and high doses of PNS,respectively. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) technique was combined with principal component analysis( PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA) to screen and identify biomarkers associated with toxicity,and then the MetaboAnalyst database was used to analyze metabolism-related pathways. The results showed that the metabolites of each group could be distinguished distinctly,and they deviated more from the normal group in a time and dose dependent manner. Twenty-nine potential biomarkers related to toxicity( VIP>1,P<0. 05) were identified preliminarily,mainly involving six metabolic pathways. From the metabonomics point of view,the toxicity mechanism of overdose PNS may be related to the disorders of lipid metabolism,amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Panax notoginseng/toxicidade , Saponinas/toxicidade , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Metabolismo Energético , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Peixe-Zebra
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20181330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508665

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of the selective destruction of the pancreatic ß-cells by T cells of the immune system. Although spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ, it is also involved in the T1D pathogenesis. However, the alterations in a variety of cellular processes of this disease need to be further understood. We aimed to analyze the benefits of resveratrol, and its complexed form on diabetic complications in the spleen of rats. To this end, we investigated important enzymes of phosphoryl transfer network, and Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic groups: Control, Ethanol, Resveratrol, Hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, Resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, and diabetic groups with the same treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 60 mg/kg of streptozocin intraperitoneally, and treatments by intragastric gavage once daily for 60 days. Hyperglycemia reduced creatine kinase activity, which was reversed by the administration of resveratrol. Na+, K+-ATPase activity was greatly affected, but it was reversed by resveratrol and resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin. This suggest an energetic imbalance in the spleen of diabetic rats, and in case this also occurs in the diabetic patients, it is possible that resveratrol supplementation could be beneficial to the better functioning of the spleen in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
6.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(9): 630-635, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis if mitochondrial bioenergetic function analyzed in circulating platelets may represent peripheral signature of mitochondrial dysfunction in nephropathy associated to non-communicable human diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and with statins treatment. METHODS: High-resolution respirometry was used for analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics in human platelets isolated from peripheral blood. This method is less-invasively compared to skeletal muscle biopsy. Patients with nephropathies and in combination with non-communicable diseases were included in the study. RESULTS: This pilot study showed platelet mitochondrial bioenergy dysfunction in patients with nephropathies and non-communicable diseases. Positive effect of treatment with 10 mg atorvastatin on platelet mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I-linked respiration and ATP production in patients with nephropathies, diabetes and 80 mg atorvastatin in patient with nephropathy and dialysis was found. Positive effect of 80 mg fluvastatin treatment, and negative effect of thrombocytopenia and renal transplantation on platelet mitochondrial bioenergy was determined. CONCLUSION: High-resolution respirometry allowed detection of small changes in platelet mitochondrial function. This method could be used as a sensitive bioenergetic test of mitochondrial function for diagnosis and monitoring the therapy in patients with nephropathy (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 39).


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Respiração Celular , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10595-10603, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475817

RESUMO

While ß-cryptoxanthin is hypothesized to have a preventive effect on lifestyle-related diseases, its underlying mechanisms are unknown. We investigated the effect of ß-cryptoxanthin on energy metabolism in adipose tissues and its underlying mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat) containing 0 or 0.05% ß-cryptoxanthin for 12 weeks. ß-cryptoxanthin treatment was found to reduce body fat gain and plasma glucose level, while increasing energy expenditure. The expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 was elevated in adipose tissues in the treatment group. Furthermore, the in vivo assays showed that the Ucp1 mRNA expression was higher in the ß-cryptoxanthin treatment group, an effect that disappeared upon cotreatment with a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist. In conclusion, we report that ß-cryptoxanthin reduces body fat and body weight gain and that ß-cryptoxanthin increases the expression of UCP1 via the RAR pathway.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , beta-Criptoxantina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1178: 25-38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493220

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder believed to have neurodevelopmental origins. Several studies have associated energy metabolism dysfunction with the disorder, mostly related to glycolysis alterations. Glucose is the obligatory energy substrate of the brain and glycolysis is the first step for its metabolism. This takes place predominantly in glial cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, whereas neurons present a predominant oxidative profile. Thus, glial cells generate either lactate or pyruvate to neurons for ATP production. In addition, some aspects of schizophrenia may reflect an advanced aging phenotype with effects on various neural cell types at different stages of the disease. Given the role of glial cells in brain energy metabolism, the association of glycolysis dysfunction and the accelerated aging of neuronal cells in schizophrenia, studies focusing on those aspects can yield important insights into the causes and implications of the disorder. In turn, this may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for improved treatment of individuals suffering with this disorder.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Glicólise , Neuroglia , Esquizofrenia , Metabolismo Energético , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
9.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 136-146, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520701

RESUMO

Prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) induces developmental toxicities of multiple organs in offspring, but its serum metabolic profile changes before and after birth are unclear. Here, we employed a LC-MS-based metabolomic approach to detect serum metabolites of PDE offspring rats in utero and adulthood, and explore its change characteristics and toxicological significances. Meanwhile, the bodyweight, serum index related to hepatic and renal function were detected. As compared to healthy control rats, PDE reduced offspring birthweight but caused postnatal catch-up growth accompanied by adult liver and kidney function injury. In utero, the differential metabolites in response to PDE were mainly manifested as enhanced glycolysis, increased protein breakdown and disordered lipid metabolism, and multiple metabolic pathways were changed, which displayed gender differences. In adulthood, PDE offspring showed fewer and inconsistent types of differential metabolites compared to those in utero, which exhibited significant gender differences. The main differential metabolites induced by PDE included lactic acid, carnitine, cortexolone, bile acid, phosphatidylcholine, uric acid and platelet activating factor, which may participate in dexamethasone multi-organ toxicities and multi-disease susceptibility. In conclusion, PDE could induce a gender-difference and sustainable multi-organ damage in the offspring rats via serum metabolic profile analysis, which will enhance offspring susceptibility to multiple adult diseases.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/toxicidade , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/toxicidade , Metabolômica/métodos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 154-170, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521832

RESUMO

The present study investigates the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of long term exposure to low doses of a mixture consisting of methomyl, triadimefon, dimethoate, glyphosate, carbaryl, methyl parathion, aspartame, sodium benzoate, EDTA, ethylparaben, buthylparaben, bisphenol A and acacia gum in rats. Four groups of ten Sprangue Dawley rats (5 males and 5 females per group) were exposed for 18 months to the mixture in doses of 0xNOAEL, 0.0025xNOAEL, 0.01xNOAEL and 0.05xNOAEL (mg/kg bw/day). After 18 months of exposure, the rats were sacrificed and their organs were harvested. Micronuclei frequency was evaluated in bone marrow erythrocytes whereas the organs were cytopathologically examined by the touch preparation technique. The exposure to the mixture caused a genotoxic effect identified only in females. Cytopathological examination showed specific alterations of tissue organization in a tissue-type dependent manner. The observed effects were dose-dependent and correlated to various tissue parameters. Specifically, testes samples revealed degenerative and cellularity disorders, liver hepatocytes exhibited decreased glycogen deposition whereas degenerative changes were present in gastric cells. Lung tissue presented increased inflammatory cells infiltration and alveolar macrophages with enhanced phagocytic activity, whereas brain tissue exhibited changes in glial and astrocyte cells' numbers. In conclusion, exposure to very low doses of the tested mixture for 18 months induces genotoxic effects as well as monotonic cytotoxic effects in a tissue-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Genes Dev ; 33(17-18): 1136-1158, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481537

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms are driven by a transcription-translation feedback loop that separates anabolic and catabolic processes across the Earth's 24-h light-dark cycle. Central pacemaker neurons that perceive light entrain a distributed clock network and are closely juxtaposed with hypothalamic neurons involved in regulation of sleep/wake and fast/feeding states. Gaps remain in identifying how pacemaker and extrapacemaker neurons communicate with energy-sensing neurons and the distinct role of circuit interactions versus transcriptionally driven cell-autonomous clocks in the timing of organismal bioenergetics. In this review, we discuss the reciprocal relationship through which the central clock drives appetitive behavior and metabolic homeostasis and the pathways through which nutrient state and sleep/wake behavior affect central clock function.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
12.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 35, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prepare for competition, bodybuilders employ strategies based around: energy restriction, resistance training, cardiovascular exercise, isometric "posing", and supplementation. Cohorts of professional (PRO) natural bodybuilders offer insights into how these strategies are implemented by elite competitors, and are undocumented in the scientific literature. METHODS: Forty-seven competitors (33 male (8 PRO, 25 amateur (AMA), 14 female (5 PRO, 9 AMA) participated in the study. All PROs were eligible to compete with the Drug Free Athletes Coalition (DFAC), and all AMAs were recruited from the British Natural Bodybuilding Federation (BNBF). Competitors in these organisations are subject to a polygraph and are drug tested in accordance with the World Anti-Doping Agency. We report the results of a cross-sectional study of drug free bodybuilders competing at BNBF qualifying events, and the DFAC and World Natural Bodybuilding Federation finals. Participants completed a 34-item questionnaire assessing dietary intake at three time points (start, middle and end) of competition preparation. Participants recorded their food intake over a 24-h period in grams and/or portions. Dietary intakes of PRO and AMA competitors were then compared. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test if nutrient intake changed over time, and for associations with division. RESULTS: Male PROs reported significantly (p < 0.05) more bodybuilding experience than AMAs (PRO: 12.3 +/- 9.2, AMA: 2.4 +/- 1.4 yrs). Male PROs lost less body mass per week (PRO: 0.5 +/- 0.1, AMA: 0.7 +/- 0.2%, p < 0.05), and reported more weeks dieting (PRO: 28.1 +/- 8.1, AMA: 21.0 +/- 9.4 wks, P = 0.06). Significant differences (p < 0.05) of carbohydrate and energy were also recorded, as well as a difference (p = 0.03) in the estimated energy deficit (EED), between male PRO (2.0 +/- 5.5 kcal) and AMA (- 3.4 +/- 5.5 kcal) competitors. CONCLUSIONS: Longer diets and slower weight loss utilized by PROs likely contributed towards a lower EED compared to the AMAs. Slower weight loss may constitute an effective strategy for maintaining energy availability and muscle mass during an energy deficit. These findings require corroboration, but will interest bodybuilders and coaches.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Reino Unido
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 352, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice plants show yellowing, stunting, withering, reduced tillering and utimately low productivity in susceptible varieties under low temperature stress. Comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify novel transcripts, gain new insights into different gene expression and pathways involved in cold tolerance in rice. RESULTS: Comparative transcriptome analyses of 5 treatments based on chilling stress exposure revealed more down regulated genes in susceptible and higher up regulated genes in tolerant genotypes. A total of 13930 and 10599 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in cold susceptible variety (CSV) and cold tolerant variety (CTV), respectively. A continuous increase in DEGs at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h exposure of cold stress was detected in both the genotypes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 18 CSV and 28 CTV term significantly involved in molecular function, cellular component and biological process. GO classification showed a significant role of transcription regulation, oxygen, lipid binding, catalytic and hydrolase activity for tolerance response. Absence of photosynthesis related genes, storage products like starch and synthesis of other classes of molecules like fatty acids and terpenes during the stress were noticed in susceptible genotype. However, biological regulations, generation of precursor metabolites, signal transduction, photosynthesis, regulation of cellular process, energy and carbohydrate metabolism were seen in tolerant genotype during the stress. KEGG pathway annotation revealed more number of genes regulating different pathways resulting in more tolerant. During early response phase, 24 and 11 DEGs were enriched in CTV and CSV, respectively in energy metabolism pathways. Among the 1583 DEG transcription factors (TF) genes, 69 WRKY, 46 bZIP, 41 NAC, 40 ERF, 31/14 MYB/MYB-related, 22 bHLH, 17 Nin-like 7 HSF and 4C3H were involved during early response phase. Late response phase showed 30 bHLH, 65 NAC, 30 ERF, 26/20 MYB/MYB-related, 11 C3H, 12 HSF, 86 Nin-like, 41 AP2/ERF, 55 bZIP and 98 WRKY members TF genes. The recovery phase included 18 bHLH, 50 NAC, 31 ERF, 24/13 MYB/MYB-related, 4 C3H, 4 HSF, 14 Nin-like, 31 bZIP and 114 WRKY TF genes. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptome analysis of contrasting genotypes for cold tolerance detected the genes, pathways and transcription factors involved in the stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121930, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401356

RESUMO

The impacts of nanoFe3O4 on the composition of degradation products, microbial community, and microbial metabolic functions during rice straw anaerobic degradation were investigated. Under nanoFe3O4 addition, CH4 production and straw degradation increased by 81% and 10.4%, respectively, in paddy soil enrichment. Coupling product chemistry and microbial community during straw degradation found that nanoFe3O4 effectively promoted the hydrolysis-acidification-methanogenesis of straw, which made lignin-, lipid-, protein-, tannin-like and VFAs products rapidly increase and then quickly decrease. Moreover, the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae and Methanosarcina corresponded with increased hydrolysis and acetoclastic methanogenesis with nanoFe3O4 addition. Cellular processes, environmental information processing and metabolism, especially energy metabolism, were enhanced functions of the microbial community during straw degradation with nanoFe3O4. The nanoFe3O4 addition may improve the electron transfer efficiency, stimulate energy release, reduce Gibbs free energy of the half reaction of organic carbon oxidation (ΔGcox0) and promote energy metabolism to accelerate straw degradation and CH4 generation.


Assuntos
Oryza , Microbiologia do Solo , Metabolismo Energético , Metano , Solo
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1158: 1-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452132

RESUMO

Given the role of mitochondria in modulating many cellular functions, it is not surprising that they can play a crucial role also in molecular pathophysiology of cancer. In particular, the discovery in recent decades of a link between cancer metabolic processes, alterations of mitochondrial DNA, oncogenes and tumor suppressors has led not only to a renaissance of interest in Warburg's pioneering work, but also to a reexamination of his original observations above all in relation to the current knowledge in cancer cell metabolism. It follows that, although mitochondrial contribution to the pathogenesis of cancer has historically tended to be neglected, it is now evident that reprogrammed mitochondria can contribute to a complex bioenergetic adjustment that sustains not only tumor formation but also its progression. Most importantly, cancer cell metabolism seems to have a role in diversified aspects related to cancer pathophysiology (i.e., aggressiveness, recurrence, metastatic dissemination). Hence, it is imperative to always consider cancer cell metabolism, its adaptability, its influences but, above all, its functional heterogeneity in a single tumor, for a really rational and valid approach towards molecular biology of cancer.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias , Neoplasias , Proteômica , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Oncogenes
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1158: 197-216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452142

RESUMO

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that perform a number of interconnected tasks that are elegantly intertwined with the regulation of cell functions. This includes the provision of ATP, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and building blocks for the biosynthesis of macromolecules while also serving as signaling platforms for the cell. Although the functions executed by mitochondria are complex, at its core these roles are, to a certain degree, fulfilled by electron transfer reactions and the establishment of a protonmotive force (PMF). Indeed, mitochondria are energy conserving organelles that extract electrons from nutrients to establish a PMF, which is then used to drive ATP and NADPH production, solute import, and many other functions including the propagation of cell signals. These same electrons extracted from nutrients are also used to produce ROS, pro-oxidants that can have potentially damaging effects at high levels, but also serve as secondary messengers at low amounts. Mitochondria are also enriched with antioxidant defenses, which are required to buffer cellular ROS. These same redox buffering networks also fulfill another important role; regulation of proteins through the reversible oxidation of cysteine switches. The modification of cysteine switches with the antioxidant glutathione, a process called protein S-glutathionylation, has been found to play an integral role in controlling various mitochondrial functions. In addition, recent findings have demonstrated that disrupting mitochondrial protein S-glutathionylation reactions can have some dire pathological consequences. Accordingly, this chapter focuses on the role of mitochondrial cysteine switches in the modulation of different physiological functions and how defects in these pathways contribute to the development of disease.


Assuntos
Cisteína , Metabolismo Energético , Mitocôndrias , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Animais , Cisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1158: 247-255, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452144

RESUMO

The maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is located inside every mitochondrion, in variable number of copies, and it contains 37 crucial genes for cellular bioenergetics. This chapter will discuss the unique features of this circular genome including heteroplasmy, haplogroups, among others, along with the corresponding clinical relevance for each. The discussion also covers the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes (N > 1000) and the epistatic interactions between mtDNA and the nuclear genome. Examples of mitochondrial diseases related to specific mtDNA mutation sites of relevance for humans are provided. This chapter aims to provide an overview of mitochondrial genetics as an emerging hot topic for the future of medicine.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Mitocôndrias , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Epistasia Genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Genoma/genética , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação
18.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(4): 691-695, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441273

RESUMO

Tumor cells have unique energy metabolism phenomena, namely high glucose absorption, aerobic glycolysis and high lactic acid production, which are characterized by down-regulation of related proteins involved in oxidative metabolism in tumor cells, and up-regulation of glucose transporters and monocarboxylate transporters. Studies have shown that drugs that target tumor cell glucose metabolism have the ability to selectively kill tumor cells, bringing new hope for tumor treatment. Tumor stem cells are considered to be the root cause of tumor recurrence, metastasis and poor prognosis, and their energy metabolism characteristics have not yet been agreed. Studies have shown that reversing the energy metabolism of tumor stem cells can increase their chemosensitivity. This article reviews recent studies on tumor and tumor stem cell glucose metabolism and the opportunities and challenges of tumor treatment through targeting glucose metabolism, which might provide new ideas and opportunities for clinical tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Glicólise , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo
19.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(7): 1022-1031, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The energy imbalance produced by an increase in caloric intake and/or decrease in energy expenditure induces obesity. However, the fatty acid composition of a diet can affect the metabolism in different ways, having a role in the development of obesity. AIM: To determine the effect of different fatty acids types and composition on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT) and postprandial energy expenditure in humans. METHODS: A search in the PubMed and Web of Science databases, yielded a total of 269 potential articles as a first result; 254 were excluded according to the criteria. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were used for this systematic review. The studies analyzed report different effects of the fatty acids of the treatment on the diet-induced thermogenesis. Evidence indicates that the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids causes a greater DIT than saturated fatty acids. Also, the consumption of medium-chain fatty acids compared to long-chain fatty acids has been shown to increase DIT. Likewise, the use of certain oils has shown positive effects on postprandial energy expenditure, as is the case of olive oil, compared to rapeseed oil. CONCLUSIONS: The use of specific types of fatty acids in the everyday diet can increase postprandial energy expenditure in humans. Nevertheless, longer-term studies are required.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Refeições/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Termogênese/fisiologia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1133-1140, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466153

RESUMO

The effects of divergent phenotypic classification in crossbreed Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers for methane emissions in relation to performance, digestibility, energy and nitrogen partition, blood metabolites and temperature of body surface were evaluated. Thirty-five heifers were classified as high and low emission for CH4 production (g/day), yield (g/kg dry matter intake) and intensity (g/kg average daily gain). Digestibility was evaluated by total collection of feces and urine. Gas exchanges were obtained in open-circuit respiratory chambers. A completely randomized design was used and divergent groups were compared by Fisher's test. No differences were found in intake traits between groups of CH4 production and intensity. The low yield group had higher intake. For digestibility and temperature at different body sites were no differences between variables. High production group had higher energy losses as methane and heat production. Low intensity group had higher digestible energy, energy balance and ratio between metabolizable and digestible energy. Urinary nitrogen was 14.3% lower for low production group. There was a difference between methane yield divergent groups for nitrogen intake, digestible and retained. Energy and nitrogen partitioning traits are correlated to the animals divergent for methane production and yield. The low production group presented lower blood insulin concentration. It was not possible to identify divergent animals for CH4 emission using the infrared thermography technique.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Metano/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Fezes , Feminino
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